Mount Cotton is named for the mountain that is in the area. It was named by Robert Dixon, a surveyor in the colony of Queensland. He named it after the commandant of the penal settlement of Moreton Bay, Major Sydney Cotton. Until the Shire of Tingalpa was abolished in 1949, Mount Cotton hosted its council chambers.
Sirromet Wines winery on Mount Cotton Road opened in 2000. The vineyards are located on the Granite Belt where the climate is more suitable for grape growing.
In the 2011 Census the population of Mount Cotton is 4,804, 50.8% female and 49.2% male. The median/average age of the Mount Cotton population is 32 years of age, 5 years below the Australian average. 76.8% of people living in Mount Cotton were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were England 7.8%, New Zealand 4.1%, South Africa 2.4%, Scotland 0.7%, Ireland 0.5%. 93.7% of people speak English as their first language 0.7% Afrikaans, 0.3% German, 0.3% Dutch, 0.2% Portuguese, 0.2% Japanese.