|Elevation||6,288.3 ft (1,916.7 m)( NAVD 88)|
|Prominence||6,148 ft (1,874 m)|
|Native name||Agiocochook (Western Abnaki)|
|Location||Sargent's Purchase, Coös County, New Hampshire, U.S.|
|Parent range||Presidential Range|
|Topo map||USGS Mount Washington|
|First ascent||1642 (first recorded)|
|Easiest route||Hike, ride cog railway, or drive via Mount Washington Auto Road.|
The mountain is notorious for its erratic weather. On the afternoon of April 12, 1934, the Mount Washington Observatory recorded a windspeed of 231 miles per hour (372 km/h) at the summit, the world record from 1934 until 1996. Mount Washington still holds the record for highest measured wind speed not associated with a tornado or tropical cyclone.[a]
The mountain is located in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, in Coös County, New Hampshire. The mountain is in several unincorporated townships, with the summit in the township of Sargent's Purchase. While nearly the whole mountain is in the White Mountain National Forest, an area of 60.3 acres (24.4 ha) surrounding and including the summit is occupied by Mount Washington State Park.
The Mount Washington Cog Railway ascends the western slope of the mountain, and the Mount Washington Auto Road climbs to the summit from the east. The mountain is visited by hikers, and the Appalachian Trail crosses the summit. Other common activities include glider flying, backcountry skiing, and annual cycle and running races such as the Auto Road Bicycle Hillclimb and Road Race.
Before European settlers arrived in the region, the mountain was known by various indigenous peoples as Kodaak Wadjo ("the top is so hidden" or "summit of the highest mountain") or Agiochook or Agiocochook ("the place of the Great Spirit" or "the place of the Concealed One"). The Algonquians called the summit Waumbik, "white rocks". The Abenaki people inhabiting the region at the time of European contact believed that the tops of mountains were the dwelling place of the gods, and so among other reasons did not climb them out of religious deference to their sanctity.
In 1642, Darby Field claimed to have made the first ascent of Mount Washington. Field climbed the mountain in June of that year to demonstrate to the Abenaki chief Passaconaway that the Europeans bargaining for tribal land were not subject to the gods believed to inhabit the summit, a primarily political move that facilitated colonists' northern expansion. Field again summited Agiocochook in October 1642 on an early surveying expedition that created maps of land as far as Maine, which allowed people from the Massachusetts colony to identify arable coastal areas.
Little occurred on the summit itself until the mid-19th century, when it was developed into one of the first tourist destinations in the nation, with construction of more bridle paths and two hotels. The Summit House opened in 1852, a 64-foot-long (20 m) stone hotel anchored by four heavy chains over its roof. In 1853, the Tip-Top House was erected to compete. Rebuilt of wood with 91 rooms in 1872–1873, the Summit House burned in 1908, then was replaced in granite in 1915. The Tip-Top House alone survived the fire; today it is a state historic site, recently renovated for exhibits. Other Victorian era tourist attractions include a coach road (1861)—now the Mount Washington Auto Road—and the Mount Washington Cog Railway (1869), both of which are still in operation.
In 2011 and 2012, Orlando, Florida–based CNL Financial Group, which at the time operated the Mount Washington Hotel at the foot of the mountain, trademarked the "Mount Washington" name when used with a resort or hotel. CNL officials said they were directing their efforts only against hotels and not the numerous businesses in the area that use the name. CNL's application at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office seeks registration of the trademark "Mount Washington" for any retail service, any restaurant service, and any entertainment service.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The summit station of Mount Washington has an alpine climate or tundra climate (Köppen ET), although it receives an extremely high amount of precipitation, atypical for most regions with such cold weather. However, elevations just beneath treeline have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) which eventually transitions to a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) near the mountain's base and the surrounding lower elevations.
The weather of Mount Washington is notoriously erratic. This is partly due to the convergence of several storm tracks, mainly from the Atlantic to the south, the Gulf region and the Pacific Northwest. The vertical rise of the Presidential Range, combined with its north–south orientation, makes it a significant barrier to westerly winds. Low-pressure areas are more favorable to develop along the coastline in the winter due to the relative temperature differences between the northeastern United States and the Atlantic Ocean. With these factors combined, hurricane-force wind gusts are observed from the summit of the mountain on average of 110 days per year. These extreme winds also contribute to the mountain's very short treeline, with elevations as low as 4,400 feet (1,300 m) being too hostile to support any plant life more than a few inches (centimeters) in height.
Mount Washington once held the world record, and still holds the Northern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere record, for directly measured surface wind speed, at 231 mph (372 km/h), recorded on the afternoon of April 12, 1934. A new wind speed record was discovered in 2009: on April 10, 1996, Tropical Cyclone Olivia had created a wind gust of 408 km/h (254 mph) at Barrow Island off the western coast of Australia.
The first regular meteorological observations on Mount Washington were conducted by the U.S. Signal Service, a precursor of the National Weather Service, from 1870 to 1892. The Mount Washington station was the first of its kind in the world, setting an example followed in many other countries. For many years, the record low temperature was thought to be −47 °F (−43.9 °C) occurring on January 29, 1934, but upon the first in-depth examination of the data from the 19th century at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina, a new record low was discovered. Mount Washington's official record low of −50 °F (−45.6 °C) was recorded on January 22, 1885. The official record low daily maximum is −28 °F (−33.3 °C) on February 6, 1995. Highs of 0 °F (−18 °C; 255 K) or below occur on 13 days annually, while lows at or below 0 °F (−18 °C; 255 K) can be expected from November 17 through April 1; from December to March, temperatures rise above freezing (0 °C (32 °F; 273 K)) on only 15 days.
On January 16, 2004, the summit weather observation registered a temperature of −43.6 °F (−42.0 °C) and sustained winds of 87.5 mph (140.8 km/h), resulting in a wind chill value of −102.59 °F (−74.8 °C) at the mountain. During a 71-hour period from approximately 3 p.m. on January 13 to 2 p.m. on January 16, 2004, the wind chill on the summit never went above −50 °F (−45.6 °C). The official record high temperature at the summit is 72 °F (22.2 °C) on June 26, 2003, and August 2, 1975, while the official record high daily minimum is 60 °F (15.6 °C), recorded on the latter date. Readings of 60 °F (15.6 °C) or higher at the summit are seen an average of 13.5 days annually.
On February 3–4, 2023, overnight wind gusts of over 100 miles per hour (160 km/h) and a temperature of −47 °F (−43.9 °C) combined to produce a new US record low windchill temperature of −108 °F (−77.8 °C), breaking the previous figure of −103 °F (−75.0 °C). Temperatures remained at or below -45 °F for 13 straight hours on February 3–4, 2023, and a -47 °F reading from the morning of February 4, 2023 was the coldest reading in 89 years, tying a previous record low observed in January 1934.
The primary summit building was designed to withstand 300 mph (480 km/h) winds; other structures are chained to the mountain. In addition to a number of broadcast towers, the mountain is the site of a non-profit scientific observatory reporting the weather as well as other aspects of the subarctic climate of the mountain. The extreme environment creates strong winds and ice at the top of Mount Washington making the use of unmanned equipment problematic. The observatory also conducts research, primarily the testing of new weather measurement devices. The Sherman Adams summit building, which houses the observatory, is closed to the public during the winter and hikers are not allowed inside the building except for pre-arranged guided tours.
In 1932, the Mount Washington Observatory was built on the summit through a group interested in and noting the worth of a research facility at that demanding location. The observatory's weather data have accumulated a climate record since. Temperature and humidity readings have been collected using a sling psychrometer, a simple device containing two mercury thermometers. Where most unstaffed weather stations have undergone technology upgrades, consistent use of the sling psychrometer has helped provide scientific precision to the Mount Washington climate record.
The observatory makes prominent use of the slogan "Home of the World's Worst Weather", a claim that originated with a 1940 article in Appalachia magazine by Charles Brooks, the man generally given the majority of credit for creating the Mount Washington Observatory. The article was titled "The Worst Weather in the World" even though it concluded that Mount Washington most likely did not have the world's worst weather.
The summit of Mount Washington is frequently obscured by clouds.
Due in part to its high prominence, to its situation at the confluence of two major storm tracks, and to the north–south orientation of the Presidential Range ridgeline, which it crowns, Mount Washington receives high levels of precipitation, averaging an equivalent of 91.2 in (2,320 mm) of rain per year,[b] with a record high for a calendar year of 130.14 in (3,305.6 mm) in 1969 and a low of 71.34 in (1,812.0 mm) in 1979. Monthly precipitation has ranged from 0.75 in (19.1 mm) in October 1947 to 28.70 in (729.0 mm) in October 2005. Large amounts of precipitation often fall in a short period of time: in October 1996, a record 11.07 in (281.2 mm) of precipitation fell during a single 24-hour period. A substantial amount of this falls as snow, with a seasonal[c] average of around 280 inches (7.1 m) of snow; seasonal accumulation has ranged from 75.8 in (1.93 m) in 1947–48 to 566.4 in (14.39 m) in 1968–69. The record amount of snowfall in a 24-hour period, 49.3 in (125.2 cm), occurred in February 1969, which is also the snowiest month on record with 172.8 in (4.39 m).
|Climate data for Mount Washington, elev. 6,267 ft (1,910.2 m) near the summit (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1933–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||48
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||38.7
|Average high °F (°C)||14.9
|Daily mean °F (°C)||5.8
|Average low °F (°C)||−3.2
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||−28.6
|Record low °F (°C)||−47
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||5.74
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||41.4
|Average extreme snow depth inches (cm)||14.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||20.0||18.3||19.7||18.3||17.4||17.6||17.5||15.5||13.7||18.1||19.2||21.0||216.3|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||19.6||18.1||18.0||14.1||6.5||1.2||0.2||0.2||1.3||9.9||15.1||19.7||123.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||92.0||106.9||127.6||143.2||171.3||151.3||145.0||130.5||127.2||127.1||82.4||83.1||1,487.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||32||36||34||35||37||33||31||30||34||37||29||30||33|
|Source 1: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)|
|Source 2: Mount Washington Observatory (extremes 1933–present)|
See or edit raw graph data.
Although the western slope that the Cog Railway ascends is straightforward from base to summit, the mountain's other sides are more complex. On the north side, Great Gulf—the mountain's largest glacial cirque—forms an amphitheater surrounded by the Northern Presidentials: Mounts Clay, Jefferson, Adams and Madison. These connected peaks reach well into the treeless alpine zone. Massive Chandler Ridge extends northeast from the summit of Washington to form the amphitheater's southern wall and the incline is ascended by the Mount Washington Auto Road.
East of the summit, a plateau known as the Alpine Gardens extends south from Chandler Ridge at about 5,200 feet (1,600 m) elevation. It is notable for plant species either endemic to alpine meadows in the White Mountains or outliers of larger populations in arctic regions far to the north. Alpine Gardens drops off precipitously into two prominent glacial cirques. Craggy Huntington Ravine offers rock and ice climbing in an alpine setting. More rounded Tuckerman Ravine is New England's best-known site for spring back-country skiing as late as June and then a scenic hiking route.
South of the summit lies a second and larger alpine plateau, Bigelow Lawn, at 5,000 feet (1,500 m) to 5,500 feet (1,700 m) elevation. Satellite summit Boott Spur and then the Montalban Ridge including Mount Isolation and Mount Davis extend south from it, while the higher Southern Presidentials—Mounts Monroe, Franklin, Eisenhower, Pierce, Jackson and Webster—extend southwest to Crawford Notch. Oakes Gulf separates the two high ridges.
The mountain is part of a popular hiking area, with the Appalachian Trail crossing the summit and one of the Appalachian Mountain Club's eight mountain huts, the Lakes of the Clouds Hut, located on one of the mountain's shoulders. Winter recreation includes Tuckerman Ravine, famous for its Memorial Day skiing and its 50-degree slopes. The ravine is notorious for its avalanches, of which about 100 are recorded every year, and which have killed six people since 1849. Scores of hikers have died on the mountain in all seasons, due to harsh and rapidly changing conditions, inadequate equipment, and failure to plan for the wide variety of conditions that can occur above tree line.
The most common hiking trail approach to the summit is via the 4.1-mile (6.6 km) Tuckerman Ravine Trail. It starts at the Pinkham Notch camp area and gains 4,280 feet (1,300 m), leading straight up the bowl of Tuckerman Ravine via a series of steep rock steps that afford views of the ravine and across the notch to Wildcat Mountain. Fatalities have occurred on the trail, both from ski accidents and hypothermia. Water bottles may be refilled at the base of the bowl 2.1 miles (3.4 km) up the trail at a well pump near the Hermit Lake Shelters, which offers snacks, toilets and shelter. At the summit is a center with a museum, gift shop, observation area, cafeteria, and the Mount Washington Observatory. Other routes up the eastern slopes of the mountain include the Lion Head, Boott Spur, Huntington Ravine and Nelson Crag trails, as well as the Great Gulf Trail ascending from the northeast. Routes from the western slopes include the Ammonoosuc Ravine and Jewell trails and the Crawford Path and Gulfside Trail (coincident with the Appalachian Trail from the southwest and from the north, respectively).
There are many differences between climbing Mount Washington in summer and climbing it in winter. There are no public facilities on the summit in winter. In the winter months, the most common route is the Lion Head Winter Route, which begins on the Tuckerman Ravine Trail but then turns north to ascend up to Lion Head at elevation 5,033 feet (1,534 m). The winter route variation is recommended to help climbers avoid avalanche danger. Exactly where the route turns from the Tuckerman Ravine Trail depends on the snow conditions. If the amount of snowfall has not been significant, the Lion Head Summer Route may be open. After hiking 2.3 miles (3.7 km) from the visitor center in Pinkham Notch, the trail will take a right turn onto the Lion Head Summer Route. If there has been enough snow accumulation on the summer Lion Head Trail, the Forest Service will open the Lion Head Winter Route, which turns off after approximately 1.7 miles (2.7 km).
Since 1869, the Mount Washington Cog Railway has provided tourists with a train journey to the summit of Mount Washington. It uses a Marsh rack system and was the first successful rack railway in the US.
Every June, the mountain is the site of the Mount Washington Road Race, an event that attracts hundreds of runners. In August the Mount Washington Auto Road Bicycle Hillclimb, a bicycle race, takes place along the same route as the road race. The hillclimb's notable contestants include former Tour de France contender Tyler Hamilton.
On August 7, 1932, Raymond E. Welch became the first one-legged man to climb Mount Washington. An official race was held and open only to one-legged people. Mr. Welch climbed the "Jacob's Ladder" route and descended via the carriage road. At the time of his climb, he was the station agent for the Boston & Maine Railroad in Northumberland, New Hampshire.
The mountain is also the host to one of the oldest car races in the country, the Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race, which has been held on and off since 1904. Travis Pastrana set record ascents in 2010, 2014, 2017, and 2021, driving a Subaru WRX STi to a record of five minutes and 28.67 seconds. In 2014 EVSR created by Entropy Racing was the first electric car to compete at Mt. Washington with an official time for driver Tim O'Neil of seven minutes and 28.92 seconds.
Tuckerman Ravine, a glacial cirque on the mountain's southeast side, is a popular backcountry skiing destination, attracting tens of thousands of skiers to the mountain each year. Skiers have skied down the headwall since 1931, first by two Dartmouth students, John Carleton and Charles Proctor, who were quickly followed by a group from Harvard who skied the headwall from the summit of Mount Washington for the first time. The ravine soon became an important site for extreme skiing in New England.
Due to its status as the highest elevation in the northeast United States, the top of the mountain is a popular site for stations that require transmission ranges over a broad territory, but which operate on frequencies that are generally limited to line-of-sight coverage. In 2003, it was reported that the summit was the site used "for three commercial radio stations and dozens of state, federal and private agencies, including the state police".
Use of the mountain summit as a transmitter site dates to the 1930s. At this time investigations were begun into establishing radio stations broadcasting on "Very High Frequency" (VHF) assignments above 30 MHz. Reception of stations operating on these frequencies tended to be limited to line-of-sight distances, so operating from the top of Mount Washington was ideal for providing maximum coverage. As of 1938 it was reported that at least five experimental stations were located on the mountain.
The most prominent of the early experimental stations was W1XER, originally an "Apex" radio station licensed to the Yankee Network, that was moved from Boston to the mountain in 1937, and initially used to relay meteorological information from the weather observatory. With the aid of Edwin H. Armstrong, the station was converted from an AM transmitter into an FM broadcasting station, although the conversion process turned out to be an arduous undertaking, and W1XER did not start broadcast programming on a regular schedule until December 19, 1940. This station's facilities included construction of the original broadcast tower, the Yankee Building housing the crew and transmitter equipment, and the first power house building. Commercial broadcasting commenced on April 5, 1941, initially with the call sign W39B.[d] Effective November 1, 1943 the station call sign was changed to WMTW, and in late 1946 the call letters were changed again, to WMNE. WMNE ceased operations in late 1948, due to excessive maintenance costs, and concern that a mandatory frequency change to the new FM "high band" would cause an unacceptable decrease in transmission range.
In 1954 WMTW, channel 8, licensed to Poland Spring, Maine, constructed a TV tower and transmitter and began operations from the mountain, including local forecasts by (now retired) WMTW transmitter engineer Marty Engstrom. In its first decades, WMTW served as the ABC Network affiliate for the Portland, Burlington, Montreal and Sherbrooke television markets, thanks to its wide coverage area. This station relocated its transmitter away from the mountain in 2002, due to concerns that a mandated switch from analog to digital transmissions would result in insufficient coverage if the transmitter remained at the mountaintop.
There are currently two FM stations located at the mountain. 1958 saw the construction of WMTW-FM 94.9 MHz (now WHOM). A second station, WMOU (now WPKQ), moved to the summit in 1987, installing transmitters in the Yankee building and constructing a new broadcast tower behind the building, which is the tallest structure on the summit.
WHOM and WMTW-TV shared a transmitter building, which also housed the generators used to supply electrical power to the various facilities atop the mountain. However, on February 9, 2003, a major fire broke out in the generator room of the transmitter building, which had become the property of the state only a year earlier when WMTW left the summit. The fire destroyed the building, including WHOM's transmitters as well as the summit's main generators, and also spread to the adjacent Old Yankee Power House building, which housed the emergency generator, destroying that building also and disrupting all power to the summit. Temporary generators had to be transported up the mountain to restore power to the observatory and to the Yankee building, which houses important public safety communications equipment. A makeshift generator room was constructed underneath the canopy of the Sherman Adams building across from the public entrance to replace the destroyed buildings. The makeshift generator room was later made permanent when power cables were installed in 2009, delivering grid power to the summit for the first time.
The original Armstrong tower still stands today. The Yankee Building also remains and continues to serve as a communications facility, housing equipment for numerous tenants including cellular telephone providers and public safety agencies. The old sign from the destroyed Old Yankee Power House building was placed above the doorway to the new generator room. WHOM subsequently built a new transmitter building on the site of the old power building, and also installed a new standby antenna on the Armstrong tower. (For the first time since 1948, the Armstrong tower was used for broadcasts.)
The National Weather Service (NWS) forecast office in Gray, Maine, operates NOAA Weather Radio station KZZ41 on 162.5 MHz from the summit of Mount Washington. The NWS coverage map indicates that it can be heard throughout most of New Hampshire, western Maine, northeast Vermont, and portions of southern Canada. During very clear conditions, KZZ41 has the potential to reach the majority of northern Massachusetts (including some northern areas of Greater Boston and much of the North Shore) as well as the majority of Vermont and Maine.
In June 2008, the possibility of television returning to Mount Washington arose, with the filing by New Hampshire Public Television to move WLED-TV from its current location near Littleton to the old WMTW mast on top.
As of 2019, more than 161 people had died in the Presidential range, since record-keeping began in 1849. Author Nicholas Howe has detailed many of the fatalities on this mountain in his book Not Without Peril published in 2000 and updated in 2009. The foreword to the 2009 edition states that many of the deaths over the past 150 years can be attributed to poor planning and lack of understanding of "the difference in weather between Boston and the mountains. The latter are farther north, farther inland and much higher than the city."
Mount Washington has been the subject of several famous paintings, part of a New England school of art known as White Mountain art. Inspired by the Hudson River School of landscape painting, a number of artists during the Victorian era ventured into the White Mountains in search of natural subjects. Train service in the area spurred increased tourism and the construction of the Glen House where Albert Bierstadt and his photographer brother (Bierstadt Brothers) stayed. John P. Soule, John B. Heywood and the Kilburn Brothers also produced stereographic images of scenery in the area.
- Freelan Oscar Stanley
- List of mountain peaks of North America
- The current official record gust of 254 miles per hour (409 km/h) was measured at Barrow Island, Australia, on October 4, 1996, although uncertified records as high as 318 miles per hour (512 km/h) exist.
- Measurable (0.1 in or 2.5 mm) precipitation occurs on an average 210 days annually, with 26 of those days seeing 1 in or 25 mm or more.
- The snow season is defined as July 1 through June 30 of the following calendar year
- The initial policy for commercial FM station call signs included an initial "W" for stations located east of the Mississippi River, followed by the last two digits of a station's frequency assignment, "39" corresponding with 43.9 MHz in this case, and closing with a one or two character city identifier, which for stations serving the Boston, Massachusetts region was "B".
- "Mount Washington". NGS Data Sheet. National Geodetic Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
- "Mount Washington, New Hampshire". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
- "Mount Washington". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- "World Record Wind". Mount Washington Observatory. Archived from the original on May 1, 2021. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- "World: Maximum Surface Wind Gust (3-Second)". World Weather / Climate Extremes Archive, Arizona State University. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.
- The Indian Heritage of New Hampshire and Northern New England (ed. Thaddeus Piotrowski), McFarland & Company: 2002, p. 182.
- Heald, Bruce D. (2011). The mount washington cog railway. Hoopla digital. [United States]: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-61423-839-3. OCLC 1099036399.
- Howe, Nicholas (2009). Not Without Peril: 150 Years of Misadventure on the Presidential Range of New Hampshire. Guilford, Connecticut: Appalachian Mountain Club. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-934028-32-2.
- Ford, Daniel (2010). The Country Northward: A Hiker's Journal, on the Trail in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-4528-3092-6.
- Johnson, Christopher (2006). This Grand & Magnificent Place: The Wilderness Heritage of the White Mountains. UPNE. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-58465-461-2.
- Condensed Facts About Mount Washington, Atkinson News Co., 1912.
- Staff. "Crawford Path Trailhead (Rte 302)". White Mountain National Forest. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
- Burt, Frank H. (1906). Mount Washington: A Handbook for Travellers (3rd ed.). G. H. Ellis Company. Archived from the original on June 7, 2022. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- "About Among the clouds. (Mount Washington, N.H.) 1885–1917". Chronicling America. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on February 12, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
- Heald, Bruce D. (2011). The Mount Washington Cog Railway: Climbing the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The History Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-60949-196-3.
- "Hotel Owners Say Concerns Over Mount Washington Name Overblown". WMUR-TV, Manchester. November 12, 2010. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- U.S. Trademark Applications Serial Nos. 76690738, 76690735 and 76690740
- "NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on May 2, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- MWOBS (2009). "Mount Washington Observatory: Distance Learning". Mount Washington Observatory. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- Mount Washington Avalanche Center (2012). "Weather". Mount Washington Avalanche Center. Archived from the original on February 20, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
- Division of Parks and Recreation (New Hampshire State Parks) (May 21, 2010). "Mount Washington Ecology" (PDF). www.nhstateparks.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2023.
- "Info note No.58 — World Record Wind Gust: 408 km/h". World Meteorological Organization. January 22, 2010. Archived from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- "History for Mt. Washington, NH". Weather Underground. Archived from the original on June 18, 2022. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- "Mount Washington Observatory: Normals, Means and Extreme". Mount Washington Observatory. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- "Station: MT WASHINGTON, NH". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on May 12, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Pulver, Dinah Voyles (February 4, 2023). "Mount Washington wind chill: New Hampshire summit fell to minus 108 F, likely lowest recorded". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on February 4, 2023. Retrieved February 4, 2023.
- "Meteorologist describes record-breaking cold atop Mount Washington". WMUR. February 4, 2023. Archived from the original on February 4, 2023. Retrieved February 4, 2023.
- Fadulu, Lola (February 4, 2023). "Mount Washington set a record for coldest wind chill ever recorded at minus 108 degrees". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2023. Retrieved February 4, 2023.
- "Brutal Cold on Mount Washington: A Weather Story". Mount Washington Observatory. Retrieved February 26, 2023.
- "Nature Phenomenon". Backpacker: 46. April 2007.
- "Mount Washington State Park". The New Hampshire Division of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
- Smith, Alan A. (September 1982). "The Mount Washington Weather Observatory - 50 Years Old". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 63 (9): 986. Bibcode:1982BAMS...63..986S. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1982)063<0986:TMWOYO>2.0.CO;2.
- Heald, Bruce D. (2011). The Mount Washington Cog Railway: Climbing the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The History Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-60949-196-3.
- Briede, Cyrena-Marie. "Product Testing and Research Capabilities with Mount Washington Observatory" (PDF). Mount Washington Observatory. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Brooks, Charles F. (1940). "The worst weather in the world". Appalachia: 194–202. Archived from the original on March 12, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2007.
- "Record Maximum Annual Precipitation by State (thru 1998)" (PDF). NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- "WMO Climate Normals for MOUNT WASHINGTON, NH 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Today's Weather atop Mount Washington". Mount Washington Observatory. January 14, 2013. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013.
- "Alpine Garden: Alpine Zone". Division of Forests and Lands. Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- "History of Skiing in Tuckerman Ravine". Tuckerman Ravines. Archived from the original on March 17, 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Presidential Range". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
- Steiner, Christopher (April 6, 2009). "Quiet Monster". Forbes. Archived from the original on February 12, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
- Daley, Jason; Wong, Melanie (May 8, 2014). "The 20 Most Dangerous Hikes". Outside Online. Archived from the original on March 29, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Mount Washington, New Hampshire - No. 14". National Soaring Museum. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- "A Day Hike in New Hampshire's White Mountains". White Mountain Explorer. Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Hermit Lake Shelters". outdoors.org. Archived from the original on April 18, 2019. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- "Skurka's Top Ten Favorite Hikes —Short (1 to 2 Days)". National Geographic Adventure Magazine. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016.
- "Getting and Staying Here". Mount Washington Observatory. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- "Lion Head Winter Route, Mount Washington". The Peak Seeker. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- Heald, Bruce D. (2011). The Mount Washington Cog Railway: Climbing the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The History Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-60949-196-3.
- "Sylvester Marsh and the Mount Washington Cog Railway". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Heald, Bruce D. (2011). The Mount Washington Cog Railway: Climbing the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The History Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-60949-196-3.
- "History". Newton's Revenge. Archived from the original on March 25, 2015. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Raymond Edward Welch" (PDF). Coös County GenWeb. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Results - Mount Washington Auto Road, Gorham NH". mt-washington.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2022. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
- Silvestro, Brian (August 24, 2017). "Watch Travis Pastrana Shatter the Mt. Washington Hillclimb Record". Road & Track. Archived from the original on January 10, 2019. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Glucker, Jeff (September 10, 2010). "Travis Pastrana smashes 12-year-old Mt. Washington Auto Road record". AutoBlog. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Dillard, Ted (June 30, 2014). "EVSR Returns to the Scene of the Climb (Mt. Washington - w/video)". InsideEVs. Archived from the original on May 13, 2021. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- Irwin, Brian (March 27, 2019). "A primer to skiing Tuckerman Ravine". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
- "Tuckerman Ravine, a recreational history". Ski Vacation Blog. April 22, 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
- Hern, Nicholas (January 2, 2018). "The Iconic Ski History of Tuckerman Ravine in the White Mountains". Time to Climb. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- Leich, Jeff (May 5, 2020). "History on the Headwall: Mt. Washington's Tuckerman Ravine". Backcountry Magazine. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
- "Radio Engineering Labs, Inc. (WMTW photograph)" (advertisement), Broadcasting, May 15, 1944, page 49.
- "Mt. Washington blaze disrupts communications" Archived February 8, 2021, at the Wayback Machine by Richard Fabizio, February 16, 2003 (seacoastonline.com)
- "Ultra-High" Archived March 7, 2021, at the Wayback Machine by Perry Ferrell, Jr., All-Wave Radio, April 1938, page 195. The five reported experimental stations were W1XER, W1XR, W1XW, W1XOY and W1XMX.
- "Building a Radio Tower atop Mount Washington" Archived January 16, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, by Daniel Dancis, February 12, 2019.
- "Yankee Starts Operation of FM Atop Mountain", Broadcasting, January 1, 1941, page 18-C.
- "Boston Games on FM", Broadcasting, April 14, 1941, page 42.
- "New Calls Named For FM Stations", Broadcasting, October 4, 1943, page 49.
- "WMNE, KSTL-FM Are Relinquished" Archived February 8, 2021, at the Wayback Machine Broadcasting, October 4, 1948, page 85.
- Engstrom, Marty. Marty on the Mountain: 38 Years on Mt. Washington.
- "Mount Washington, N.H.: The TV Years, 1954-2002" Archived March 23, 2021, at the Wayback Machine by Scott Fybush, February 6–13, 2002 (fybush.com)
- "WMTW: fire on the mountain". GGN Information Systems. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
- "KZZ41". National Weather Service. U.S. Department of Commerce/National Weather Service Gray, ME. Archived from the original on February 12, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
- "Application for Construction Permit for Reserved Channel Noncommercial Educational Broadcast Station". U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). June 20, 2008. Archived from the original on February 6, 2023. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
- "Mount Washington, N.H.: A Look Back". Tower Site of the Week. fybush.com. February 20, 2003. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- Staff (May 9, 2019). "Mt. Washington's fatalities". New Hampshire Magazine. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
- Globe Pequot Press, Guiford, Connecticut - ISBN 978-1-934028-32-2
- "The Life of an Athlete: William B. Curtis, the Father of American Amateur Athletics. The Tragic End of an Existence Filled with Much That Was Good and Healthful" (PDF). The New York Times. July 8, 1900. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 9, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
By the tragic death of William B. Curtis in a blinding storm on Mount Washington about a week ago, the world of amateur sport has lost one of its most commanding figures ...
- "Mount Washington Gallery". White Mountain Art & Artists. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Hudson River School - a taste for the landscape". The Art Wolf. March 2006. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Summit House Mount Washington, John P. Soule". Museum of the White Mountains. Plymouth State University. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Ledge and Mt. Adams Peak, from Mt. Washington Carriage Road". NYPL Digital Collections. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "New Hampshire Historical Society Features Cog Railway Historic Photos". Mount Washington Cog Railway. Archived from the original on April 1, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Mount Washington Observatory
- Mount Washington Cog Railway
- Mount Washington Auto Road
- Tips for hiking Mount Washington
- Current trail conditions on and around Mount Washington
- 19th-century paintings of Mount Washington
- Computer generated summit panoramas North South West to Adirondack Group Index
- National Geographic: Mount Washington – Backyard Arctic Archived June 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- Hazecam view of Mount Washington