(Apo Sandawa) , Mindanao MountainBundok Apo
The Grandfather of Philippine Mountains
|Elevation||2,954 m (9,692 ft)|
|Prominence||2,954 m (9,692 ft)
|Listing||Country's high point
Ultra prominent peaks
|Age of rock||Pliocene-Quaternary|
|Volcanic arc/belt||Central Mindanao Arc|
|First ascent||1880 by Joaquin Rajal, governor of Davao; Joseph Montano, a French anthropologist; Jesuit missionary Father Mateo Gisbert, etc.|
|Easiest route||Kidapawan-Magpet Trail|
Mount Apo is a large solfataric, potentially active stratovolcano in the island of Mindanao, Philippines. With an elevation of 2,954 metres (9,692 ft) above sea level, it is the highest mountain in the Philippine Archipelago and is located between Davao City and Davao del Sur province in Region XI and Cotabato province in Region XII. The peak overlooks Davao City 45 kilometres (28 mi) to the northeast, Digos City 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the southeast, and Kidapawan City 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the west.
The first two attempts to reach Mt. Apo’s summit ended in failure: that of Jose Oyanguren (1852) and Señor Real (1870). The first recorded successful expedition was led by Don Joaquin Rajal in October 10, 1880. Prior to the climb, Rajal had to secure the permission of the Bagobo chieftain, Datu Manig. It is said that the Datu demanded that human sacrifice be made to please the god Mandarangan. Fortunately, the datu agreed to waive this demand, and the climb commenced on October 6, 1880, succeeding five days later. Since then, numerous expeditions followed. These and more are described in colorful narrations by Fr. Miguel Bernad, S.J. On May 9, 1936, Mount Apo was declared a national park by President Manuel L. Quezon. A note on the etymologies: Mt. Apo is said to be named after a nobleman named Apong, who was killed while mediating the battle between two suitors of his daughter Saribu. Another proposed origin of the name is from the word Apo itself, which in Filipino tongues means “master” or “grandfather”.
Mount Apo Natural Park
On May 9, 1936, Mount Apo was declared a national park with Proclamation no. 59 by President Manuel L. Quezon, followed by Proclamation no. 35 of May 8, 1966 then Proclamation no. 882 of September 24, 1996. On February 3, 2004, the approval of Republic Act no. 9237 established Mount Apo as a protected area under the category of natural park with an area of 54,974.87 hectares (135,845.9 acres); with two peripheral areas of 2,571.73 hectares (6,354.9 acres) and 6,506.40 hectares (16,077.7 acres) as buffer zones, provided for its management and for other purposes.
Although a declared a Natural Park, the current climbing trails are littered with rubbish by irresponsible climbers, opening paths for soil erosion across the already denuded mountain sides. Some mountain and social climbing groups conduct climbs after the Holy Week/Easter, the peak climbing season, to clean the affected areas.
UNESCO World Heritage list
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) submitted Mount Apo on December 12, 2009 for inclusion in the UNESCO world heritage list. The mountain is considered by DENR as the center of endemism in Mindanao. It has one of the highest land-based biological diversity in terms of flora and fauna per unit area. It has three distinct forest formations, from lowland tropical rainforest, to mid-mountain forests, and finally to high mountain forests.
A portion of the eastern slopes are also within the scope of the UNESCO Hydrology Environment Life and Policy (HELP) Network. The Davao HELP Network is focused on building collaboration among watershed stakeholders.
A dry Season of March and April
Mt. Apo generally enjoys tropical rainy climate. It falls under the Type IV climate under the modified corona's classification wherein rainfall is relatively distributed throughout the year. Mean monthly temperature ranges from a low 26.4 o C during January to 27.9 o C during April. Monthly relative humidity ranges from 78% during March and April and 82% during June and July.
Flora and fauna
The mountain is home to over 272 bird species, 111 of which are endemic to the area. It is also home to one of the world's largest eagles, the critically endangered Philippine eagle, which is the country’s national bird.
Bodies of water
Lakes - There are four major lakes in Mt. Apo . Popular of these are Lake Agco , used to be called "The Blue Lake" and Lake Venado , a famous mountaineers camping site and a stopover towards the peak. Lake Macadac and Lake Jordan are found in the summit grassland.
Rivers - Mt. Apo has 19 major rivers and 21 creeks draining its 8 major watersheds (PASAlist.1992). Out of the 19 major rivers, only two has studies as reported by SEA-BMB consultants for the Mt. Apo Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Assessment 1991. According to the report, there are two river ecosystems draining the geothermal site namely: (1) Marbel-Matingao river ecosystem- characterized by narrower river channels at highly elevated areas, much faster water flow, clearer water and rock boulder-rich water beds. The aquatic organisms in the area have expectedly lower biological productivity and species diversity. The report also concluded that this river ecosystem provides much less economic and commercial value for its biological production. The study identified 12 species of fish caught in the area; (2) Kabacan River- Pulangi River ecosystem- characterized by a much wider channels at flat areas, relatively much slower water flow, highly turbid waters and sandy mud river beds.
Grasslands - The grasslands are characterized by the dominance of Cogon grass Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum spontaneum. Other grasses and ferns also thrive, especially along banks of creeks, streams, and rivers and on steep slopes
The Mt. Apo 1 and Mt. Apo 2 geothermal plants, each possess a rated capacity of 54.24 megawatts. Owned and operated by Energy Development Corporation(EDC) the power plants were commissioned in February 1997 (Mt. Apo 1) and June 1999 (Mt. Apo 2) respectively, under a build-operate owner contract arrangement. Located in Barangay Ilomavis, Kidapawan City, North Cotabato is the Mindanao Geothermal Production Field with a power output of 108.48 MW, currently the only power plant of its kind in Mindanao.
The Philippine National Oil Company geothermal plant supplies electricity to Kidapawan and its neighboring provinces, its completion boosted the city's economy.
Six indigenous groups, the Manobos, Bagobo, Ubos, Atas, K’Iagans and Tagacaolo, live in the area of Mount Apo. They consider the mountain to be sacred ground and a place of worship. A number of genealogies of Lumad leaders in South Central Mindanao trace their roots to Mount Apo. For the Lumads, the term "Apo" was coined from the name of their great grandparent Apo Sandawa.
Several trails lead to the summit, coming from North Cotabato and Davao provinces. Arguably the easiest route to the National Park is through Kidapawan City with an average hike taking 3–4 days roundtrip. In the classification system used by local popular mountaineering website PinoyMountaineer.com, the difficulty of the hike is 7 out of 9. Various sights along the trail include Lake Venado, the highest lake in the Philippines, the solfataras and the old crater near its summit. The mountain may be climbed year-round or one can register and join the city's Summer Climb or the Annual October Trek / Climb.
Mount Apo is a headwaters catchment area of several major river systems of Marble River, Matingaw River ,Connect the Kabacan River Part of the Pulangi River a major tributary of the Mindanao River, The Tudaya Falls and Sibulan River , Digos River to Flowing into Davao Gulf
- Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
- List of geothermal power plants in the Philippines
- List of protected areas of the Philippines
- List of Southeast Asian mountains
- ASEAN Heritage Parks
- "Philippines Mountain Ultra-Prominence". peaklist.org. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- (2011-04-06). "The World Factbook - Philippines". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on 2011-03-14.
- "UNESCO - Mount Apo Natural Park". UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
- Montano, Dr. Joseph. "Voyage Aux Philippines et en Malaisie", p. 246. Labrairie Hechette, Paris, 1886.
- Maso, Miguel Saderra. "Volcanoes and Seismic Centers of the Philippines", p.27. Department of Commerce and Labor, 1904.
- (2007-10-08). "Mt. Apo/Kidapawan-Magpet Trail". Pinoy Mountaineer. Retrieved on 2011-04-23.
- "Protected Areas in Region 11". Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2011-03-23.
- "Details for Republic Act no. 9237, Mount Apo Protected Act of 2003". Philippine Clearing House Mechanism for Diversity. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
- "Profile - Mt. Apo Natural Park". Philippine Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
- "Geothermal Operating Sites - Mindanao Geothermal Production Field". Energy Development Corporation. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mount Apo.|
- Global Volcanism Program: Apo
- Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) Mount Apo Page
- PinoyMountaineer: Mt. Apo Kidapawan-Magpet Trail
- PinoyMountaineer: Mt. Apo Kapatagan-Kidapawan Traverse Trail
- Mount Apo on Summitpost
- UNESCO Tentative World Heritage List