Moundou

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Moundou
موندو
Main circle in central Moundou
Main circle in central Moundou
Moundou is located in Chad
Moundou
Moundou
Location in Chad
Coordinates: 8°34′N 16°05′E / 8.567°N 16.083°E / 8.567; 16.083Coordinates: 8°34′N 16°05′E / 8.567°N 16.083°E / 8.567; 16.083
Country  Chad
Region Logone Occidental Region
Department Lac Wey
Sub-Prefecture Moundou
Elevation 413 m (1,355 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 137,929
Time zone +1

Moundou (Arabic: موندو‎‎) is the second largest city in Chad and is the capital of the region of Logone Occidental.

The city lies on the Mbéré River (a tributary of the Western Logone) some 475 kilometres south of the capital N'Djamena. It is the main city of the Ngambai people. Moundou has grown as an industrial centre, home to the Gala Brewery, which produces Chad's most popular beer and the cotton and oil industries.

History[edit]

The history of the city of Moundou began during the French colonisation of central Africa. In 1916, the military conquest of Chad was completed, however movements of resistance to the colonial regime took place. It was especially in the southwest of the country that dissensions continued until about 1930.[1][2]

The city was created on November 8, 1923 by the French sergeant and administrator Joseph-François Reste, Lieutenant-General of Chad from 1923 to 1926 and future Governor General of French Equatorial Africa,[3] who, from the whaleboat upon which he navigated the Logone, found the site pretty.[4] He decided to found the post of Moundou in the centre of the rebellious zone.[5] The rebellious situation did not change much with the arrival of Lieutenant Robert Reverdy. Chief of the district of the Middle Logone in 1925, Reverdy, who became a director in 1927, completed an uninterrupted stay for five years and eight months. He moved the chief town of the district to Moundou in 1927. Riding the country, on horseback and by litter, he subjected the organisation of strong chieftains, first of village, then of township.

On April 20, 1930, Governor Georges Prouteaux of Oubangi-Chari (the district was attached to Oubangui-Chari in 1926) signed a decision reorganising the "indigenous of the Middle Logone" by creating forty cantons, divided into five subdivisions. Reverdy had his right-hand man, local chief Hassan Moundou or Hassan Baguirmi, of Baguirmian or rather Baguirmianised Dekakire Arab origin, installed as chief of the township of Moundou.[6][1][2] Not all chiefs were of traditional origin. In the animist country, custom only recognised clan chiefs or war or initiation leaders, who were strictly specialised and temporary. However, the system was accepted by the population, and some chiefs remained in office for more than a quarter of a century. Their descendants are still in place today.[6]

Reverdy[5] (called Baoguel, the "Left-Handed", in the Ngambay language)[4] urbanised the post of Moundou that he established. He planted the flowers (from February to May) that line the roads of Moundou, which became the origin of the nickname of the city during the colonial period, Moundou-la-Rouge.[4]

In 1926 the Cotton Company of the Congo installed a ginning factory in Moundou. The cotton company later became Cotonfran in 1928 and then CotonTchad in 1972.[7][8]

The first cadastral map of the town of Moundou was manufactured February 2, 1926. Since there were not, at the time, the materials for substantial topographical surveys, the drainage pipeline of the town was facing the river in the belief that the natural inclination would head toward the river, when in reality the river level is higher than the level of the city. In 2012, the mayor of Moundou, Laoukein Kourayo Médard, said that "every time there was a flood, all the waters of the Logone discharged to Lake Wey (in the West), which in turn sprays its water into the city, flooding Moundou entirely."[9]

Transport[edit]

Moundou is situated on one of the main roads in southern Chad. The road runs from Léré on the border with Cameroon, through Pala, Kélo, Moundou, Doba, Koumra, and Sarh.[10][11]

The town is served by Moundou Airport (IATA: MQQICAO: FTTD), with a paved runway.

Economy[edit]

The city has an industry of ginning and processing of cotton (oil and soap) under CotonTchad. The export of cotton was done before the discovery of oil, the current main source of income for Chad. Cotton cultivation has been funded by French corporations (through the CCCE, now the AFD,[12] and the public company Dagris, now Geocoton), and the European Development Fund[13][14] of the European Union.

The city has also a historical beer industry through the Brasseries du Logone and the Gala brand,[15][16] synonymous with luxury beer in Chad and in Cameroon.

Cigarettes are made in the city by the Manufacture des Cigarettes du Tchad (MCT) company.[17]

Education[edit]

Moundou is home to several schools and, since 2002, a higher education institution, the University of Moundou (fr),[18] which was created by ordinance No. 013 / PR / 2008 of 5 March 2008.[19] The current university used to be the Moundou University Institute of Business Techniques or IUTEM (Institut universitaire des techniques d'entreprise de Moundou) which was created by Law No. 10 / PR / 02 of 2 September 2002.[19]

Primary Schools[edit]

Secondary Schools[edit]

  • Lycée Adoum d'Allah[30] (public)
  • Notre Dame College of Chad[31] (closed)
  • Lycée Technique Commercial de Moundou[32]
  • Lycée-Collège de l'Amitié (LYCAM)[28]
  • Lycée Djarabé[28]
  • Lycée Palais Du Savoir de Moundou[28]
  • Lycée Guelkol[28]
  • CEG No. 2[26]
  • College du Lac Taba[28]
  • Ecole Enfants Unis[28][33]
  • Lycée Le Héros[28]
  • Lycée Communal[28]
  • Collège Evangelique Gary[28]

Other Schools[edit]

  • Ecole des Sourds de Moundou[34]

Areas of Moundou[edit]

There are four quarters or municipal districts of Moundou, further subdivided into 20 neighbourhoods:[35]

    • First district:
      1. DOMBAO neighbourhood
      2. DOYON neighbourhood
      3. TAYE neighbourhood (also spelled Tayeh)
      4. BEBANDJI neighbourhood
      5. KOUDJIRIKO neighbourhood
      6. NGARA neighbourhood
    • Second district:
      1. NGUELBE neighbourhood
      2. BAGUIRMI neighbourhood
      3. BOURNOU neighbourhood
      4. HAUSA neighbourhood
    • Third district:
      1. GUELKOURA neighbourhood
      2. QUINZE ANS (fifteen years) neighbourhood
      3. DOUMBEUR I neighbourhood (also spelled Dombeur)
      4. DOHERI neighbourhood
      5. MBAGUE neighbourhood
    • Fourth district:
      1. MBOMBAYA neighbourhood
      2. GUELDJEM neighbourhood
      3. DOMBEUR II neighbourhood (also spelled Doumbeur)
      4. KOUTOU GUELMBAGUE neighbourhood
      5. MADANA neighbourhood

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Moundou (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 34.1
(93.4)
36.7
(98.1)
38.6
(101.5)
38.0
(100.4)
35.7
(96.3)
32.3
(90.1)
30.2
(86.4)
29.8
(85.6)
30.7
(87.3)
33.1
(91.6)
35.1
(95.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.0
(93.2)
Average low °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
18.3
(64.9)
22.5
(72.5)
24.2
(75.6)
23.5
(74.3)
22.1
(71.8)
21.2
(70.2)
21.0
(69.8)
20.8
(69.4)
21.0
(69.8)
17.4
(63.3)
14.6
(58.3)
20.1
(68.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
0.2
(0.008)
4.6
(0.181)
39.2
(1.543)
89.8
(3.535)
147.7
(5.815)
257.8
(10.15)
284.8
(11.213)
200.1
(7.878)
57.1
(2.248)
1.5
(0.059)
0.0
(0)
1,082.8
(42.63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0 1 2 5 9 12 15 19 13 7 2 0 85
Average relative humidity (%) 36 28 31 50 63 73 80 81 78 73 56 45 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 249.2 248.0 234.0 241.8 210.0 182.9 170.5 186.0 235.6 282.0 291.4 2,810.4
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.0 8.9 8.0 7.8 7.8 7.0 5.9 5.5 6.2 7.6 9.4 9.4 7.7
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[36]
Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity)[37]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Moundou is twinned with:

Demographics[edit]

Year Population[40]
1993 99,530
2008 142,462

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Magnant, Jean-Pierre (1992-01-01). L'Islam au Tchad: actes du colloque organisé au Centre d'étude d'Afrique noire de l'Institut d'études politiques de Bordeaux, 1990 ; sous la direction de Jean-Pierre Magnant (in French). CEAN. p. 115. ISBN 9782908065121. 
  2. ^ a b "Résistances et mouvements anticoloniaux au Tchad (1914-1940)" (PDF). 
  3. ^ "Le gouverneur Général François Reste de Roca". lalbere.net. Retrieved 2016-12-11. 
  4. ^ a b c Auzias, Dominique; Labourdette, Jean-Paul (2010-10-01). Tchad (in French). Petit Futé. p. 170. ISBN 2746929430. 
  5. ^ a b "Résistances et mouvements anticoloniaux au Tchad (1914-1940)" (PDF). p. 429. 
  6. ^ a b "Résistances et mouvements anticoloniaux au Tchad (1914-1940)" (PDF). p. 430. 
  7. ^ Nojibaye, Daniel (1976). Étude des mécanismes de croissance urbaine du Tchad, l'exemple de Moundou et Sahr (ex Fort Archambault). Lille: Université Lille 2. 
  8. ^ Inc, IBP (2008-03-03). Chad Mining Laws and Regulations Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Basic Law. Lulu.com. p. 158. ISBN 9781433077159. 
  9. ^ "Urbanisme :". Centerblog. 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  10. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 2016-12-11. 
  11. ^ "RÉSUMÉ DE L’ÉTUDE D’IMPACT ENVIRONNEMENTAL ET SOCIAL DU TRONÇON ROUTIER DOBA - SARH" (PDF). Fonds Africain de Développement. December 2008. 
  12. ^ "LA FILIERE COTONNIERE DU TCHAD Historique, Evolution et Perspectives" (PDF). 2016. p. 7. 
  13. ^ ""10eme fed" - mai 2008 - Europa" (PDF). May 2008. 
  14. ^ Magrin, Géraud (2001-01-01). Le sud du Tchad en mutation: Des champs de coton aux sirènes de l'or noir (in French). Editions Quae. p. 125. ISBN 9782876144620. 
  15. ^ "Histoire des Brasseries du Tchad". bdt-td.com. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  16. ^ Magrin, Géraud (2001-01-01). Le sud du Tchad en mutation: Des champs de coton aux sirènes de l'or noir (in French). Editions Quae. p. 178. ISBN 9782876144620. 
  17. ^ "MANUFACTURE DES CIGARETTES DU TCHAD (MCT) - Petit Futé". 
  18. ^ Moustapha. "Université de Moundou (UDM) - L'Etudiant tchadien". www.etudiant-tchadien.com. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  19. ^ a b "Légitchad". legitchad.cefod-tchad.org. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  20. ^ "Moundou | YALNA, "Nos enfants"". yalna.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  21. ^ "SOMMAIRE - Association Poitiers-Moundou" (PDF). 2010. 
  22. ^ "MOUNDOU: Centre scolaire de Ku-Jéricho — Communauté du Chemin Neuf". td.chemin-neuf.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  23. ^ Beasnael, Sem Miantoloum (2001-10-01). The Plagues of Friendship. AuthorHouse. p. 95. ISBN 9780759698741. 
  24. ^ Umeh, Vincent (2013). "curriculum vitae - IPPC". p. 2. 
  25. ^ Beasnael, Sem Miantoloum (2001-10-01). The Plagues of Friendship. AuthorHouse. p. 52. ISBN 9780759698741. 
  26. ^ a b "Impacts VIH Education TCHAD" (PDF). p. 12. 
  27. ^ "Ahmad Mohammed et les écoles du Tchad - UNICEF" (in French). 2015-07-13. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "SOMMAIRE - Association Poitiers-Moundou" (PDF). 2010. 
  29. ^ "Présentation Je m'appelle DANNERO Aubin Je suis de nationalité tchadienne,…". plus.google.com. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  30. ^ "CV4718F: Assistante en Publicité - Marketing - AFRIQUEMPLOIS.NET" (PDF). p. 1. 
  31. ^ "Moundou (Collège Notre-Dame du Tchad) | Les Soeurs de Saint-Joseph". www.sjsh.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  32. ^ Mbaïosso, Adoum (1990-01-01). L'éducation au Tchad: bilan, problèmes et perspectives (in French). KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 9782865372737. 
  33. ^ "Ecole enfants unis, enfants unis de djarabe II, Moundou". www.schoolius.com. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  34. ^ "SOMMAIRE - Association Poitiers-Moundou" (PDF). 2010. p. 9. 
  35. ^ "Légitchad". legitchad.cefod-tchad.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  36. ^ "World Weather Information Service–Moundou". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  37. ^ "Moundou Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  38. ^ "Wikiwix's cache". archive.wikiwix.com. Archived from the original on 2010-11-25. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  39. ^ Communication, Ville de Poitiers - Service. "Villes jumelles > Moundou - Ville de Poitiers". www.poitiers.fr. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  40. ^ World Gazetteer: Chad