Tmolus // (Ancient Greek: Τμῶλος, Tmōlos) was a King of Lydia and husband to Omphale. He is the eponymous namesake of Mount Tmolus (modern Bozdağ), which lies in Lydia with the Lydian capital (later also called Sardis) at its foot and Hypaepa on its southern slope. In Greek mythology he figures as a mountain god, a son of Ares and Theogone and he judged the musical contest between Pan and Apollo.
When Tmolus was gored to death by a bull on the mountain that bears his name, his widow, Omphale, became Queen-regnant of Lydia. Through her, Lydian reign passed into the hands of the Tylonid (Heraclid) dynasty.
- Gantz, p. 536.
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- Catholic Encyclopaedia (passim)
- Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
- Ovid's Metamorphoses, Book 11, tr. Arthur Golding. http://www.elizabethanauthors.com/ovid11.htm
- Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Tmolus 1."