Moundou

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Moundou
ماوندو
Circle in Moundou.jpg
Moundou is located in Chad
Moundou
Moundou
Location in Chad
Coordinates: 8°34′N 16°05′E / 8.567°N 16.083°E / 8.567; 16.083Coordinates: 8°34′N 16°05′E / 8.567°N 16.083°E / 8.567; 16.083
Country  Chad
Region Logone Occidental Region
Department Lac Wey
Sub-Prefecture Moundou
Elevation 413 m (1,355 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 137,929
Time zone +1

Moundou (Arabic: ماوندو) is the second largest city in Chad, and is the capital of the region of Logone Occidental.

The city lies on the Mbéré River (a tributary of the Western Logone) some 475 kilometres south of the capital N'Djamena. It is the main city of the Ngambai people. Moundou has grown as an industrial centre, home to the Gala Brewery, which produces Chad's most popular beer and the cotton and oil industries.

History[edit]

In 1916, the military conquest of Chad was completed. After this date, however, movements of resistance to the colonial regime took place. It was especially in the southwest of the country that dissensions continued until about 1930: in the Middle Logone, the administrator Robert Reverdy subjected the region of Moundou; the mossy country was won thanks to the action of the paramount chief Ouaïdou.[1]

The city was created on November 8, 1923 by the French sergeant and administrator Joseph-François Reste, Lieutenant-General of Chad from 1923 to 1926 and future Governor General of French Equatorial Africa,[2] who, from the whaleboat upon which he navigated the Logone, found the site pretty.[3] He decided to found the post of Moundou in the centre of the rebellious zone.[4] The situation did not really change with the arrival of Lieutenant Robert Reverdy. Chief of the district of the Middle Logone in 1925, Reverdy, who became a director in 1927, completed an uninterrupted stay for five years and eight months. He moved the chief town of the district to Moundou In 1927. Riding the country relentlessly, on horseback and by litter, he tackled the organisation of strong chieftains, first of village, then of township.

On April 20, 1930, Governor Georges Prouteaux of Oubangi-Chari (the district was attached to Oubangui-Chari in 1926) signed a decision reorganising the "indigenous of the Middle Logone" by creating forty cantons, divided into five subdivisions. Reverdy had his right-hand man, Hassan Moundou or Hassan Baguirmi, of Baguirmian or rather of Baguirmianised Dekakire Arab origin, which he installed as chief of the township of Moundou. Many chiefs were little greedy and cruel tyrants. They were not all of traditional origin. In this animist country, custom only recognised clan chiefs, war or initiation leaders, strictly specialised and temporary. However, the system was accepted by the population and some chiefs remained in office for more than a quarter of a century. Their descendants are still in place today.[5]

The city owes its urbanism to the administrator Robert Reverdy[4] (called Baoguel, the "Left-Handed", in the Ngambaye language).[3] It is notably he who planted the eye-catching flowers (from February to May) that line the roads. They are the origin of the nickname of the city during the colonial period, Moundou-la-Rouge.[3]

In 1926 the Cotton Company of the Congo installed a ginning factory in Moundou. The cotton company later became Cotonfran in 1928 and then CotonTchad in 1972.[6][7]

The first cadastral map of the town of Moundou was manufactured February 2, 1926. Since there were not, at the time, the materials for substantial topographical surveys, the drainage pipeline of the town was facing the river, in the belief that the natural inclination would head toward the river, when in reality the river level is higher than the level of the city. "Every time there was a flood, all the waters of the Logone discharged to Lake Wey (in the West), which in turn sprays its water into the city, flooding Moundou entirely," explained the Mayor of the city Laoukein Kourayo Médard.[8]

Transport[edit]

Moundou is situated on one of the main roads in southern Chad. The road runs from Léré on the border with Cameroon, through Pala, Kélo, Moundou, Doba, Koumra, and Sarh.[9][10]

The town is served by Moundou Airport (IATA: MQQICAO: FTTD), with a paved runway.

Economy[edit]

The city has an industry of ginning and processing of cotton (oil, soap) under CotonTchad. The export of cotton was done before the discovery of oil, the current main source of income for Chad. Cotton cultivation has been supported by French cooperations (through the CCCE, now the AFD,[11] and the public company Dagris, now Geocoton), and the European Development Fund[12][13] of the European Union.

The city has also a historical beer industry through the Brasseries du Logone and the Gala brand,[14][15] synonymous with luxury beer in Chad and in Cameroon.

Cigarettes are made in the city by the Manufacture des Cigarettes du Tchad (MCT) company.[16]

Education[edit]

Moundou is home to several schools and, since 2002, a higher education institution, the University of Moundou,[17] which was created by ordinance No. 013 / PR / 2008 of 5 March 2008.[18] The current university used to be the Moundou University Institute of Business Techniques or IUTEM (Institut universitaire des techniques d'entreprise de Moundou) which was created by Law No. 10 / PR / 02 of 2 September 2002.[18]

Primary Schools[edit]

High Schools[edit]

  • Lycée Adoum d'Allah[29] (public)
  • Notre Dame College of Chad[30] (closed)
  • Lycée Technique Commercial de Moundou[31]
  • Lycée-Collège de l'Amitié (LYCAM)[27]
  • Lycée Djarabé[27]
  • Lycée Palais Du Savoir de Moundou[27]
  • Lycée Guelkol[27]
  • CEG No. 2[25]
  • College du Lac Taba[27]
  • Ecole Enfants Unis[27][32]
  • Lycée Le Héros[27]
  • Lycée Communal[27]
  • Collège Evangelique Gary[27]

Other Schools[edit]

  • Ecole des Sourds de Moundou[33]

Areas of Moundou[edit]

There are four quarters or municipal districts of Moundou further subdivided into 20 neighbourhoods:[34]

    • First district:
      1. DOMBAO neighborhood
      2. DOYON neighbourhood
      3. TAYE neighbourhood (also spelled Tayeh)
      4. BEBANDJI neighborhood
      5. KOUDJIRIKO neighborhood
      6. NGARA neighborhood
    • Second district:
      1. NGUELBE neighborhood
      2. BAGUIRMI neighborhood
      3. BOURNOU neighborhood
      4. HAUSA neighborhood
    • Third district:
      1. GUELKOURA neighborhood
      2. QUINZE ANS (fifteen years) neighbourhood
      3. DOUMBEUR I neighbourhood (also spelled Dombeur)
      4. DOHERI neighborhood
      5. MBAGUE neighbourhood
    • Fourth district:
      1. MBOMBAYA neighborhood
      2. GUELDJEM neighborhood
      3. DOMBEUR II neighbourhood (also spelled Doumbeur)
      4. KOUTOU GUELMBAGUE neighbourhood
      5. MADANA neighborhood

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Moundou (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 34.1
(93.4)
36.7
(98.1)
38.6
(101.5)
38.0
(100.4)
35.7
(96.3)
32.3
(90.1)
30.2
(86.4)
29.8
(85.6)
30.7
(87.3)
33.1
(91.6)
35.1
(95.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.04
(93.29)
Average low °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
18.3
(64.9)
22.5
(72.5)
24.2
(75.6)
23.5
(74.3)
22.1
(71.8)
21.2
(70.2)
21.0
(69.8)
20.8
(69.4)
21.0
(69.8)
17.4
(63.3)
14.6
(58.3)
20.14
(68.26)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
0.2
(0.008)
4.6
(0.181)
39.2
(1.543)
89.8
(3.535)
147.7
(5.815)
257.8
(10.15)
284.8
(11.213)
200.1
(7.878)
57.1
(2.248)
1.5
(0.059)
0.0
(0)
1,082.8
(42.63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0 1 2 5 9 12 15 19 13 7 2 0 85
Average relative humidity (%) 36 28 31 50 63 73 80 81 78 73 56 45 57.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 249.2 248.0 234.0 241.8 210.0 182.9 170.5 186.0 235.6 282.0 291.4 2,810.4
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.0 8.9 8.0 7.8 7.8 7.0 5.9 5.5 6.2 7.6 9.4 9.4 7.71
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[35]
Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity)[36]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Moundou is twinned with:

Demographics[edit]

Year Population[39]
1993 99 530
2008 142 462

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Résistances et mouvements anticoloniaux au Tchad (1914-1940)" (PDF). 
  2. ^ "Le gouverneur Général François Reste de Roca". lalbere.net. Retrieved 2016-12-11. 
  3. ^ a b c Auzias, Dominique; Labourdette, Jean-Paul (2010-10-01). Tchad (in French). Petit Futé. p. 170. ISBN 2746929430. 
  4. ^ a b "Résistances et mouvements anticoloniaux au Tchad (1914-1940)" (PDF). p. 429. 
  5. ^ "Résistances et mouvements anticoloniaux au Tchad (1914-1940)" (PDF). p. 430. 
  6. ^ Nojibaye, Daniel (1976). Étude des mécanismes de croissance urbaine du Tchad, l'exemple de Moundou et Sahr (ex Fort Archambault). Lille: Université Lille 2. 
  7. ^ Inc, IBP (2008-03-03). Chad Mining Laws and Regulations Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Basic Law. Lulu.com. p. 158. ISBN 9781433077159. 
  8. ^ "Urbanisme :". Centerblog. 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  9. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 2016-12-11. 
  10. ^ (PDF) http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/30776511-EN-TCHAD-RESUME-EIES-KOUMRA-SARH.PDF.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ "LA FILIERE COTONNIERE DU TCHAD Historique, Evolution et Perspectives" (PDF). 2016. p. 7. 
  12. ^ ""10eme fed" - mai 2008 - Europa" (PDF). May 2008. 
  13. ^ Magrin, Géraud (2001-01-01). Le sud du Tchad en mutation: Des champs de coton aux sirènes de l'or noir (in French). Editions Quae. p. 125. ISBN 9782876144620. 
  14. ^ "Histoire des Brasseries du Tchad". bdt-td.com. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  15. ^ Magrin, Géraud (2001-01-01). Le sud du Tchad en mutation: Des champs de coton aux sirènes de l'or noir (in French). Editions Quae. p. 178. ISBN 9782876144620. 
  16. ^ "MANUFACTURE DES CIGARETTES DU TCHAD (MCT) - Petit Futé". 
  17. ^ Moustapha. "Université de Moundou (UDM) - L'Etudiant tchadien". www.etudiant-tchadien.com. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  18. ^ a b "Légitchad". legitchad.cefod-tchad.org. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  19. ^ "Moundou | YALNA, "Nos enfants"". yalna.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  20. ^ "SOMMAIRE - Association Poitiers-Moundou" (PDF). 2010. 
  21. ^ "MOUNDOU: Centre scolaire de Ku-Jéricho — Communauté du Chemin Neuf". td.chemin-neuf.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  22. ^ Beasnael, Sem Miantoloum (2001-10-01). The Plagues of Friendship. AuthorHouse. p. 95. ISBN 9780759698741. 
  23. ^ Umeh, Vincent (2013). "curriculum vitae - IPPC". p. 2. 
  24. ^ Beasnael, Sem Miantoloum (2001-10-01). The Plagues of Friendship. AuthorHouse. p. 52. ISBN 9780759698741. 
  25. ^ a b "Impacts VIH Education TCHAD" (PDF). p. 12. 
  26. ^ "Ahmad Mohammed et les écoles du Tchad - UNICEF" (in French). 2015-07-13. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "SOMMAIRE - Association Poitiers-Moundou" (PDF). 2010. 
  28. ^ "Présentation Je m'appelle DANNERO Aubin Je suis de nationalité tchadienne,…". plus.google.com. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  29. ^ "CV4718F: Assistante en Publicité - Marketing - AFRIQUEMPLOIS.NET" (PDF). p. 1. 
  30. ^ "Moundou (Collège Notre-Dame du Tchad) | Les Soeurs de Saint-Joseph". www.sjsh.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  31. ^ Mbaïosso, Adoum (1990-01-01). L'éducation au Tchad: bilan, problèmes et perspectives (in French). KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 9782865372737. 
  32. ^ "Ecole enfants unis, enfants unis de djarabe II, Moundou". www.schoolius.com. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  33. ^ "SOMMAIRE - Association Poitiers-Moundou" (PDF). 2010. p. 9. 
  34. ^ "Légitchad". legitchad.cefod-tchad.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  35. ^ "World Weather Information Service–Moundou". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  36. ^ "Moundou Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  37. ^ "Wikiwix's cache". archive.wikiwix.com. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  38. ^ Communication, Ville de Poitiers - Service. "Villes jumelles > Moundou - Ville de Poitiers". www.poitiers.fr. Retrieved 2016-12-09. 
  39. ^ World Gazetteer: Chad