Mount Tondano

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Mount Tondano
Mount Tondano is located in Sulawesi
Mount Tondano
Mount Tondano
Sulawesi, Indonesia
Highest point
Elevation 1,202 m (3,944 ft) [1]
Coordinates 1°14′N 124°50′E / 1.23°N 124.83°E / 1.23; 124.83Coordinates: 1°14′N 124°50′E / 1.23°N 124.83°E / 1.23; 124.83[1]
Location Sulawesi, Indonesia
Mountain type Caldera
Last eruption Unknown

Mount Tondano in the province of North Sulawesi, Sulawesi, Indonesia, has a 20 × 30 km wide caldera which was formed in the Late Miocene or Early Pliocene[2] formed by a massive eruption. Post caldera activity includes Pyroclastic cones, obsidian flows and geothermal areas in the caldera area. The Lake Tondano lies in the east side of the caldera.[1]

The 5 km long and 3.5 km wide ellipsoidal Pangolombian caldera lies entirely within the Tondano Caldera, and formed from a large eruption of an older Somma volcano [2]

In more recent times, the somma volcanoes of Soputan, Sempu, Lokon-Empung and Mahawu have been constructed along the rim of the Tondano caldera, with Soputan being the youngest and most frequently active of the group.[1] The Tondano caldera has been investigated as a potential source for geothermal energy to support the growing population in the vicinity of the caldera.[2] Energy demand has been growing in Indonesia, and the Tondano caldera system could potentially provide clean energy for thousands of residents in northern Sulawesi.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "Tondano". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Lahendong Geothermal Field, Indonesia: Geothermal Model based on wells LHD-23 and LHD-28" (PDF). December 2010.