Mouna Ragam

This is a good article. Click here for more information.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mouna Ragam
Theatrical release poster
Directed byMani Ratnam
Written byMani Ratnam
Produced byG. Venkateswaran
CinematographyP. C. Sreeram
Edited by
Music byIlaiyaraaja
Release date
  • 15 August 1986 (1986-08-15)
Running time
145 minutes[1]

Mouna Ragam (/mnʌ rɑːɡʌm/ transl. Silent Symphony) is a 1986 Indian Tamil-language romantic drama film written and directed by Mani Ratnam, and produced by G. Venkateswaran. The film stars Mohan and Revathi, with Karthik in a guest appearance. V. K. Ramasamy, Ra. Sankaran, Bhaskar, Kanchana, Vani, Kalaiselvi and Sonia play supporting roles. It narrates the life of Divya (Revathi), a free-spirited college girl who is forced into an arranged marriage with Chandrakumar (Mohan) by her father (Sankaran). But, she still lives in the memory of her past lover Manohar (Karthik). The story follows Divya's inner conflict between holding onto her past and coming to terms with the present.

The film's development began when Ratnam began writing a short story tiled "Divya" with no cinematic plans until he finished it. Since production on his directorial debut Pallavi Anu Pallavi (1983) was delayed, he took a break for a month and developed "Divya" into a film script, which would eventually be renamed Mouna Ragam. Although Ratnam began work on the script during Pallavi Anu Pallavi, it languished in development hell and ended up becoming his fifth film. Mouna Ragam was the first film produced by Venkateswaran's Sujatha Films, and was shot primarily in Madras, with additional filming taking place in Delhi and Agra. The music was composed by Ilaiyaraaja, with lyrics by Vaali. P. C. Sreeram was the cinematographer, and the art director was Thota Tharani. The film was edited by B. Lenin and V. T. Vijayan.

Mouna Ragam was released on 15 August 1986. Despite opening to modest audiences, it became a box-office success, with a theatrical run of over 175 days, and Mani Ratnam's breakthrough. The film received critical acclaim; it won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil, and Ratnam received the Filmfare and Cinema Express Awards for Best Director in Tamil. Mouna Ragam also became a breakthrough in Karthik's career despite his role being a cameo. The film introduced techniques such as soft-focus shots, flare filters and backlighting, which became popular in Tamil cinema. It was remade in Hindi in 1992 as Kasak, and in Kannada in 1999 as Chandrodaya.


Divya is a free-spirited college student from a conservative family in Madras. Her father Chandramouli has arranged for her marriage and tells Divya to come home early from college to meet Chandrakumar, the prospective groom. Uninterested in marriage, she deliberately arrives home late, hoping Chandrakumar will reject her, only to find him patiently waiting for her. Though respectful of him, she arrogantly mentions various reasons to make him dislike her but, undeterred, he says that he likes her and agrees to the marriage. Divya initially refuses, but when her father has a heart attack as a result of her stubborn behaviour, her mother begs her to accept the proposal to aid his recovery. Succumbing to the pressure, Divya marries Chandrakumar, but, seeing how she is unwilling, they do not consummate their marriage.

After the marriage, Chandrakumar takes Divya to his house in Delhi, but she indirectly mentions that she cannot accept him as her husband. To make her comfortable, he asks her what she would like as a wedding gift, to which she replies saying she wants a divorce, which shocks Chandrakumar. Sometime later Chandrakumar gives Divya his wedding gift, but she refuses it and tells him not to try anything to make her comfortable as she cannot accept Chandrakumar as her husband because of her past love relationship with Manohar, whom she met during her college days. She reveals that she first encountered Manohar when he and his gang were robbing a politician's son. Divya reports Manohar to the police, and he is arrested. She later learns that the politician's son had run over a girl with his car, and Manohar stole the money to pay for the girl's medical treatment. Feeling guilty, Divya bails him out by pawning her gold chain.

When Manohar meets Divya to return her chain, their conversation leads him to fall in love with Divya, and he tries various ways to win her love; although she initially rejects him, she eventually returns his feelings. Manohar is a member of a revolutionary group that plans to hold an illegal rally. Divya does not approve, and asks him not to attend; he agrees only if she will marry him. On their wedding day, Manohar is falsely accused of participating in the rally and arrested. He escapes and runs to the marriage registrar's office where Divya is waiting for him. A policeman accidentally shoots Manohar, and he dies in front of Divya.

After hearing her story, Chandrakumar tells Divya that he does not care about her past, but about the future that he wants to build with her. He tells Divya to either sign the divorce papers he has obtained as per her request for a wedding gift or accept the anklets he bought as his wedding gift to her; Divya chooses divorce. They consult a lawyer who tells them that according to the law, they must wait one year to file for divorce since they are newly married; the couple is forced to live together for a year.

Having told Chandrakumar about her past and the reason why she was unable to accept her marriage, Divya finds herself finally free from her mental baggage and discomfort around Chandrakumar. She begins to appreciate her situation and make the most of it. Conversely, Chandrakumar is wary of her presence in his life as he fears what would happen at the end of the year when their divorce would be approved. Troubled, he distances himself from her and rejects her every move. At the same time, he slowly begins falling in love with her while denying his feelings to himself.

One day, Chandrakumar is attacked by his company's labourers because he had suspended their union leader. Divya rushes him to a nearby hospital, where he survives after receiving treatment. After he is discharged, Divya takes care of him and realises that she has fallen in love with him. She tries to show it by wearing the anklets which Chandrakumar bought as a wedding gift for her. But before he can notice the anklets, they enter an argument while Divya tried to surprise him, and Chandrakumar asks her to return to Madras and books her trip. Divya rushes out of her home alone at night after the argument and is chased by goons, but rescued by Chandrakumar. He notices her anklets and realises that she too loves him. However, the booked ticket arrives the next morning; neither Chandrakumar nor Divya express their wish for the trip to be cancelled aloud.

Once Chandrakumar leaves for work, Divya arrives alone at the railway station, where she sees Chandrakumar waiting for her. He hands her the finalised divorce papers, saying that it has been approved that morning. Divya breaks down, telling Chandrakumar that she loves him and would wait indefinitely for him to reciprocate. She tears the divorce papers and leaves to catch her train. Chandrakumar, surprised at Divya's open declaration, catches the train that was departing from the station, stops it and carries Divya home.




When the last filming schedule for Mani Ratnam's directorial debut, the Kannada film Pallavi Anu Pallavi (1983) was delayed inordinately, he began work on his next script Divya—which eventually became Mouna Ragam, his fifth film.[6] "Divya" was originally a short story about a couple's wedding night that Ratnam did not plan to film, but after writing the story he realised it had cinematic possibilities. Ratnam took a break for a month from Pallavi Anu Pallavi due to its delays, and wrote the script for Divya.[7] For the first time, he was able to write in his native language Tamil, unlike Pallavi Anu Pallavi where he wrote the script in English and had it translated into Kannada.[6][7] The new title Mouna Ragam was derived from the song "Naan Paadum Mouna Ragam", from Ratnam's fourth film, Idaya Kovil (1985).[8] He considered Mouna Ragam the second film after Pallavi Anu Pallavi to be made exactly as he wanted,[9] in contrast to Idaya Kovil where there was interference.[10]

Ratnam initially read the script of Mouna Ragam when it was titled Divya to producer N. G. John, but the latter wanted a political film, which eventually became the Malayalam film Unaroo (1984), also directed by Ratnam.[6] He then pitched Divya to T. G. Thyagarajan of Sathya Jyothi Films, but Thyagarajan wanted an action film, and Ratnam made Pagal Nilavu (1985) with him.[11] Kovaithambi of Motherland Pictures too rejected Divya, and Ratnam instead made Idaya Kovil with them.[8] The film was eventually picked up by Ratnam's brother, G. Venkateswaran, under his Sujatha Films banner,[12] ending its five-year development hell.[13] It was the company's first film production; until then, it was only distributing and financing films.[12] Mouna Ragam was also Ratnam's first collaboration with cinematographer P. C. Sreeram.[9][14] The film was edited by B. Lenin and V. T. Vijayan, with art direction by Thota Tharani.[3]


Ratnam cast Mohan as Chandrakumar and Revathi as Divya, after casting both of them in Idaya Kovil and Pagal Nilavu, respectively. He initially had "someone like Anant Nag and Supriya Pathak" in mind when he finished writing Divya. Between finishing the story and making the film, he decided to include Revathi, whose performance in Mann Vasanai (1983) impressed him.[9] Nadhiya claims she was also considered for the role, but declined due to prior commitments.[15] Ratnam decided to cast Kanchana in the minor role of the lawyer since he believed "a certain amount of star quality helps" when the character has little screen time but is crucial to the plot.[16] Prabhu Deva, who became a successful dance choreographer, made his acting debut in the film as a boy playing the flute in the song "Panivizhum Iravu",[17][18] and John Babu, who also became a dance choreographer, appears as the main dancer in the song.[19]

According to Ratnam, the only difference between Divya and Mouna Ragam was the inclusion of Karthik's character Manohar, which was not part of the earlier screenplay. Divya did not explore the girl's past; it only dealt with how she settles into an arranged marriage. Ratnam realised that the story needed to satisfy a wider audience, and decided to give them something that would make them accept the character without questioning Divya's actions, then the film could depict the arranged marriage – two strangers suddenly thrown together – and how they adjust. He originally resisted this, but reconsidered because it provided a clear rationale for Divya's resistance to the arranged marriage.[9] Karthik said he was a last-minute addition to the cast,[20][21] and described his role as a cameo.[22]


Principal photography began at P. C. Sreeram's house in Alwarpet, Madras.[23][24] The film's introductory credits feature photographs of Revathi from her childhood through her teenage years;[25] her mother gave Thota Tharani the pictures.[23] Although the film was primarily set indoors in Delhi, Ratnam and Sreeram wanted the indoor scenes to look as lively as those shot outdoors. Since the cast was relatively small, Ratnam did not want it to resemble a play and used backlighting for the interior scenes.[26] Tharani found a house in the residential area of Kilpauk which admitted a great deal of sunlight, making it similar to houses in Delhi.[23][26] To reduce production costs, food for the film's crew was cooked at Venkateswaran's home.[27]

Sreeram made extensive use of frontal and profile close-ups, set against long shots with out-of-focus foregrounds.[28] While filming Manohar's introductory scene, he had to lie on a bed sheet to film. The crew pulled the sheet, with Sreeram and the camera.[29] The scene where Manohar plays a prank on Divya's father (Ra. Sankaran), which later became known as the "Mr. Chandramouli scene",[30] was shot at Tic Tac, an open-air restaurant in Nungambakkam.[20][21] Filming was also done at Madras' Presidency College,[31] the Schmidt Memorial on Edward Elliot's Beach,[32] and the Madras Literary Society.[33] While filming the song "Oho Megam Vandhadho" which shows Divya dancing in the rain,[34] Revathi tied a handkerchief around her wrist to cover her watch because she felt Divya would actually do that.[23]

The crew filmed in Delhi for two days, and the scenes set in Agra were shot in one day.[23][35] Portions of "Panivizhum Iravu" were shot at the Taj Mahal in Agra,[14][36] and those from "Mandram Vandha" were shot at the India Gate.[14] The scenes involving Karthik were the last parts to be filmed,[20] being shot in either a week or two.[a] In post-production, Mohan's voice was dubbed by S. N. Surendar.[37] The film's final length was 3,987.50 metres (13,082.3 ft).[38]

Themes and influences[edit]

Mouna Ragam provides insight into the issues faced by married couples, exploring the plight and perception of divorce, how societies need to view the desires of women,[14] and questions the agency of women.[39] Film critic Baradwaj Rangan compared it to Nenjathai Killathe (1980), another story of a woman torn between the man she loves and the man she marries,[40] Andha 7 Naatkal (1981) and its Hindi remake, Woh Saat Din (1983).[41] Rakesh Mehar of The News Minute noted that one thing differentiating Mouna Ragam from Andha 7 Naatkal and similar films is that it remains focused on Divya.[42] Kumuthan Maderya, writing for PopMatters, described Mouna Ragam as a "chick flick", because like other chick flicks, the film allowed romance to blossom between Divya and Chandrakumar, rather than let divorce separate them; according to him, "chick flicks center on the romantic worldview of females while gratifying their hopes and dreams usually through a warm and fuzzy denouement".[43]

Manohar was part of a group involved in anti-government activities. Rangan drew similarities between his motives and those of characters in the Italian film The Night of the Shooting Stars (1982) and Unaroo.[44] The connection to The Night of the Shooting Stars is referenced when a poster of it appears in a scene where Manohar and his anarchist friends plan an event.[45] According to Rangan, the scene where Divya is looking after Chandrakumar at the hospital reflects her traditional qualities; with her strengths, she is humane and vulnerable.[46] Divya's mischievous nature is shown in a scene where she teaches a Sardar offensive Tamil phrases, which he says to Chandrakumar's boss.[47]

Revathi compared herself to Divya, saying that Divya believes in "living life to the fullest" and she was once like that.[23] Sujatha Narayanan, writing for The New Indian Express, described Chandrakumar as a "patient-understanding-and-poised-at-all-times" man, contrasting him with Manohar who she described as a "dashing, brave and epitome-of-the-word-'dude'".[2] She noted that Divya, like the female leads in most of Ratnam's films, is "practical with strong convictions" and the characters "go through their confusions unapologetically".[48] According to Ratnam, the line "Neenga thottaale kambilipoochi oorraa madhri irukku" (When you touch me, it feels as if caterpillars are crawling on me), spoken by Divya to Chandrakumar, expressed how she would feel on her wedding night.[7][49]

Many critics have mentioned that Mouna Ragam's background score suits its scenes and themes.[50] According to Martin Clayton, Trevor Herbert and Richard Middleton's 2003 book, The Cultural Study of Music: A Critical Introduction, "Oho Megam Vandhadho" resembled Broadway and MTV styles of singing and dancing, and the main songs combine American music with Indian vocals by S. Janaki.[51] Sangeetha Devi Dundoo of The Hindu considered that Ratnam used rain in the film to accentuate the "childlike, free-spirited nature" of Divya.[52] The sarangi and nadaswaram are used in the music accompanying Chandrakumar and Divya's wedding. In scenes of the couple sightseeing in Delhi, light synth-based music depicts them as modern tourists in their own country. The restaurant scene with Manohar and Divya includes awkwardly played sitar music, indicating the couple's emotions. Spanish music is used for the fight scene when Manohar attacks the politician's son.[51]

The Hindu's Sruthi Radhakrishnan described "Panivizhum Iravu" as "one of those only-80s songs that served as a stand-in for sexual tension, where you'd have two people looking intensely at each other."[53] Raveena Joseph of The Hindu noted that films in the 1980s which featured men stalking women, hoping to get them, were reflective of "the times where romances were covert and such discretion was necessary even in consensual encounters", citing Manohar stalking Divya in Mouna Ragam as an example.[54] The film was Ratnam's first to follow the theme of a person moving to a strange place where they do not know the local language. Divya has a dilemma; since she does not know the language of Delhi, she can barely socialise with local people, and is in conflict with Chandrakumar, the only person with whom she can socialise.[55] Rangan believed Manohar to be the first character in a Tamil film to invite a girl for a "cup of coffee", a form of dating. He contrasted it with Oru Thalai Ragam (1980), in which the protagonists barely spoke. Ratnam replied that although it was not uncommon to invite a girl for a cup of coffee in the 1980s, it was not reflected in mainstream Tamil cinema of the time.[56]


Mouna Ragam's soundtrack was composed by Ilaiyaraaja with lyrics by Vaali.[57][58] It was released by the Echo Records.[57] The album features five tracks with "Nilaave Vaa" is featured on both sides of the soundtrack's original LP record.[57] The film and its soundtrack was dubbed in Telugu, under the same name, whose adapted lyrics were written by Rajasri.[59]


Mouna Ragam was publicised with a shot of Revathi clinging to a lamp post and singing, which Ratnam confirmed as being inspired by "Singin' in the Rain".[60] Before the film's release, a Central Board of Film Certification member wanted it to receive an "A" (adults-only) certificate because the female lead asks for a divorce;[61] after much deliberation,[14] it received a "U" certificate.[38][b] Mouna Ragam was released on 15 August 1986,[14][49] Despite opening to modest audiences, it picked up and became a box-office success,[63] running for over 175 days in theatres,[64] thereby becoming a silver jubilee film.[65] Ratnam considered Mouna Ragam his first commercial success.[6] While the film performed very well in urban areas, it was largely shunned by audiences in rural areas.[66]


The film was critically acclaimed,[67] especially for its realistic portrayal of urban Tamil people.[68] In a 31 August 1986 review, the review board of the Tamil magazine Ananda Vikatan praised Revathi and Mohan's performances, the film's camera work, music and lack of masala, giving Mouna Ragam a score of 43 out of 100.[69] Jayamanmadhan (a duo) of Kalki wrote that Karthik's presence completely overshadowed Mohan and Revathi while appreciating Sriram's cinematography. The duo said it almost felt like Sreeram had a magic wand instead of camera and also called the screenplay consistent which moves seamlessly but found the story slightly lagging after the intermission and the song set in Agra as minus points. Jayamanmadhan concluded that the relief that one gets after getting up from watching the film would get rid of all the irritants in the film and felt that was enough.[70] Kaviya Shetty of India Today wrote in 1994, "[Mouna Ragam] found the perfect formula of a strong storyline and great music, presented in a fresh visual style that caught the audience by surprise".[71]


Award[c] Date of ceremony[d] Category Recipient(s) Result Ref.
Bommai Nagi Reddy Awards July 1987 Bommai Nagi Reddy Award Mani Ratnam Won [72]
Cinema Express Awards 2 August 1987 Best Director – Tamil Mani Ratnam Won [73]
Filmfare Awards South 9 August 1987 Best Director – Tamil Mani Ratnam Won [74]
National Film Awards 29 September 1987 Best Feature Film – Tamil G. Venkateswaran (film producer) Won [75]

Other versions[edit]

Mouna Ragam was dubbed in Telugu and released with the same title in 1987, which was also a success.[76] It was remade in Hindi as Kasak in 1992,[77] and in Kannada in 1999 as Chandrodaya.[78]


Mouna Ragam was screened at the 11th International Film Festival of India, the only Tamil entry.[79][80] It has also been screened at other film festivals, including Mani Ratnam's Love Films at London's National Film Theatre in 2002, a Retrospective of Mani Ratnam's Films at the 2002 Calcutta Film Festival[3] and at the 2002 Locarno Film Festival.[81] An enhanced 5.1 Digital Dolby soundtrack was released in May 2008 by Bayshore Records.[82]


Mouna Ragam emerged a milestone of Tamil cinema and Mani Ratnam's breakthrough film.[83][84] It has been acclaimed for combining box-office success with elements of an art film.[85] The film introduced techniques such as soft-focus shots, flare filters and backlighting, which became popular in Tamil cinema. Ratnam continued using these techniques in his later films, notably Nayakan (1987) and Agni Natchathiram (1988).[86] Mouna Ragam's theme of a person moving to a new place where they do not know the local language was replicated in Ratnam's later films like Nayakan, Roja (1992) and Bombay (1995).[35] It was also Ratnam's first film to make extensive use of staccato dialogue; this became another recurring feature in his later films.[26] The film became a major breakthrough for Karthik despite his role being a cameo,[22] and his "Mr. Chandramouli" dialogue became popular.[87] A feature film, released in 2018 and starring him, was named after this dialogue.[21][88] The character of Chandramouli became one of Sankaran's best known roles.[4]

According to a article, "The Most Memorable Mani Movies", Mouna Ragam was "arguably the film that announced Mani Ratnam to the Tamil film industry as a talent to watch out for. An excellent script by Ratnam himself, [cinematography by P. C. Sreeram] and a lilting score by [Ilaiyaraaja] made it a hit with both critics and moviegoers".[89] Pavithra Srinivasan of the same website said, "It took a Mani Ratnam to move away from clichéd romantic dialogues and capture subtle nuances that add so much richness to the story, introduce proper, three dimensional characters that lived breathed and sorrowed like everyone else".[83] Deccan Chronicle listed Karthik and Revathi on its "Top 10 Jodis" of Tamil cinema; they "made a fresh pair and were adored by the youth, especially the college students. Their awesome on-screen chemistry in Mouna Ragam was a talking point back then".[90] For the April 2013 centenary of Indian cinema, Forbes India included Revathi's performance in its list, "25 Greatest Acting Performances of Indian Cinema".[91]

In popular culture[edit]

Mouna Ragam has influenced countless films, particularly regarding the trope of the bride or groom being reluctantly married. These include Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam (1999),[41] Vallamai Tharayo (2008),[92][93][94] Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi (2008),[95] Tanu Weds Manu (2011),[96] Raja Rani (2013) where both the male and female leads have past lovers,[97][98][99] Bangalore Days (2014) where a man who is unable to forget his past love and accept his wife,[100] and Maalai Naerathu Mayakkam (2016).[101][102]

Karthi said that his character in Naan Mahaan Alla (2010) was similar to Karthik's "moody yet jovial" character in Mouna Ragam.[103] Sri Divya called Revathi's character an influence on her role in Mallela Theeram Lo Sirimalle Puvvu (2013).[104] Vaibhav Reddy compared his character in Kappal (2014) to Manohar in Mouna Ragam because of their shared effervescence.[105] Director B. V. Nandini Reddy said that the story of a bride unhappy with her husband in Mouna Ragam inspired her to make Kalyana Vaibhogame (2016), where neither the bride nor the bridegroom is interested in marriage.[106]

The scene where Manohar tries to declare his love for Divya through the college intercom in response to her challenge was parodied in Thamizh Padam (2010).[107][108] Director R. S. Prasanna described one scene in Kalyana Samayal Saadham (2013) where the male lead meets his father-in-law at a café as an ode to the "Mr. Chandramouli" scene.[109] In Master (2021), JD (Vijay) lies about his past but from Manohar's perspective.[110]


  1. ^ In a 2010 interview with The Times of India, Karthik said his scenes were shot in a week,[20] and contradicted this in a later interview with The Hindu, saying they were shot in fourteen days.[21]
  2. ^ In CFBC terminology, "U" means "unrestricted public exhibition", similar to MPAA's G and PG ratings and BBFC's U and PG ratings.[62]
  3. ^ Awards, festivals and organisations are in Alphabetical order.
  4. ^ Date is linked to the article about the awards held that year, wherever possible.


  1. ^ Rangan 2012, p. 289; Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 476.
  2. ^ a b c d Narayanan, Sujatha (27 August 2016). "One-of-a-kind forever love on celluloid". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Rangan 2012, p. 289.
  4. ^ a b Shivpprasadh, S. (14 June 2012). "Father figure". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  5. ^ Nadadhur, Srivathsan (20 August 2015). "Yesteryear actors: Old and still gold". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d Rangan 2012, p. 22.
  7. ^ a b c Rangan 2012, p. 38.
  8. ^ a b Rangan 2012, p. 29.
  9. ^ a b c d Rangan 2012, p. 31.
  10. ^ Rangan 2012, pp. 28.
  11. ^ Rangan 2012, p. 24.
  12. ^ a b Rangan 2012, p. 10.
  13. ^ Rangan 2012, p. 44.
  14. ^ a b c d e f "30 years of 'Mouna Ragam': Love, divorce and marriage like never before!". Sify. 25 August 2016. Archived from the original on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  15. ^ Sangita (30 January 2008). "Nadia spelt fun". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  16. ^ Rangan 2012, p. 52.
  17. ^ Raghavan, Nikhil (10 December 2011). "Born to Dance". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  18. ^ "Happy Birthday Prabhu Deva: The Dancing Superstar's Secret to a Lean Body". NDTV. 3 April 2017. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  19. ^ Rajendran, Sowmya (6 April 2020). "Watch: 16 times Prabhu Deva blew us away with his dance genius". The News Minute. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  20. ^ a b c d Lakshmi, V. (5 April 2010). "Powerful comeback for Navarasa". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
  21. ^ a b c d Ramanujam, Srinivasa (5 July 2018). "Wouldn't advise Gautam to do adult comedies like 'Iruttu Araiyil Murattu Kuthu', says dad Karthik". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  22. ^ a b Prakash, R. S. (13 June 2010). "One more time". Bangalore Mirror. Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Srinivasan, Sudhir (3 September 2016). "Divya was a lot like me". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 September 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  24. ^ "Director PC Sreeram's daughter falls to death". The New Indian Express. 8 November 2010. Archived from the original on 4 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  25. ^ Kamath, Sudhish (12 October 2007). "Why I like... Mouna Ragam". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  26. ^ a b c Rangan 2012, p. 36.
  27. ^ "How Mani Ratnam cut production cost?". The Times of India. 20 April 2014. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  28. ^ Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 476.
  29. ^ Rangan 2012, p. 40.
  30. ^ Iyer, Anuja (9 July 2012). "How To Name It". Behindwoods. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
  31. ^ Ravi, Nandita (4 June 2015). "Colleges turn shooting spots in Chennai". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  32. ^ Padmanabhan, Geeta (23 February 2016). "Chennai on reel". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 February 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  33. ^ Kannadasan, Akhila (26 August 2016). "A place called Chennai". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  34. ^ Ramnath, Nandini (8 June 2013). "Sweat equity". Mint. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  35. ^ a b Rangan 2012, p. 42.
  36. ^ Rangan 2012, p. 170.
  37. ^ Ramanan, V. V. (14 March 2008). "Cine quiz". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  38. ^ a b "'Mouna Ragam' (Celluloid)". Central Board of Film Certification. 14 August 1986. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  39. ^ Dasgupta & Datta 2018, pp. 159–160.
  40. ^ Rangan 2012, p. 32.
  41. ^ a b Rangan, Baradwaj (13 December 2008). "Review: Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi". Baradwaj Rangan. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  42. ^ Mehar, Rakesh (31 August 2016). "30 years since 'Mouna Ragam': the Mani Ratnam we miss". The News Minute. Archived from the original on 6 September 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  43. ^ Maderya, Kumuthan (26 October 2016). "Is Indian Cinema's First Chick Flick, 'Mouna Raagam', a Hindu Nationalist Fantasy?". PopMatters. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  44. ^ Rangan 2012, p. 33.
  45. ^ Baradwaj Rangan [@baradwajrangan] (16 April 2018). "Vittorio Taviani has died. He & brother Paolo made several films. One of them (The Night of San Lorenzo) has a minor #Kollywood connect. Its poster is seen in #MounaRaagam, in the room where Karthik and his anarchist pals plan an event. That's where I heard of the film" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  46. ^ Rangan 2012, pp. 38–40.
  47. ^ Krishnan, Chandrika R. (26 August 2007). "Need to outgrow petty differences". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  48. ^ Narayanan, Sujatha (5 September 2016). "Leading ladies in their element!". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 5 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  49. ^ a b குமார், ந.வினோத் (2 September 2016). "மௌனராகம் 30: நினைவில் நகரும் கம்பளிப்பூச்சி!" [Mouna Ragam 30: The caterpillar that moves in my thoughts!]. Hindu Tamil Thisai (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  50. ^ Clayton, Herbert & Middleton 2003, pp. 292–294; Rangan 2012, p. 40.
  51. ^ a b Clayton, Herbert & Middleton 2003, pp. 292–294.
  52. ^ Dundoo, Sangeetha Devi (26 July 2017). "Many moods of monsoon seen on the silver screen". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  53. ^ Radhakrishnan, Sruthi (2 June 2016). "The eclipsed gems from Raja and Ratnam". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  54. ^ Joseph, Raveena (10 October 2017). "Stalking in society: is cinema to blame or just a scapegoat?". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  55. ^ Shankar 2012, pp. 113–114; Rangan 2012, p. 42.
  56. ^ Rangan 2012, pp. 33–34.
  57. ^ a b c "Mouna Raagam Tamil Film LP Vinyl Record by Ilayaraja". Mossymart. Archived from the original on 13 February 2023. Retrieved 13 February 2023.
  58. ^ "Mouna Raagam (1986)". Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  59. ^ "Mouna Ragam (1985) [sic]". Music India Online. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  60. ^ Shivakumar, S. (26 October 2012). "Balance that has spelt success". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 February 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  61. ^ Rangan 2012, p. 147.
  62. ^ "Film Certification". Central Board of Film Certification. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  63. ^ Kumar 1995, p. 120.
  64. ^ Balasubramanian, Roshne (5 July 2018). "The reels of purohitham". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  65. ^ Selvaraj, N. (20 March 2017). "வெள்ளி விழா கண்ட தமிழ் திரைப்படங்கள்" [Tamil films that completed silver jubilees]. Thinnai (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  66. ^ Shiva Kumar, S. "You have to get across". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  67. ^ "Happy Birthday Mani Ratnam: From 'Mouna Ragam' To 'Guru', 5 Films Of Veteran Director Which You Can Watch During Quarantine". ABP Live. 2 June 2020. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  68. ^ Bhaskaran, Gautaman (7 September 2010). "Venice honours Mani Ratnam". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  69. ^ Vikatan Review Board (31 August 1986). "மௌன ராகம்: சினிமா விமர்சனம்" [Mouna Ragam: Movie Review]. Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  70. ^ ஜெயமன்மதன் (7 September 1986). "மௌன ராகம்". Kalki (in Tamil). p. 64. Archived from the original on 29 July 2022. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  71. ^ Shetty, Kaviya (15 February 1994). "A shooting success". India Today. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  72. ^ "'Withdraw film bill' demand". The Indian Express. 13 July 1987. p. 5. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  73. ^ "Cine artists asked to broaden talents". The Indian Express. 13 April 1987. p. 3. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  74. ^ "Filmfare awards announced". The Indian Express. 17 July 1987. p. 5. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  75. ^ "34th National Film Festival 1987" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. p. 62. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  76. ^ Hemanth (9 November 2010). "Evolution of Dubbed Films in Andhra Pradesh". South Scope. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  77. ^ "Married to Mr Right". 28 March 2007. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  78. ^ Srinivasa, Srikanth (7 February 1999). "Chandrodaya (Kannada)". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 6 May 1999. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  79. ^ "Indian Cinema 1986" (PDF). International Film Festival of India. 1987. pp. 132–134. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  80. ^ Jain, Madhu (15 January 1987). "Good, bad and ugly – 11th IFFI: Picture of Indian cinema bleak, harvest of films better". India Today. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  81. ^ Ministry of Information and Broadcasting 2002, p. 46.
  82. ^ "New in Stores: Masters Special". The Times of India. 30 May 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  83. ^ a b Srinivasan, Pavithra (9 June 2010). "Looking at Mani Ratnam's landmark movies". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  84. ^ Joshi & Dudrah 2016, p. 86.
  85. ^ Joshi 2006, p. 72.
  86. ^ The Hindu 2000, p. 288.
  87. ^ Reddy, T. Krithika (28 May 2010). "Second coming". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  88. ^ "Karthik-Gautham Karthik' film titled 'Mr. Chandramouli'". Sify. 10 October 2017. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  89. ^ "The most memorable Mani movies". 12 January 2007. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  90. ^ Subramanian, Anupama (14 February 2013). "Top 10 Jodis". Deccan Chronicle. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  91. ^ Prasad, Shishir; Ramnath, N. S.; Mitter, Sohini (27 April 2013). "25 Greatest Acting Performances of Indian Cinema". Forbes India. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  92. ^ Rangarajan, Malathi (27 June 2008). "Well begun, just half done – Vallamai Thaaraayo". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  93. ^ "Vallamai Tharayo". Sify. 28 June 2008. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  94. ^ Srinivasan, Pavithra (24 May 2010). "Kola Kolaya Mundhirika will have you in spilts [sic]". Archived from the original on 15 January 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  95. ^ Kumar, S. Shiva (19 December 2008). "Not even child's play". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  96. ^ Ramnath, Nandini (26 June 2013). "Woman is the ruin of man". Mint. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  97. ^ Kamath, Sudhish (28 September 2013). "Raja Rani: Boy, Girl, Her Ex and His". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  98. ^ "Review: 'Raja Rani'". Deccan Chronicle. 4 October 2013. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  99. ^ "Raja Rani". Sify. 27 September 2013. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  100. ^ Suganth, M. (6 February 2016). "Bangalore Naatkal Movie Review". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  101. ^ Mannath, Malini (11 January 2016). "Script Lacks the Selvaraghavan Trademark". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  102. ^ Rangan, Baradwaj (13 January 2016). ""Maalai Nerathu Mayakkam"... An unbelievable story about an unsuited couple". Baradwaj Rangan. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  103. ^ "Karthi's Naan Mahaan Alla in July". Sify. 25 June 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  104. ^ Pandian, Avinash. "I am not a glam doll, will never be one". Behindwoods. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  105. ^ Srinivasan, Sudhir (29 November 2014). "'It's now my turn to prove myself'". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  106. ^ Dundoo, Sangeetha Devi (11 January 2016). "Director Nandini Reddy on Kalyana Vaibhogame, marriages, then and now". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  107. ^ Mouna Ragam (motion picture) (in Tamil). Sujatha Productions. 1986. Event occurs at 56:04.
  108. ^ Thamizh Padam (motion picture) (in Tamil). Cloud Nine Movies. 2010. Event occurs at 40:40.
  109. ^ Rao, Subha J. (28 December 2013). "Well-served". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  110. ^ S, Srivatsan (13 January 2021). "'Master' movie review: An in-form Vijay takes a backseat to have fun. But is that enough?". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021.


External links[edit]