Jump to content

Mount Kilimanjaro

Coordinates: 03°04′33″S 37°21′12″E / 3.07583°S 37.35333°E / -3.07583; 37.35333
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mount Kilimanjaro
View of Kibo (5892 m) in 2006.
Highest point
Elevation5,895 m (19,341 ft) Edit this on Wikidata[1]
Prominence5,885 m (19,308 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Ranked 4th
Isolation5,510 km (3,420 mi) Edit this on Wikidata
Coordinates03°04′33″S 37°21′12″E / 3.07583°S 37.35333°E / -3.07583; 37.35333
Mount Kilimanjaro is located in Tanzania
Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
Kilimanjaro's location in Tanzania
Mount Kilimanjaro is located in Africa
Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro (Africa)
Mount Kilimanjaro is located in Earth
Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro (Earth)
LocationKilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
Parent rangeThe Eastern Rift mountains
Topo mapKilimanjaro map and guide by Wielochowski[2]
Age of rock4 million years
Mountain typeStratovolcano
Last eruptionBetween 150,000 and 200,000 years ago
First ascent6 October 1889 by Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller
Easiest routeHiking
Mount Kilimanjaro from space, illustrating its diverse vegetation zones.[3]

Mount Kilimanjaro (/ˌkɪlɪmənˈɑːr/)[4] is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. With three volcanic cones — Kibo, Mawenzi and Shira — it is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain above sea level in the world: 5,895 m (19,341 ft) above sea level and 4,900 m (16,100 ft) above its plateau base. It is also the highest volcano in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Kilimanjaro is the fourth most topographically prominent peak on Earth. It is part of Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major hiking and climbing destination. Because of its shrinking glaciers and ice fields, which are projected to disappear between 2025 and 2035, it has been the subject of many scientific studies.

Picture I took while flying a Cessna 402 departing out of Amboseli, when I flew for Mombasa Air Services, 1979
An aerial view of Kilimanjaro, taken while departing Amboseli Airport, showing a larger ice and snow cap in 1979


The historical map with "Kilima-Ndscharo" during the German East Africa in the year 1888.

The origin of the name Kilimanjaro is not known, but several theories exist. European explorers had adopted the name by 1860 and reported that Kilimanjaro was the mountain's Kiswahili name.[5] The 1907 edition of The Nuttall Encyclopædia also records the name of the mountain as Kilima-Njaro.[6]

Johann Ludwig Krapf wrote in 1860 that Swahilis along the coast called the mountain Kilimanjaro. Although he did not offer any support,[7] he claimed that Kilimanjaro meant either "mountain of greatness" or "mountain of caravans." Under the latter meaning, kilima meant "mountain" and jaro meant "caravans."[5] Jim Thompson claimed in 1885, again without support,[7] that the term Kilima-Njaro "has generally been understood to mean" the mountain (kilima) of greatness (njaro). He also suggested "though not improbably it may mean" the white mountain.[8]

Njaro is an ancient Kiswahili word for "shining."[9] Similarly, Krapf wrote that a chief of the Wakamba people, whom he visited in 1849, "had been to Jagga and had seen the Kima jajeu, mountain of whiteness, the name given by the Wakamba to Kilimanjaro . . ."[10] More correctly, in the Kikamba language this would be kiima kyeu, and this possible derivation has been popular with several investigators.[7]

Others have assumed that kilima is Swahili for "mountain." The problem with this assumption is that kilima actually means "hill" and is, therefore, the diminutive of mlima, the proper Swahili word for "mountain." However, "[i]t is . . . possible . . . that an early European visitor, whose knowledge of [Kiswahili] was not extensive, changed mlima to kilima by analogy with the two Wachagga names: Kibo and Kimawenzi."[7] A different approach is to assume that the kileman- part of Kilimanjaro comes from the Kichagga kileme "that which defeats" or kilelema "that which has become difficult or impossible." The -jaro part would "then be derived from njaare, a bird; or, according to other informants, a leopard; or, possibly from jyaro, a caravan". Considering that the name Kilimanjaro has never been current among the Wachagga people, it is possible that the name was derived from Wachagga saying that the mountain was unclimbable, kilemanjaare or kilemajyaro, and porters misinterpreting this as being the name of the mountain.[7]

In the 1880s, the mountain became a part of German East Africa and was called Kilima-Ndscharo in German following the Kiswahili name components.[11] On 6 October 1889, Hans Meyer reached the highest summit on the crater ridge of Kibo. He named it Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze (Kaiser Wilhelm peak).[12] That name was used until Tanzania was formed in 1964,[13] when the summit was renamed Uhuru Peak, meaning "Freedom Peak" in Kiswahili.[14]

Geology and geography[edit]

Kilimanjaro is a large dormant stratovolcano composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo, the highest; Mawenzi at 5,149 m (16,893 ft);[15] and Shira, the lowest at 4,005 m (13,140 ft).[16] Mawenzi and Shira are extinct, while Kibo is dormant and could erupt again.[17]

Uhuru Peak is the highest summit on Kibo's crater rim. The Tanzania National Parks Authority, a Tanzanian government agency,[1] and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization[18] lists the height of Uhuru Peak as 5,895 m (19,341 ft), based on a British survey in 1952.[19] The height has since been measured as 5,892 m (19,331 ft) in 1999, 5,902 m (19,364 ft) in 2008, and 5,899 m (19,354 ft) in 2014.[19]

A map of the Kibo cone on Mount Kilimanjaro was published by the British government's Directorate of Overseas Surveys (DOS) in 1964 based on aerial photography conducted in 1962 as the "Subset of Kilimanjaro, East Africa (Tanganyika) Series Y742, Sheet 56/2, D.O.S. 422 1964, Edition 1, Scale 1:50,000".[20] Tourist mapping was first published by the Ordnance Survey in England in 1989 based on the original DOS mapping at a scale of 1:100,000, with 100 ft (30 m) contour intervals, as DOS 522.[21] West Col Productions produced a map with tourist information in 1990, at a scale of 1:75,000, with 100 m (330 ft) contour intervals; it included inset maps of Kibo and Mawenzi on 1:20,000 and 1:30,000 scales respectively and with 50 m (160 ft) contour intervals.[21] In recent years, numerous other maps have become available, of various qualities.[2]


The volcanic interior of Kilimanjaro is poorly known because there has not been any significant erosion to expose the igneous strata that comprise the volcano's structure.[22]

Eruptive activity at the Shira center commenced about 2.5 million years ago, with the last important phase occurring about 1.9 million years ago, just before the northern part of the edifice collapsed.[17] Shira is topped by a broad plateau at 3,800 m (12,500 ft), which may be a filled caldera. The remnant caldera rim has been degraded deeply by erosion. Before the caldera formed and erosion began, Shira might have been between 4,900 and 5,200 m (16,100 and 17,100 ft) high. It is mostly composed of basaltic lavas, with some pyroclastics. The formation of the caldera was accompanied by lava emanating from ring fractures, but there was no large-scale explosive activity. Two cones formed subsequently, the phonolitic one at the northwest end of the ridge and the doleritic Platzkegel in the caldera center.[17][22][23][24]

Both Mawenzi and Kibo began erupting about 1 million years ago.[17] They are separated by the Saddle Plateau at 4,400 m (14,400 ft) elevation.[25]: 3 

The youngest dated rocks at Mawenzi are about 448,000 years old.[17] Mawenzi forms a horseshoe-shaped ridge with pinnacles and ridges opening to the northeast, with a tower-like shape resulting from deep erosion and a mafic dike swarm. Several large cirques cut into the ring. The largest of these sits on top of the Great Barranco gorge. Also notable are the East and West Barrancos on the northeastern side of the mountain. Most of the eastern side of the mountain has been removed by erosion. Mawenzi has a subsidiary peak, Neumann Tower, 4,425 m (14,518 ft).[17][22][24]

An aerial view of Kilimanjaro in December 2009.

Kibo is the largest cone on the mountain and is more than 24 km (15 mi) wide at the Saddle Plateau altitude. The last activity here, dated to 150,000–200,000 years ago, created the current Kibo summit crater. Kibo still has gas-emitting fumaroles in its crater.[17][22][24] Kibo is capped by an almost symmetrical cone with escarpments rising 180 to 200 m (590 to 660 ft) on the south side. These escarpments define a 2.5 km-wide (1.6 mi) caldera[26] caused by the collapse of the summit.

Within this caldera is the Inner Cone and within the crater of the Inner Cone is the Reusch Crater, which the Tanganyika government in 1954 named after Gustav Otto Richard Reusch, upon his climbing the mountain for the 25th time (out of 65 attempts during his lifetime).[27][28] The Ash Pit, 350 m (1,150 ft) deep, lies within the Reusch Crater.[29] About 100,000 years ago, part of Kibo's crater rim collapsed, creating the area known as the Western Breach and the Great Barranco.[30]

An almost continuous layer of lava buries most older geological features, except exposed strata within the Great West Notch and the Kibo Barranco. The former exposes intrusions of syenite.[22] Kibo has five main lava formations:[17]

  • Phonotephrites and tephriphonolites of the Lava Tower group, on a dyke cropping out at 4,600 m (15,100 ft), dated to 482,000 years ago.
  • Tephriphonolite to phonolite lavas "characterized by rhomb mega-phenocrysts of sodic feldspars" of the Rhomb Porphyry group, dated to 460,000–360,000 years ago.
  • Aphyric phonolite lavas, "commonly underlain by basal obsidian horizons", of the Lent group, dated to 359,000–337,000 years ago
  • Porphyritic tephriphonolite to phonolite lavas of the Caldera Rim group, dated to 274,000–170,000 years ago
  • Phonolite lava flows with aegirine phenocrysts, of the Inner Crater group, which represents the last volcanic activity on Kibo

Kibo has more than 250 parasitic cones on its northwest and southeast flanks that were formed between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago[17] and erupted picrobasalts, trachybasalts, ankaramites, and basanites.[17][22][24] They reach as far as Lake Chala and Taveta in the southeast and the Lengurumani Plain in the northwest. Most of these cones are well preserved, except the Saddle Plateau cones which were heavily affected by glacial action. Despite their mostly small size, lava from the cones has obscured large portions of the mountain. The Saddle Plateau cones are mostly cinder cones with terminal effusion of lava, while the Upper Rombo Zone cones mostly generated lava flows. All Saddle Plateau cones predate the last glaciation.[22]

According to reports gathered in the 19th century from the Maasai, Lake Chala on Kibo's eastern flank was the site of a village that was destroyed by an eruption.[31]


An aerial view of the Kibo summit of Kilimanjaro in 1938.
Kilimanjaro's glaciers retreat in 1912–2018.

Kibo's diminishing ice cap exists because Kilimanjaro is a little-dissected, massive mountain that rises above the snow line. The cap is divergent and at the edges splits into individual glaciers. The central portion of the ice cap is interrupted by the presence of the Kibo crater.[25]: 5  The summit glaciers and ice fields do not display significant horizontal movements because their low thickness precludes major deformation.[32]

Geological evidence shows five successive glacial episodes during the Quaternary period, namely First (500,000 BP), Second (greater than 360,000 years ago to 240,000 BP), Third (150,000 to 120,000 BP), Fourth (also known as "Main") (20,000 to 17,000 BP), and Little (16,000 to 14,000 BP). The Third may have been the most extensive, and the Little appears to be statistically indistinguishable from the Fourth.[33]

A continuous ice cap covering approximately 400 km2 (150 sq mi) down to an elevation of 3,200 m (10,500 ft) covered Kilimanjaro during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Pleistocene epoch (the Main glacial episode), extending across the summits of Kibo and Mawenzi.[16][26] Because of the exceptionally prolonged dry conditions during the subsequent Younger Dryas stadial, the ice fields on Kilimanjaro may have become extinct around 11,500 years BP.[32] Ice cores taken from Kilimanjaro's Northern Ice Field (NIF) indicates that the glaciers there have a basal age of about 11,700 years,[34] although an analysis of ice taken in 2011 from exposed vertical cliffs in the NIF supports an age extending only to 800 years BP.[35] Higher precipitation rates at the beginning of the Holocene epoch (11,500 years BP) allowed the ice cap to reform.[32] The glaciers survived a widespread drought during a three century period beginning around 4,000 years BP.[32][36]

Vertical margin wall of the Rebmann Glacier in 2005 with Mount Meru, which is 70 km (43 mi) away, in the background.

In the late 1880s, the summit of Kibo was completely covered by an ice cap about 20 km2 (7.7 sq mi) in extent with outlet glaciers cascading down the western and southern slopes, and except for the inner cone, the entire caldera was buried. Glacier ice also flowed through the Western Breach.[16][26] The slope glaciers retreated rapidly between 1912 and 1953, in response to a sudden shift in climate at the end of the 19th century that made them "drastically out of equilibrium", and more slowly thereafter. Their continuing demise indicates they are still out of equilibrium in response to a constant change in climate over the past century.[16]

In contrast to the persistent slope glaciers, the glaciers on Kilimanjaro's crater plateau have appeared and disappeared repeatedly during the Holocene epoch, with each cycle lasting a few hundred years.[37]: 1088  It appears that decreasing specific humidity instead of temperature changes has caused the shrinkage of the slope glaciers since the late 19th century. No clear warming trend at the elevation of those glaciers occurred between 1948 and 2005. Although air temperatures at that elevation are always below freezing, solar radiation causes melting on vertical faces. Vertical ice margin walls are a unique characteristic of the summit glaciers and a major place of the shrinkage of the glaciers. They manifest stratifications, calving, and other ice features.[38] "There is no pathway for the plateau glaciers other than to continuously retreat once their vertical margins are exposed to solar radiation."[16] The Kilimanjaro glaciers have been used for deriving ice core records, including two from the southern icefield. Based on this data, this icefield formed between 1,250 and 1,450 years BP.[39]

A vertical glacier margin wall as seen from Gilman's Point on the crater rim at sunrise in 1998

Almost 85 percent of the ice cover on Kilimanjaro disappeared between October 1912 and June 2011, with coverage decreasing from 11.40 km2 (4.40 sq mi) to 1.76 km2 (0.68 sq mi).[40]: 423  Between 1912 and 1953, there was about a 1.1 percent average annual loss of ice coverage.[36] The average annual loss for 1953 to 1989 was 1.4 percent, while the loss rate for 1989 to 2007 was 2.5 percent.[36] Of the ice cover still present in 2000, almost 40 percent had disappeared by 2011.[40]: 425  Ice climber Will Gadd noticed differences between his 2014 and 2020 climbs.[41] The glaciers are thinning in addition to losing areal coverage,[36] and do not have active accumulation zones; retreat occurs on all glacier surfaces. Loss of glacier mass is caused by both melting and sublimation.[32] While the current shrinking and thinning of Kilimanjaro's ice fields appear to be unique within its almost twelve-millennium history, it is contemporaneous with widespread glacier retreat in mid-to-low latitudes across the globe.[36] In 2013, it was estimated that, at the current rate of global warming, most of the ice on Kilimanjaro will disappear by 2040, and "it is highly unlikely that any ice body will remain after 2060".[40]: 430 

The Furtwangler Glacier on Kilimanjaro is a remnant of the ice cap that once covered the mountain. This has retreated dramatically over the last century with over 80 percent glacial retreat. The glacier is named after Walter Furtwangler, who along with Ziegfried Koenig, was the fourth to ascend to the summit of Kilimanjaro in 1912.[42]

A complete disappearance of the ice would be of only "negligible importance" to the water budget of the area around the mountain. The forests of Kilimanjaro, far below the ice fields, "are [the] essential water reservoirs for the local and regional populations".[43]


A 3D model of Kibo.

Kilimanjaro is drained by a network of rivers and streams, especially on the wetter and more heavily eroded southern side and especially above 1,200 m (3,900 ft). Below that altitude, increased evaporation and human water usage reduce the water flows. The Lumi and Pangani rivers drain Kilimanjaro on the eastern and southern sides, respectively.[44]

IUGS geological heritage site[edit]

In respect of it being 'the highest stratovolcano of the East African Rift that maintains a glacier on its summit', the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) included 'The Pleistocene Kilimanjaro volcano' in its assemblage of 100 'geological heritage sites' around the world in a listing published in October 2022. The organization defines an IUGS Geological Heritage Site as 'a key place with geological elements and/or processes of international scientific relevance, used as a reference, and/or with a substantial contribution to the development of geological sciences through history.'[45]

Two of Kilimanjaro's volcanic cones: Kibo (left) and Mawenzi (right).

Human history[edit]

Kilimanjaro in 1911
From the UK National Archives
First aerial photograph of Kibo taken by Walter Mittelholzer in 1929

Chagga states[edit]

Kilimanjaro is attested to in numerous stories by the people who live in East Africa. The Chagga, who traditionally lived on the southern and eastern slopes of the mountain in sovereign Chagga states, tell how a man named Tone once provoked a god, Ruwa, to bring famine upon the land. The people became angry at Tone, forcing him to flee. Nobody wanted to protect him but a solitary dweller who had stones that turned miraculously into cattle. The dweller bid that Tone never open the stable of the cattle. When Tone did not heed the warning and the cattle escaped, Tone followed them, but the fleeing cattle threw up hills to run on, including Mawenzi and Kibo. Tone finally collapsed on Kibo, ending the pursuit.[46]

Another Chagga legend tells of ivory-filled graves of elephants on the mountain, and of a cow named Rayli that produces miraculous fat from her tail glands. If a man tries to steal such a gland but is too slow in his moves, Rayli will blast a powerful snort and blow the thief down onto the plain.[47]

Early records[edit]

The mountain may have been known to non-Africans since antiquity. Sailors' reports recorded by Ptolemy mention a "moon mountain" and a spring lake of the Nile, which may indicate Kilimanjaro, although available historical information does not allow differentiation among others in East Africa like Mount Kenya, the mountains of Ethiopia, the Virunga Mountains, the Rwenzori Mountains, and Kilimanjaro. Before Ptolemy, Aeschylus and Herodotus referred to "Egypt nurtured by the snows" and to a spring between two mountains, respectively. One of these mentions two tall mountains in the coastal regions with a valley with traces of fire between them. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a Spanish traveler to Mombasa who obtained information about the interior from native caravans, said in his Summa de Geografía (1519) that west of Mombasa "stands the Ethiopian Mount Olympus, which is exceedingly high, and beyond it are the Mountains of the Moon, in which are the sources of the Nile".[31][48]: 1–5 [49]: 114 

European exploration[edit]

The German missionaries Johannes Rebmann of Mombasa and Johann Krapf were the first Europeans known to have attempted to reach the mountain. According to English geographer Halford Mackinder and English explorer Harry Johnston, Rebmann in 1848 was the first European to report the existence of Kilimanjaro.[50][51] Hans Meyer has claimed that Rebmann first arrived in Africa in 1846 and quotes Rebmann's diary entry of 11 May 1848 as saying,

This morning, at 10 o'clock, we obtained a clearer view of the mountains of Jagga, the summit of one of which was covered by what looked like a beautiful white cloud. When I inquired as to the dazzling whiteness, the guide merely called it 'cold' and at once I knew it could be neither more nor less than snow.... Immediately I understood how to interpret the marvelous tales Dr. Krapf and I had heard at the coast, of a vast mountain of gold and silver in the far interior, the approach to which was guarded by evil spirits.[48]: 6 

In August 1861, the Prussian officer Baron Karl Klaus von der Decken accompanied by English geologist Richard Thornton[52] attempted to climb Kibo but "got no farther than 2,500 m (8,200 ft) owing to the inclemency of the weather".[48]: 9 [53] In December 1862, von der Decken tried a second time together with Otto Kersten, reaching a height of 4,300 m (14,000 ft).[54]

In August 1871, missionary Charles New became the "first European to reach the equatorial snows" on Kilimanjaro at an elevation of slightly more than 4,000 m (13,000 ft).[48]: 11  In June 1887, the Hungarian Count Sámuel Teleki and the Austrian Lieutenant Ludwig von Höhnel made an attempt to climb the mountain. Approaching from the saddle between Mawenzi and Kibo, Höhnel stopped at 4,950 m (16,240 ft), but Teleki continued until he reached the snow at 5,300 m (17,400 ft).[55] Later in 1887, the German geology professor Hans Meyer reached the lower edge of the ice cap on Kibo, where he was forced to turn back because he lacked the equipment needed to progress across the ice.[56]: 81  The following year, Meyer planned another attempt with Oscar Baumann, a cartographer, but the mission was aborted after the pair were held hostage and ransomed during the Abushiri Revolt.[56]: 82  In the autumn of 1888, the American naturalist Abbott and the German explorer Otto Ehrenfried Ehlers approached the summit from the northwest. While Abbott turned back earlier, Ehlers at first claimed to have reached the summit rim, but after severe criticism of the claim, withdrew it.[48]: 17–19 

In 1889, Meyer [57] returned to Kilimanjaro with the Austrian mountaineer Ludwig Purtscheller for a third attempt.[56]: 82  This attempt was based on the establishment of several campsites with food supplies so that multiple attempts at the top could be made without having to descend too far.[56]: 82  Meyer and Purtscheller pushed to near the crater rim on 3 October but turned back exhausted from hacking footsteps in the icy slope.[56]: 82  Three days later, they reached the highest summit, on the southern rim of the crater.[56]: 82  They were the first to confirm that Kibo has a crater.[56]: 82  After descending to the saddle between Kibo and Mawenzi, Meyer and Purtscheller attempted to climb the more technically challenging Mawenzi but could only reach the top of Klute Peak, a subsidiary peak, before retreating due to illness.[56]: 84  On 18 October, they reascended Kibo to enter and study the crater, cresting the rim at Hans Meyers Notch.[56]: 84  In total, Meyer and Purtscheller spent 16 days above 4,600 m (15,000 ft) during their expedition.[56]: 84  They were accompanied in their high camps by Mwini Amani of Pangani, who cooked and supplied the sites with water and firewood.[48]: 135–186 

The first ascent of the highest summit of Mawenzi was made on 29 July 1912, by the German climbers Eduard Hans Oehler and Fritz Klute, who named it Hans Meyer Peak. Oehler and Klute went on to make the third-ever ascent of Kibo, via the Drygalski Glacier, and descended via the Western Breach.[56]: 85 

In 1989, the organizing committee of the 100-year celebration of the first ascent decided to award posthumous certificates to the African porter-guides who had accompanied Meyer and Purtscheller.[58] One person in pictures or documents of the 1889 expedition was thought to match a living inhabitant of Marangu, Yohani Kinyala Lauwo.[58] Lauwo did not know his own age,[58] nor remember Meyer or Purtscheller. He did recall joining a Kilimanjaro expedition involving a Dutch doctor who lived near the mountain, and that he did not wear shoes during the climb.[58] Lauwo claimed that he had climbed the mountain three times before the beginning of World War I.[58] The committee concluded that he had been a member of Meyer's team and therefore must have been born around 1871.[58] Lauwo died on 10 May 1996, 107 years after the first ascent. It is sometimes suggested that he was a co-first-ascendant of Kilimanjaro.[59]

Fauna and flora[edit]


Elephants at the Amboseli National Park against Mount Kilimanjaro.

Large animals are rare on Kilimanjaro and are more frequent in the forests and lower parts of the mountain. Elephants and Cape buffaloes are among the animals that can be potentially hazardous to trekkers. Bushbucks, chameleons, dik-diks, duikers, mongooses, sunbirds, and warthogs have also been reported. Zebras, leopards and hyenas have been observed sporadically on the Shira plateau.[60] Specific species associated with the mountain include the Kilimanjaro shrew[61] and the chameleon Kinyongia tavetana.[62]


The cloud forest on the Marangu route on the south eastern slope

Natural forests cover about 1,000 km2 (250,000 acres) on Kilimanjaro.[63] In the foothill area, maize, beans, sunflowers and, on the western side, wheat are cultivated. There are remnants of the former savanna vegetation with Acacia, Combretum, Terminalia and Grewia. Between 1,000 m (3,300 ft) and 1,800 m (5,900 ft), coffee appears as part of the "Chagga home gardens" agroforestry. Native vegetation at this altitude range (Strombosia, Newtonia, and Entandrophragma) is limited to inaccessible valleys and gorges[64] and is different from vegetation at higher altitudes. On the southern slope, montane forests first contain Ocotea usambarensis as well as ferns and epiphytes; farther up in cloud forests Podocarpus latifolius, Hagenia abyssinica and Erica excelsa grow, as well as fog-dependent mosses. On the drier northern slopes olive, Croton-Calodendrum, Cassipourea, and Juniperus form forests in order of increasing altitude. Between 3,100 m (10,200 ft) and 3,900 m (12,800 ft) lie Erica bush and heathlands, followed by Helichrysum, until 4,500 m (14,800 ft).[65][66] Neophytes have been observed, including Poa annua.[65]

Records from the Maundi crater at 2,780 m (9,120 ft) indicate that the vegetation of Kilimanjaro has varied over time. Forest vegetation retreated during the Last Glacial Maximum and the ericaceous vegetation belt lowered by 1,500 m (4,900 ft) between 42,000 and 30,000 years ago because of the drier and colder conditions.[64]

The Tussock Grassland is an area on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro that contains many unique species of vegetation, such as the water holding cabbage.[citation needed]


A trail runs across the curving side of a dry alpine desert of Mount Kilimanjaro.
A trail runs across the curving side of a dry alpine desert of Mount Kilimanjaro

The climate of Kilimanjaro is influenced by the height of the mountain, which allows the simultaneous influence of the equatorial trade winds and the high altitude anti-trades, and by the isolated position of the mountain. Kilimanjaro has daily upslope and nightly downslope winds, a regimen stronger on the southern than the northern side of the mountain. The flatter southern flanks are more extended and affect the atmosphere more strongly.[25]: 3–4 

Kilimanjaro has two distinct rainy seasons, one from March to May and another around November. The northern slopes receive much less rainfall than the southern ones.[63] The lower southern slope receives 800 to 900 mm (31 to 35 in) annually, rising to 1,500 to 2,000 mm (59 to 79 in) at 1,500 m (4,900 ft) altitude and peaking "partly over" 3,000 mm (120 in) in the forest belt at 2,000 to 2,300 m (6,600 to 7,500 ft). In the alpine zone, annual precipitation decreases to 200 mm (7.9 in).[65]: 18 

The average temperature in the summit area is approximately −7 °C (19 °F). Nighttime surface temperatures on the Northern Ice Field (NIF) fall on average to −9 °C (16 °F), with an average daytime high of −4 °C (25 °F). During nights of extreme radiational cooling, the NIF can cool to as low as −15 to −27 °C (5 to −17 °F).[38]: 674 

Snowfall can occur at any time of year but is mostly associated with northern Tanzania's two rainy seasons.[38]: 673  Precipitation in the summit area occurs principally as snow and graupel of 250 to 500 mm (9.8 to 19.7 in) per year and ablates within days or years.[32]

Climatic zones[edit]

  • Bushland / Lower Slope:, 800 to 1,800 m (2,600 to 5,900 ft)
  • Rainforest: 1,800 to 2,800 m (5,900 to 9,200 ft)
  • Heather / Moorland: 2,800 to 4,000 m (9,200 to 13,100 ft)
  • Alpine Desert: 4,000 to 5,000 m (13,000 to 16,000 ft)
  • Arctic: 5,000 to 5,895 m (16,404 to 19,341 ft).[67]

Tourism industry[edit]

Kilimanjaro National Park generated US$51 million in revenue in 2013,[68]: 285  the second-most of any Tanzanian national park.[69]: 258  The Tanzania National Parks Authority reported that the park recorded 57,456 tourists during the 2011–12 budget year, of whom 16,425 hiked the mountain; the park's General Management Plan specifies an annual capacity of 28,470.[70] The mountain hikers generated irregular and seasonal jobs for about 11,000 guides, porters, and cooks in 2007.[71] Concerns have been raised about the poor working conditions and inadequate wages of these workers.[68]: 287–291 [69]: 259 [71] Due to Kilimanjaro National Park's popularity as a destination, the Tanzanian government has invested in road infrastructure to improve accessibility. In Tanzania, Kilimanjaro International Airport also serves as an important transportation hub.[72]

There are seven official trekking routes by which to ascend and descend Kilimanjaro: Lemosho, Lemosho Western-Breach, Machame, Marangu, Mweka, Rongai, Shira, and Umbwe.[73] The Machame route can be completed in six or seven days,[74] Lemosho in six to eight, and the Northern Circuit routes in seven or more days.[75] The Lemosho Route can also be continued via the Western-Breach, submitting via the western side of the mountain. The Western Breach is more secluded and avoids the 6-hour midnight ascent to the summit (like other routes). The Rongai is the easiest of the camping routes.[76] The Marangu is also relatively easy, if frequently busy; accommodation is in shared huts.[77] The Lemosho Western-Breach Route commences on the western side of Kilimanjaro at Lemosho and continues to the summit via the Western-Breach Route.[67][78]

Kilimanjaro as seen from the tourist hub of Moshi in the Kilimanjaro Region

Climbing records[edit]

Uhuru Peak, December 2020.

The oldest person to climb Mount Kilimanjaro is Anne Lorimor, aged 89 years and 37 days, who reached Uhuru Peak at 3:14 p.m. local time on 18 July 2019.[79][80] The oldest man to summit is American Fred Dishelhorst, who reached the top on 19 July 2017 at the age of 88 years old.[81] The second oldest man to summit the mountain is the American Robert Wheeler, who was 85 years and 201 days when he summited on 2 October 2014.[82] Maxwell J. Ojerholm of Massachusetts, USA, reached Uhuru Peak, the true summit, unassisted, at the age of ten years, on July 4, 2009, taking the difficult Machame Route. Colin M. Barker of Missouri, USA, later completed the same route at the age of ten years on December 22, 2020. Theodore Margaroli from London, age 10, reached the summit unassisted by the Western Breach, the hardest but most scenic route, in 2019.[82][83] Despite an age-limit of 10 years for a climbing permit, Keats Boyd from Los Angeles reached the summit on 21 January 2008 at the age of 7.[82] This record was equaled by Montannah Kenney from Texas in March 2018.[82][84] The fastest ascent and the fastest round trip have been recorded by the Swiss-Ecuadorian mountain guide Karl Egloff. On 13 August 2014, after guiding a party to the summit the previous days, he ran from Umbwe Gate to the top in 4 hours and 56 minutes and returned to the Mweka Gate at 1,630 m (5,350 ft) in a total time of 6 hours, 42 minutes and 24 seconds.[85][86] Previous records, using the same route, were held by Spanish mountain runner Kílian Jornet (ascent in 5:23:50, round trip 7:14 on 29 September 2010) and by Tanzanian guide Simon Mtuy (an unsupported round trip in 9:21 on 22 February 2006).[87][82][88]

The female round trip record is held by Fernanda Maciel from Brazil in a time of 10 hours and 6 minutes.[85] Her ascent time of 7:08 was broken on 23 February 2018 by the Danish ultramarathon runner Kristina Schou Madsen with a time of 6:52:54 from Mweka Gate.[85][89]

Several climbs by disabled people have drawn attention. Wheelchair user Bernard Goosen from South Africa scaled Kilimanjaro in six days in 2007. In 2012, Kyle Maynard who has no forearms or lower legs, crawled unassisted to the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro.[82]

In 2020, a team featuring two double above-knee amputees, Hari Budha Magar and Justin Oliver Davis, summited Kilimanjaro. It took them six days to cover the 56 km (35 mi) distance to the summit.[90]


Though the climb is not technically as challenging as the Himalayas or Andes, the high elevation, low temperature, and occasional high winds can make Kilimanjaro a difficult trek. Acclimatization is required, and even experienced and physically fit trekkers may suffer some degree of altitude sickness.[91][92] A study of people attempting to reach the summit of Kilimanjaro in July and August 2005 found that 61.3 percent succeeded and 77 percent experienced acute mountain sickness (AMS).[93] A retrospective study of 917 persons who attempted to reach the summit via the Lemosho or Machame routes found that 70.4 percent experienced AMS, defined in this study to be headache, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, or loss of appetite.[94]

Kilimanjaro's summit is well above the altitude at which life-threatening high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), the most severe forms of AMS, can occur.[95] These health risks are increased substantially by excessively fast climbing schedules motivated by high daily national park fees, busy holiday travel schedules, and the lack of permanent shelter on most routes.[96] The six-day Machame route, which involves one day of "climbing high" to Lava Tower (4,630 m (15,190 ft) and "sleeping low" at Barranco Camp (3,976 m (13,044 ft)), may delay the onset of AMS but does not ultimately prevent its occurrence.[97][98]

Falls on steep portions of the mountain and rock slides have killed trekkers. For this reason, the route via the Arrow Glacier was closed for several years, reopening in December 2007. Now again it officially closed as of January 20th 2024. Due to strong El Niño, the Western Breach has washed down the mountain. This huge runoff has carved new ravines on the slopes and seems to be dislodging the sediment that cements the rock together, disrupting the rock stability.  At the route's base, rain water has opened new drainages and there is an active, flowing river through the Arrow Glacier Camp were there has been no water at all for decades.[99] [100] The improper disposal of human waste on the mountain environment has created a health hazard, necessitating the boiling of all water.[101]

According to the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, 25 people died from January 1996 to October 2003 while climbing the mountain. Seventeen were female and eight were male, ranging in age from 29 to 74. Fourteen died from advanced high altitude illness, including one with HACE, five with HAPE, and six with both HACE and HAPE. The remaining eleven deaths resulted from "trauma (3), myocardial infarction (4), pneumonia (2), cardio-pulmonary failure of other underlying cause (1), and acute appendicitis (1). The overall mortality rate was 13.6 per 100,000 climbers."[102]

Special events[edit]

  • According to the Tanzania National Parks Authority, the first wedding performed on the mountain below the summit took place on 21 September 2014, when an American couple exchanged vows at Shira 2 Camp.[103][104] In 2011, a couple exchanged their vows at the summit.[105]
  • On 26 September 2014, a new world record for the highest-ever cricket match was set when a group of international cricketers played on a flat crater on the mountain at an elevation of 5,730 m (18,800 ft).[106]

In literature and film[edit]

Kilimanjaro is a snow-covered mountain 19,710 feet high, and is said to be the highest mountain in Africa. Its western summit is called the Masai 'Ngaje Ngai', the House of God. Close to the western summit there is a dried and frozen carcas of a leopard. No one has explained what the leopard was seeking at that altitude.

Ernest Hemingway in his 1936 short story The Snows of Kilimanjaro

Journalist Tom Bissell noted that Kilimanjaro is "perhaps the world’s most literary mountain".[107] The mountain is prominently featured in Ernest Hemingway's 1936 short story The Snows of Kilimanjaro. The short story was adapted into a 1952 film starring Gregory Peck.[108] Dave Eggers wrote accounted his ascent in the short story Up the Mountain Coming Down Slowly.[107] Writer Douglas Adams climbed the mountain in a rubber rhinoceros suit to raise money for African rhino conservation efforts.[107][109]

An IMAX film documenting an ascent—Kilimanjaro: To The Roof Of Africa—was released in 2002.[110]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Sharaf, Yasir (26 April 2022). "8 Common Mistakes I Wish I Knew Before Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro As A Beginner | How To Climb Mount Kilimanjaro?". XPATS International. Archived from the original on 25 June 2024. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
  2. ^ a b Kilimanjaro Map and tourist Guide (Map) (4th ed.). 1:75,000 with 1:20,000 and 1:30,000 insets. EWP Map Guides. Cartography by EWP. EWP. 2009. ISBN 0-906227-66-6. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015.
  3. ^ The Zones of Kilimanjaro Archived 10 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, NASA Earth Observatory, 2016
  4. ^ "Kilimanjaro, Mount". Oxford Dictionaries UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. "Kilimanjaro, Mount". Lexico. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  5. ^ a b Krapf, Johann Ludwig; Ernest George Ravenstein (1860). Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours, During an Eighteen Years' Residence in Eastern Africa: Together with Journeys to Jagga, Usambara, Ukambani, Shoa, Abessinia and Khartum, and a Coasting Voyage from Nombaz to Cape Delgado. Trübner and Company, Paternoster Row. p. 255. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  6. ^ Wood, James (1907). "Kilima-Njaro". 1907 Nuttall Encyclopædia of General Knowledge. fromoldbooks.org. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e Hutchinson, J. A. (1965). "The Meaning of Kilimanjaro". Department of Language and Linguistics. Dar Es Salaam: University College. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2007.
  8. ^ Thomson, Joseph (1887). "Through Masai land: a journey of exploration among the snowclad volcanic mountains and strange tribes of eastern equatorial Africa, authored by Johann Ludwig Krapf and Ernest George Ravenstein, Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, London, 1887". Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  9. ^ "Perspective with Landsat Overlay". SRTM TANZANIA IMAGES. California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  10. ^ Krapf, Johann Ludwig; Ernest George Ravenstein (1860). Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours, During an Eighteen Years' Residence in Eastern Africa: Together with Journeys to Jagga, Usambara, Ukambani, Shoa, Abessinia and Khartum, and a Coasting Voyage from Nombaz to Cape Delgado. Trübner and Company, Paternoster Row. p. 544. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  11. ^ Briggs, Philip (1996). Guide to Tanzania, 2nd edition. Bradt Guides.
  12. ^ Demhardt, I. J. German Contributions to the Cartography of South West and East Africa from Mid-19th Century to World War I (PDF). University of Technology Darmstadt. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  13. ^ Spink, P. C. (1945). "Further Notes on the Kibo Inner Crater and Glaciers of Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya". The Geographical Journal. 106 (5/6): 210–216. Bibcode:1945GeogJ.106..210S. doi:10.2307/1788958. JSTOR 1788958.
  14. ^ Dangar, D. F. O. (1965). "Dangar Alpine Notes" (PDF). The Alpine Journal. 70 (310–311): 328. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  15. ^ Sharaf, Yasir (24 March 2016). "Mount Kilimanjaro Volcanic Cones: Shira, Kibo And Mawenzi Peaks". XPATS International. Archived from the original on 5 November 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  16. ^ a b c d e Cullen, Nicolas J.; Mölg, Thomas; Kaser, Georg; Hussein, Khalid; Steffen, Konrad; Hardy, Douglas R. (2006). "Kilimanjaro Glaciers: Recent areal extent from satellite data and new interpretation of observed 20th-century retreat rates". Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (16): L16502. Bibcode:2006GeoRL..3316502C. doi:10.1029/2006GL027084. S2CID 14421037.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nonnotte, Philippe; Guillou, Hervé; Le Gall, Bernard; Benoit, Mathieu; Cotten, Joseph; Scaillet, Stéphane (2008). "New K Ar age determinations of Kilimanjaro volcano in the North Tanzanian diverging rift, East Africa" (PDF). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 173 (1): 99. Bibcode:2008JVGR..173...99N. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.12.042. S2CID 18476938. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  18. ^ "Kilimanjaro National Park". World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  19. ^ a b Pascal Sirguey, Nicolas J. Cullen and Jorge Filipe Dos Santos. "The New Digital Orthometric Elevation Model of Kilimanjaro" (PDF). CEUR Workshop Proceedings. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  20. ^ Pascal SRIGUEY & Nicolas J. CULLEN (2014). "A Century of Photogrammetry on Kilimanjaro" (PDF). Engaging the Challenges – Enhancing the Relevance. FIG Congress 2014. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  21. ^ a b Alex Stewart (23 April 2012). Kilimanjaro: A Complete Trekker's Guide: Preparations, practicalities and trekking routes to the 'Roof of Africa'. Cicerone Press Limited. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-84965-622-1. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Wilcockson, W. H. (1956). "Preliminary Notes on the Geology of Kilimanjaro". Geological Magazine. 93 (3): 218–228. Bibcode:1956GeoM...93..218W. doi:10.1017/S0016756800066590. S2CID 128393681.
  23. ^ "Kilimanjaro Geology". Tranquil Kilimajaro. Archived from the original on 25 June 2024. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  24. ^ a b c d John Barry Dawson (2008). The Gregory Rift Valley and Neogene-recent Volcanoes of Northern Tanzania. Geological Society of London. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-86239-267-0. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  25. ^ a b c Gillman, C. (1923). "An Ascent of Kilimanjaro". The Geographical Journal. 61 (1): 1–21. Bibcode:1923GeogJ..61....1G. doi:10.2307/1780513. JSTOR 1780513.
  26. ^ a b c Young, James A. T. "Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa" (PDF). U.S. Geological Professional Survey. U.S. Department of the Interior. pp. G61, G58, G59 G62. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  27. ^ "Gustav Otto Richard Reusch". Biographies. The Center for Volga German Studies at Concordia University. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  28. ^ Richard Leider (10 May 2010). The Power of Purpose: Find Meaning, Live Longer, Better. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-60509-527-1. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  29. ^ "Kilimanjaro". Volcano World. Oregon State University. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  30. ^ Alex Stewart (23 April 2012). Kilimanjaro: A Complete Trekker's Guide: Preparations, practicalities and trekking routes to the 'Roof of Africa'. Cicerone Press Limited. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-84965-622-1. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  31. ^ a b J. Shearson Hyland (1889). "Ueber die Gesteine des Kilimandscharo und dessen Umgebung". Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen (in German). 10 (3): 203–268. Bibcode:1889ZKMP...10..203S. doi:10.1007/BF02993444. S2CID 130584195. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2017 – via Springer Link.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Gabrielli, P.; Hardy, D. R.; Kehrwald, N.; Davis, M.; Cozzi, G.; Turetta, C.; Barbante, C.; Thompson, L. G. (2014). "Deglaciated areas of Kilimanjaro as a source of volcanic trace elements deposited on the ice cap during the late Holocene". Quaternary Science Reviews. 93: 1–10. Bibcode:2014QSRv...93....1G. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.03.007.
  33. ^ Mark, Bryan G.; Osmaston, Henry A. (2008). "Quaternary glaciation in Africa: Key chronologies and climatic implications". Journal of Quaternary Science. 23 (6–7): 589–608. Bibcode:2008JQS....23..589M. CiteSeerX doi:10.1002/jqs.1222. S2CID 130605599.
  34. ^ Thompson, Lonnie G (2002). "Kilimanjaro Ice Core Records: Evidence of Holocene Climate Change in Tropical Africa" (PDF). Science. 298 (5593): 589–593. Bibcode:2002Sci...298..589T. doi:10.1126/science.1073198. PMID 12386332. S2CID 32880316. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  35. ^ Uglietti, Chiara; Zapf, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Salazar, Gary; Hardy, Doug; Schwikowski, Margit (2015). "The controversial age of Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers". EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts. 17: 5091. Bibcode:2015EGUGA..17.5091U.
  36. ^ a b c d e Thompson, L. G.; Brecher, H. H.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Hardy, D. R.; Mark, B. G. (2009). "Glacier loss on Kilimanjaro continues unabated". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (47): 19770–5. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10619770T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0906029106. PMC 2771743. PMID 19884500.
  37. ^ Kaser, Georg; Mölg, Thomas; Cullen, Nicolas J.; Hardy, Douglas R.; Winkler, Michael (2010). "Is the decline of ice on Kilimanjaro unprecedented in the Holocene?". The Holocene. 20 (7): 1079–1091. Bibcode:2010Holoc..20.1079K. CiteSeerX doi:10.1177/0959683610369498. ISSN 0959-6836. S2CID 16945088.
  38. ^ a b c Vijay P. Singh; Pratap Singh; Umesh K. Haritashya (1 July 2011). Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-90-481-2641-5. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  39. ^ Thompson, L.G.; Davis, M.E. (2007). "ICE CORE RECORDS | Africa". Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. pp. 1220–1225. doi:10.1016/B0-44-452747-8/00351-3. ISBN 978-0-444-52747-9.
  40. ^ a b c Cullen, N. J.; Sirguey, P.; Mölg, T.; Kaser, G.; Winkler, M.; Fitzsimons, S. J. (2013). "A century of ice retreat on Kilimanjaro: the mapping reloaded". The Cryosphere. 7 (2): 419–431. Bibcode:2013TCry....7..419C. doi:10.5194/tc-7-419-2013. ISSN 1994-0424.
  41. ^ Zeinab, Noura Abou (15 October 2020). "'Big pieces' of Kilimanjaro 'missing' due to climate crisis, says ice climber Will Gadd". CNN. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  42. ^ Nkonge, Peninah (15 October 2022). "'Hiking Adventures In East Africa's Tallest Mountains". Sunrise Africa Tours and Safaris. Archived from the original on 25 June 2024. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  43. ^ Georg Kaser; Thomas Mölg; Nicolas J. Cullen; Douglas R. Hardy; Michael Winkler; Rainer Prinz & Lindsey Nicholson. "East African glacier loss and climate change: Corrections to the UNEP article Africa without ice and snow" (PDF). 6: 1–6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  44. ^ William Dubois Newmark (1991). The Conservation of Mount Kilimanjaro. IUCN. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-2-8317-0070-0. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  45. ^ "The First 100 IUGS Geological Heritage Sites" (PDF). IUGS International Commission on Geoheritage. IUGS. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2022. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
  46. ^ "THE GEOGRAPHY PEOPLE AND MYTHOLOGY OF AFRICA'S HIGHEST PEAK". www.secretcompass.com. 2 January 2018. Archived from the original on 5 November 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  47. ^ Charles Dundas (12 November 2012). Kilimanjaro and Its People: A History of Wachagga, their Laws, Customs and Legends, Together with Some. Routledge. pp. 84–88. ISBN 978-1-136-24940-2. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  48. ^ a b c d e f Hans Meyer (1891). "Across East African glaciers: an account of the first ascent of Kilimanjaro". Nature. 44 (1129): 149–150. Bibcode:1891Natur..44..149.. doi:10.1038/044149b0. hdl:2027/hvd.32044009699778. S2CID 45006599. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  49. ^ Cameron M. Burns (2006). Kilimanjaro & East Africa: A Climbing and Trekking Guide. The Mountaineers Books. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-89886-604-9. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  50. ^ Mackinder, Halford (1900). "A Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya, British East Africa". The Geographical Journal. 15 (5): 453–476. Bibcode:1900GeogJ..15..453M. doi:10.2307/1774261. JSTOR 1774261. Archived from the original on 25 June 2024. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  51. ^ ""Kilimanjaro", authored by Sir. H. H. Johnston, in The Twentieth Century, published by Nineteenth Century and After, printed by Spottswoode, Ballantine & Co. Ltd., London, June 1916, volume 79, page 879". 1916. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  52. ^ "Mr Thornton, I presume?: Everyone has heard of Livingstone, but the name of Richard Thornton, Livingstone's geologist, has been completely forgotten. Richard Boak tells his sad story". www.geolsoc.org.uk. August 2011. Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  53. ^ Dundas, Charles (2012) [1924]. Kilimanjaro and its People: A History of the Wachagga, Their Laws, Customs and Legends, Together with Some Account of the Highest Mountain in Africa. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-136-24940-2. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  54. ^ "Baron Carl Claus von der Decken – 1833–1865 – Collectors in East Africa – 31". Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  55. ^ Ludwig Ritter von Höhnel (1894). Discovery of Lakes Rudolf and Stefanie: A Narrative of Count Samuel Teleki's Exploring & Hunting Expedition in Eastern Equatorial Africa in 1887 & 1888. Longmans, Green. p. 195.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Alex Stewart (9 September 2010). Kilimanjaro: A Complete Trekker's Guide: Preparations, Practicalities and Trekking Routes to the 'Roof of Africa'. Cicerone Press Limited. ISBN 978-1-84965-071-7. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  57. ^ "First Person to Climb the Mount Kilimanjaro". Zeeshan Haider. 1 January 2024.
  58. ^ a b c d e f "Meyer And Purtscheller Were Not Alone". Tanzanian Affairs. 1 January 1990. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  59. ^ "The Old Man of Mt. Kilimanjaro". The Honeyguide: Summer 2000. Another Land. Archived from the original on 25 November 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  60. ^ Cameron M. Burns (2006). Kilimanjaro & East Africa: A Climbing and Trekking Guide. The Mountaineers Books. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-89886-604-9. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  61. ^ "Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Ascend Tanzania. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  62. ^ "Kinyongia tavetana (STEINDACHNER, 1891)". The Reptile Database. Zoological Museum Hamburg. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  63. ^ a b Hemp, Andreas (2006). "Continuum or zonation? Altitudinal gradients in the forest vegetation of Mt. Kilimanjaro". Plant Ecology. 184 (1): 27–42. Bibcode:2006PlEco.184...27H. doi:10.1007/s11258-005-9049-4. S2CID 21864541.
  64. ^ a b Schüler, Lisa; Hemp, Andreas; Zech, Wolfgang; Behling, Hermann (2012). "Vegetation, climate and fire-dynamics in East Africa inferred from the Maundi crater pollen record from Mt Kilimanjaro during the last glacial-interglacial cycle". Quaternary Science Reviews. 39: 1–13. Bibcode:2012QSRv...39....1S. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.02.003.
  65. ^ a b c Hemp, Andreas (2008). "Introduced plants on Kilimanjaro: Tourism and its impact". Plant Ecology. 197 (1): 17–29. Bibcode:2008PlEco.197...17H. doi:10.1007/s11258-007-9356-z. S2CID 25001477.
  66. ^ L. A. Bruijnzeel; F. N. Scatena; L. S. Hamilton (6 January 2011). Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management. Cambridge University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-139-49455-7. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  67. ^ a b "Information about Mt Kilimanjaro". Kiliwarrior Expeditions – Climb Kilimanjaro and become a Kiliwarrior!. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  68. ^ a b Ghazali Musa; James Higham; Anna Thompson-Carr, eds. (5 June 2015). Mountaineering Tourism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-66874-9. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  69. ^ a b Ian Christie; Eneida Fernandes; Hannah Messerli; Louise Twining-Ward (2014). Tourism in Africa: Harnessing Tourism for Growth and Improved Livelihoods. World Bank Publications. ISBN 978-1-4648-0197-6. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  70. ^ "The official site of the Tanzania National Parks – Latest news". 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  71. ^ a b ""Making success work for the poor: Package tourism in Northern Tanzania", Overseas Development Institute, authored by Jonathan Mitchell, Jodie Keane, and Jenny Laidlaw, 9 January 2008, accessed 31 July 2015" (PDF). odi.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  72. ^ Ihucha, Adam (28 November 2015). "Kilimanjaro airport upgrade to double its capacity". The EastAfrican. Nairobi. Archived from the original on 17 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  73. ^ "Mt. Kilimanjaro Routes: The Advantages and Disadvantage of All Mount Kilimanjaro Climbing Routes". Mount Kilimanjaro Guide. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  74. ^ "Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro on the Machame Route". Mount Kilimanjaro Guide. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  75. ^ "Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro on the Lemosho Route". Climbing Kilimanjaro. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  76. ^ "Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro on the Rongai Route". Mount Kilimanjaro Guide. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  77. ^ "Marangu Route". Kilimanjaro Routes. Archived from the original on 16 August 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  78. ^ "Kiliwarrior Expeditions – Climb Kilimanjaro and become a Kiliwarrior!". Kiliwarrior Expeditions – Climb Kilimanjaro and become a Kiliwarrior!. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  79. ^ "Oldest person to climb Mount Kilimanjaro". guinnessworldrecords.com. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  80. ^ "Anne Lorimor breaks record twice on Mount Kilimanjaro". ultimatekilimanjaro.com. 26 July 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  81. ^ "Oldest man climbs Kilimanjaro". peakplanet.com. 23 July 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  82. ^ a b c d e f "Amazing Kilimanjaro Records". Mount Kilimanjaro Facts. Climb Kilimanjaro Guide. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  83. ^ {{records|title= Youngest person to climb Mount Kilimanjaro via the Western Breach route|url=http://www.ventique.co.uk/kilimanjaro.jpg
  84. ^ "Girl Who Wanted to 'Be Closer to Her Dad' Becomes Youngest Female to Hike Mount Kilimanjaro". Good News Network. 10 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  85. ^ a b c Route: Kilimanjaro Archived 9 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine at fastest known time.com
  86. ^ Matt Hart, Where in the World Did Karl Egloff Come From? Archived 1 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Outside 5, Mar 2015
  87. ^ Swiss Sets New Kilimanjaro Fastest Ascent And Descent Record Archived 19 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine at climbkilimanjaroguide.com
  88. ^ "Kilimanjaro records". Background information on Kilimanjaro. Climb Mount Kilimanjaro Ltd. Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  89. ^ Sean McCoy, Woman Sets Speed Record Up Kilimanjaro Archived 9 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine at gearjunkie.com
  90. ^ "Two double amputees, Hari and Justin, successfully climb Mt Kilimanjaro". www.southasiatime.com. Archived from the original on 25 June 2024. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  91. ^ Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report (USARIEM-TN-04-05). Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2015.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  92. ^ R. Stoppelenburg. "Prepare yourself for the Kilimanjaro climb". Archived from the original on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
  93. ^ Davies, Andrew J.; Kalson, Nicholas S.; Stokes, Suzy; Earl, Mark D.; Whitehead, Adam G.; Frost, Hannah; Tyrell-Marsh, Ian; Naylor, Jon (2009). "Determinants of Summiting Success and Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt Kilimanjaro (5895 m)" (PDF). Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 20 (4): 311–7. doi:10.1580/1080-6032-020.004.0311. ISSN 1080-6032. PMID 20030437. S2CID 13322264. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  94. ^ Eigenberger, Paul; Faino, Anna; Maltzahn, Joanne; Lisk, Christina; Frank, Eddie; Frank, Amy; Loomis, Zoe; Schroeder, Thies; Strand, Matthew; Irwin, David (2014). "A Retrospective Study of Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt. Kilimanjaro Using Trekking Company Data". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 85 (11): 1125–1129. doi:10.3357/ASEM.4037.2014. PMID 25329946.
  95. ^ Cymerman, A; Rock, PB. "Medical Problems in High Mountain Environments. A Handbook for Medical Officers". USARIEM-TN94-2. US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2009. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  96. ^ Andrew J. Davies; Nicholas S. Kalson; Suzy Stokes; Mark D. Earl; Adam G. Whitehead; Hannah Frost; Ian Tyrell-Marsh; Jon Naylor (2009). "Determinants of Summiting Success and Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt Kilimanjaro (5895 m)" (PDF). Wilderness and Environmental Medicine. 20 (4): 311–317. doi:10.1580/1080-6032-020.004.0311. PMID 20030437. S2CID 13322264. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  97. ^ Joel Meyer (2012). "Twice-Daily Assessment of Trekkers on Kilimanjaro's Machame Route to Evaluate the Incidence and Time-Course of Acute Mountain Sickness". High Altitude Medicine & Biology. 13 (4): 281–284. doi:10.1089/ham.2012.1024. PMID 23270446.
  98. ^ "Machame Route". Kopa Tours. 17 December 2019. Archived from the original on 25 June 2024. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  99. ^ "Western Breach Route". Western Breach Route Kilimanjaro. Climbing Kilimanjaro. Archived from the original on 25 June 2024. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  100. ^ "Lava Tower en route to Barranco Camp". Africa Travel. About.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  101. ^ Apollo, M (2017). "The good, the bad and the ugly–three approaches to the management of human waste in a high-mountain environment". International Journal of Environmental Studies. 74 (1): 129–158. Bibcode:2017IJEnS..74..129A. doi:10.1080/00207233.2016.1227225. S2CID 113843846.
  102. ^ Markus Hauser; Andreas Mueller; Britta Swai; Sendui Ole Nguyaine (2004). "Deaths Due to High Altitude Illness Among Tourists Climbing Mt Kilimanjaro". Proceedings of the 2004 South African Travel Medicine Society. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  103. ^ "American couple to exchange vows on Mount Kilimanjaro". Daily News. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  104. ^ "Couple marries on top of Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest peak". India Today. 22 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  105. ^ "More couples exchange marriage vows on Africa's roof". The Guardian. 24 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  106. ^ "Cricketers play on Kilimanjaro to set new world record". BBC News. 26 September 2014. Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  107. ^ a b c Bissell, Tom (28 October 2007). "Up the Mountain Slowly, Very Slowly". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 June 2024.
  108. ^ Crowther, Bosley (19 September 1952). "The Screen in Review; 'Snow of Kiliminjaro,' Based on Hemingway's Story, Is New Feature at Rivoli". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 June 2024.
  109. ^ "Up Kilimanjaro with the Adams Family". BBC. 24 September 2014. Archived from the original on 25 June 2024. Retrieved 25 June 2024.
  110. ^ "Kilimanjaro: To The Roof Of Africa". IMAX. Archived from the original on 25 June 2024. Retrieved 25 June 2024.

External links[edit]