Mount Washington (New Hampshire)

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Mount Washington
Mt. Washington from Bretton Woods.JPG
Mount Washington, from Bretton Woods.
The cog railway track is visible, on the spur to the left of the summit.
Elevation 6,288 ft (1,917 m) NAVD 88[1]
Prominence 6,148 ft (1,874 m)[2]
Listing Ultra;
White Mountain 4000-footers;
#1 New England Fifty Finest;
U.S. state high point
Location
Mount Washington is located in New Hampshire
Mount Washington
Mount Washington
New Hampshire, U.S.
Location Sargent's Purchase, Coos County, New Hampshire, U.S.
Range Presidential Range
Coordinates 44°16′14″N 71°18′12″W / 44.270489039°N 71.303246453°W / 44.270489039; -71.303246453Coordinates: 44°16′14″N 71°18′12″W / 44.270489039°N 71.303246453°W / 44.270489039; -71.303246453[1]
Topo map USGS Mount Washington[3]
Climbing
First ascent 1642 (first recorded)
Easiest route Hike, ride cog railway, or drive via Mount Washington Auto Road.

Mount Washington is the highest peak in the Northeastern United States at 6,288 ft (1,917 m) and the most prominent mountain east of the Mississippi River. It is famous for dangerously erratic weather. For 76 years, until 2010, a weather observatory on the summit held the record for the highest wind gust directly measured at the Earth's surface, 231 mph (372 km/h or 103 m/s), on the afternoon of April 12, 1934.[a] Before European settlers arrived, the mountain was known as Agiocochook, or "Home of the Great Spirit".[5]

The mountain is located in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, in the township of Sargent's Purchase, Coos County, New Hampshire. While nearly the whole mountain is in the White Mountain National Forest, an area of 59 acres (24 ha) surrounding and including the summit is occupied by Mount Washington State Park.

History[edit]

The first European to mention the mountain was Giovanni da Verrazzano. Viewing it from the Atlantic Ocean in 1524, he described what he saw as "high interior mountains".[citation needed] The Abenaki people inhabiting the region at the time of European contact believed that the tops of mountains were the dwelling place of the gods, and so among other reasons did not climb them out of religious deference to their sanctity.[6] Darby Field claimed to have made the first ascent of Mt. Washington in 1642.[7] Field climbed the mountain in June of that year to demonstrate to the Abenaki chief Passaconaway that the Europeans bargaining for tribal land were not subject to the gods believed to inhabit the summit, a primarily political move that facilitated colonists' northern expansion.[6] Field again summited Agiocochook in October 1642 on an early surveying expedition that created maps of land as far as Maine, maps which assisted the delegations from the Massachusetts colony seeking to acquire the more arable coastal regions.[6]

A geology party, headed by Manasseh Cutler, named the mountain in 1784.[8] The Crawford Path, the oldest mountain hiking trail in the United States, was laid out in 1819 as a bridle path from Crawford Notch to the summit and has been in use ever since. Ethan Allen Crawford built a house on the summit in 1821, which lasted until a storm in 1826.[8]

The 2nd Summit House in 1904

Little occurred on the summit itself until the mid-19th century, when it was developed into one of the first tourist destinations in the nation, with construction of more bridle paths and two hotels. The Summit House opened in 1852, a 64-foot-long (20 m) stone hotel anchored by four heavy chains over its roof. In 1853, the Tip-Top House was erected to compete. Rebuilt of wood with 91 rooms in 1872-1873, the Summit House burned in 1908, then was replaced in granite in 1915.[8] The Tip-Top House alone survived the fire; today it is a state historic site, recently renovated for exhibits. Other Victorian era tourist attractions included a coach road (1861)—now the Mount Washington Auto Road—and the Mount Washington Cog Railway (1869), both of which are still in operation.[9]

For forty years, an intermittent daily newspaper, called Among the Clouds, was published by Henry M. Burt at the summit each summer, until 1917. Copies were circulated via the Cog Railway and coaches to surrounding hotels and other outlets.

In November 2010, it was revealed that Orlando, Florida-based CNL Financial, which owns the Mount Washington Hotel at the foot of the mountain, had formally filed to trademark the "Mount Washington" name. CNL officials said they were directing their efforts against other hotels that use the mountain's name and not the numerous businesses in the area that use it.[10][11] CNL's application at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office seeks registration of the trademark "Mount Washington" for any retail service, any restaurant service, and any entertainment service.[12]

Climate[edit]

The original weathered shingle-clad building is chained to the ground, here covered in rime ice in early April.
Mount Washington
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
6.4
 
14
-4
 
 
6.8
 
15
-2
 
 
7.7
 
21
5
 
 
7.4
 
30
17
 
 
8.2
 
41
30
 
 
8.4
 
50
40
 
 
8.8
 
54
44
 
 
8.3
 
53
43
 
 
8
 
47
36
 
 
9.3
 
36
24
 
 
9.9
 
28
13
 
 
7.7
 
18
2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: NOAA[13]

The summit station of Mount Washington has an alpine climate or tundra climate (Köppen ET), although it receives an extremely high amount of precipitation, atypical for most regions with such cold weather. Lower elevations have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc).[14]

The weather of Mount Washington is notoriously erratic. This is partly due to the convergence of several storm tracks, mainly from the Atlantic to the south, the Gulf region and Pacific Northwest. The vertical rise of the Presidential Range, combined with its north-south orientation, makes it a significant barrier to westerly winds. Low-pressure systems are more favorable to develop along the coastline in the winter months due to the relative temperature differences between the Northeast and the Atlantic Ocean. With these factors combined, winds exceeding hurricane force occur an average of 110 days per year. From November to April, these strong winds are likely to occur during two-thirds of the days.

Mount Washington once held the world record and still holds the Northern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere record for directly measured surface wind speed, at 231 mph (372 km/h), recorded on the afternoon of April 12, 1934. Measurements indicate that Cyclone Olivia surpassed this record in 1996.[15] (Satellite and radar measurements, e.g. of tornadoes, hurricanes, and air currents in the upper atmosphere, do not compete with records for surface measurements.)

The first regular meteorological observations on Mount Washington were conducted by the U.S. Signal Service, a precursor of the National Weather Service, from 1870 to 1892. The Mount Washington station was the first of its kind in the world, setting an example followed in many other countries. For many years, the record low temperature was thought to be −47 °F (−44 °C) occurring on January 29, 1934, but upon the first in-depth examination of the data from the 19th century at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina, a new record low was discovered. Mount Washington's official record low of −50 °F (−46 °C) was recorded on January 22, 1885. However, there is also hand-written evidence to suggest that an unofficial low of −59 °F (−51 °C) occurred on January 5, 1871. The official record cold daily maximum is −28 °F (−33 °C) on February 6, 1995.[13] Highs of 0 °F (−18 °C) or below occur on 13 days annually, while lows at or below 0 °F can be expected from November 17 thru April 1; from December to March temperatures rise above freezing on only 15 days.[13]

On January 16, 2004, the summit weather observation registered a temperature of −43.6 °F (−42.0 °C) and sustained winds of 87.5 mph (140.8 km/h), resulting in a wind chill value of −102.59 °F (−74.77 °C) at the mountain.[16] During a 71-hour stretch from around 3 p.m. on January 13 to around 2 p.m. on January 16, 2004, the wind chill on the summit never went above −50 °F (−46 °C).[16] The official record high temperature at the summit is 72 °F (22 °C) on June 26, 2003 and August 2, 1975.[17] while the official record warm daily minimum is 60 °F (16 °C) on the latter date.[13] Readings of 60 °F or more at the summit are seen on an average 16 days annually.

The primary summit building was designed to withstand 300 mph (480 km/h) winds; other structures are literally chained to the mountain. In addition to a number of broadcast towers, the mountain is the site of a non-profit scientific observatory reporting the weather as well as other aspects of the subarctic climate of the mountain. The extreme environment creates strong winds and ice at the top of Mount Washington making using unmanned equipment problematic. The observatory also conducts research, primarily the testing of new weather measurement devices. The Sherman Adams summit building, which houses the observatory, is closed to the public during the winter and hikers are not allowed inside the building except for emergencies and pre-arranged guided tours.

The summit of Mount Washington is frequently obscured by clouds.

The Mount Washington Observatory reoccupied the summit in 1932 through the enthusiasm of a group of individuals who recognized the value of a scientific facility at that demanding location. The observatory's weather data have accumulated into a valuable climate record since. Temperature and humidity readings have been collected using a sling psychrometer, a simple device containing two mercury thermometers. Where most unstaffed weather stations have undergone technology upgrades, consistent use of the sling psychrometer has helped provide scientific precision to the Mount Washington climate record.

The observatory makes prominent use of the slogan "Home of the World's Worst Weather", a claim that originated with a 1940 article by Charles Brooks (the man generally given the majority of credit for creating the Mount Washington Observatory), titled "The Worst Weather In the World" (even though the article concluded that Mt Washington most likely did not have the world's worst weather).[18][19]

Precipitation[edit]

Due in part to its high prominence, to its situation at the confluence of two major storm tracks and to the north-south orientation of the Presidential Range ridgeline which it crowns, Mount Washington receives very high levels of precipitation, averaging an equivalent of around 96.9 in (2,460 mm) of rain per year,[b] with a record high of 130.14 in (3,305.6 mm) in 1969 and low of 71.34 in (1,812.0 mm) in 1979. Monthly precipitation has ranged from 0.75 in (19.1 mm) in October 1947 to 28.70 in (729.0 mm) in October 2005.[17] Large amounts of precipitation often fall in a short period of time. In October 1996, a record 11.07 in (281.2 mm) of precipitation fell during a single 24-hour period. A substantial amount of this falls as snow, with a seasonal[c] average of around 280 inches (7.1 m) of snow; seasonal accumulation has ranged from 75.8 in (1.93 m) in 1947−48 to 566.4 in (14.39 m) in 1968−69.[13] The record amount of snowfall in a 24-hour period, 49.3 in (125.2 cm), occurred in February 1969, which is also the snowiest month on record with 172.8 in (4.39 m).[17]

Climate data for Mount Washington, elev. 6,267 ft (1,910.2 m) near the summit
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 48
(9)
43
(6)
56
(13)
60
(16)
68
(20)
72
(22)
71
(22)
72
(22)
70
(21)
59
(15)
52
(11)
48
(9)
72
(22)
Average high °F (°C) 13.6
(−10.2)
14.7
(−9.6)
20.7
(−6.3)
30.4
(−0.9)
41.3
(5.2)
50.4
(10.2)
54.1
(12.3)
53.3
(11.8)
47.1
(8.4)
36.4
(2.4)
28.1
(−2.2)
18.4
(−7.6)
34.0
(1.1)
Average low °F (°C) −4.1
(−20.1)
−2.4
(−19.1)
5.0
(−15)
17.4
(−8.1)
29.8
(−1.2)
39.5
(4.2)
44.0
(6.7)
43.0
(6.1)
36.1
(2.3)
24.0
(−4.4)
13.3
(−10.4)
1.7
(−16.8)
20.6
(−6.3)
Record low °F (°C) −59
(−51)
−53
(−47)
−38
(−39)
−24
(−31)
−2
(−19)
8
(−13)
24
(−4)
20
(−7)
9
(−13)
−5
(−21)
−20
(−29)
−46
(−43)
−59
(−51)
Precipitation inches (mm) 6.44
(163.6)
6.77
(172)
7.67
(194.8)
7.44
(189)
8.18
(207.8)
8.40
(213.4)
8.77
(222.8)
8.32
(211.3)
8.03
(204)
9.27
(235.5)
9.85
(250.2)
7.73
(196.3)
96.87
(2,460.5)
Snowfall inches (cm) 44.0
(111.8)
40.1
(101.9)
45.1
(114.6)
35.6
(90.4)
12.2
(31)
1.0
(2.5)
trace 0.1
(0.3)
2.2
(5.6)
17.6
(44.7)
37.8
(96)
45.5
(115.6)
281.2
(714.2)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 19.7 17.9 19.0 17.4 17.4 16.8 16.5 15.2 13.9 16.8 19.1 20.7 210.4
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 19.3 17.3 16.6 13.1 6.4 0.9 0.1 0.2 1.7 9.1 14.6 19.2 118.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 92.0 106.9 127.6 143.2 171.3 151.3 145.0 130.5 127.2 127.1 82.4 83.1 1,487.6
Percent possible sunshine 32 36 34 35 37 33 31 30 34 37 29 30 33
Source #1: NOAA (normals 1981−2010, sun 1961−1990)[13][20][21]
Source #2: extremes 1933−present[17][22]

Geographical features[edit]

Although the western slope that the Cog Railway ascends is straightforward from base to summit, the mountain's other sides are more complex. On the north side, Great Gulf—the mountain's largest glacial cirque—forms an amphitheater surrounded by the Northern Presidentials: Mounts Clay, Jefferson, Adams and Madison. These connected peaks reach well into the treeless alpine zone. Massive Chandler Ridge extends northeast from the summit of Washington to form the amphitheater's southern wall and is the incline ascended by the automobile road.

First Aid cache

East of the summit, a plateau known as the Alpine Gardens extends south from Chandler Ridge at about 5,200 feet (1,600 m) elevation. It is notable for plant species either endemic to alpine meadows in the White Mountains or outliers of larger populations in arctic regions far to the north. Alpine Gardens drops off precipitously into two prominent glacial cirques. Craggy Huntington Ravine offers rock and ice climbing in an alpine setting. More rounded Tuckerman Ravine is New England's premier venue for spring back-country skiing as late as June and then a scenic hiking route. It rises about 500 meters above alpine tree line.

South of the summit lies a second and larger alpine plateau, Bigelow Lawn, at 5,000 feet (1,500 m) to 5,500 feet (1,700 m) elevation. Satellite summit Boott Spur and then the Montalban Ridge including Mount Isolation and Mount Davis extend south from it, while the higher Southern Presidentials—Mounts Monroe, Franklin, Eisenhower, Pierce, Jackson and Webster—extend southwest to Crawford Notch. Oakes Gulf separates the two high ridges.

Uses[edit]

Bowl of Tuckerman Ravine, showing skiers above the lip

The mountain is part of a popular hiking area, with the Appalachian Trail crossing the summit and one of the Appalachian Mountain Club's eight mountain huts, the Lakes of the Clouds Hut, located on one of the mountain's shoulders. Winter recreation includes Tuckerman Ravine, famous for its Memorial Day skiing and its 45-degree slopes. The ravine is notorious for its avalanches, of which about 100 are recorded every year, and which have killed six people since 1849.[23] Scores of hikers have died on the mountain in all seasons, due to harsh and rapidly changing conditions, inadequate equipment, failure to plan for the wide variety of conditions which can occur above tree line, and poor decisions once the weather becomes dangerous.[24]

The weather at Mount Washington has made it a popular site for glider flying. In 2005, it was recognized as the 14th National Landmark of Soaring.[25]

Hiking[edit]

Visitors at the caretaker's house in Tuckerman Ravine
The Mount Washington Cog Railway in 2006
Motorcycles cruise the auto road

The most popular hiking trail approach to the summit is via the 4.1-mile (6.6 km) Tuckerman Ravine Trail. It starts at the Pinkham Notch camp area and gains 4,280 feet (1,300 m), leading straight up the bowl of Tuckerman Ravine via a series of steep rock steps which afford spectacular views of the ravine and across the notch to Wildcat Mountain. Fatalities have occurred on the trail, both from ski accidents and hypothermia. Water bottles may be refilled at the base of the bowl 2.1 miles (3.4 km) up the trail at a well pump near a small hiker's store which offers snacks, toilets and shelter. At the summit is a center with a museum, gift shop, observation area, and cafeteria. Descent can be made by shuttle bus (in the summer) back to the Pinkham Notch camp for a fee. Other routes up the eastern slopes of the mountain include the Lion Head, Boott Spur, Huntington Ravine and Nelson Crag trails, as well as the Great Gulf Trail ascending from the northeast. Routes from the western slopes include the Ammonoosuc Ravine and Jewell trails and the Crawford Path and Gulfside Trail (coincident with the Appalachian Trail from the southwest and from the north, respectively).

There are many differences between climbing Mount Washington in summer and climbing it in winter. Big differences in weather and ground conditions exist, of course, but there are also significant differences in the level of amenities available to the visitor. There are no public facilities on the summit in winter.[26] In the winter months, the most popular route is the Lion Head Winter Route, which begins on the Tuckerman Ravine Trail but then turns north to ascend up to Lion Head at elevation 5,033 feet (1,534 m). The winter route variation is recommended to help climbers avoid avalanche danger.[27] Exactly where the route turns from the Tuckerman Ravine Trail depends on the snow conditions. If the amount of snowfall hasn't been significant enough yet, the Lion Head Summer Route may be open. After hiking 2.3 miles (3.7 km) from the visitor center in Pinkham Notch, the trail will take a right turn onto the Lion Head Summer Route. If there has been enough snow accumulation on the summer Lion Head Trail, the Forest Service will open the Lion Head Winter Route, which turns off after approximately 1.7 miles (2.7 km).[28]

Cog railway[edit]

Since 1869, the Mount Washington Cog Railway has provided tourists with a train journey to the summit of Mount Washington. It uses a Marsh rack system and was the first successful rack railway in the US.

Races[edit]

Every year in June, the mountain is host to the Mount Washington Road Race, an event which attracts hundreds of runners. In July the mountain is the site of Newton's Revenge and in August the Mount Washington Auto Road Bicycle Hillclimb, both of which are bicycle races that run the same route as the road race. The hillclimb's most notable victor to date has been former Tour de France contender Tyler Hamilton.

On August 7, 1932, Raymond E. Welch, Sr., became the first one-legged man to climb Mount Washington. An official race was held and open only to one-legged people. Mr. Welch climbed the "Jacob's Ladder" route and descended via the carriage road. Raymond Welch had lost his leg due to a sledding injury as a seven-year-old child. At the time of his climb, Mr. Welch was the station agent for the Boston & Maine Railroad in Northumberland, New Hampshire.

The mountain is also host to one of the oldest car races in the country, the Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race. The race has been held on and off since 1904. In September 2010, Travis Pastrana set an unofficial record at 6 minutes 20.47 seconds, driving a Vermont Sportscar Subaru WRX STi. In June 2011, David Higgins set a new record for ascent of Mt. Washington in a car, at 6:11.54, using the same model vehicle.[29]

Transmission stations[edit]

Edwin H. Armstrong installed an FM-broadcasting station on the top of Mount Washington in 1937. The station stopped operating in 1948, due to excessive maintenance costs. In 1954 a TV tower and transmitters were installed for WMTW, Channel 8, licensed to Poland Spring, Maine. The station continuously broadcast from the top of the mountain, including local forecasts by (now retired) WMTW transmitter engineer Marty Engstrom.[30] WMTW continually broadcast from the mountaintop until 2002.

Mount Washington continued FM broadcasting in 1958 with the construction of WMTW-FM 94.9, which became WHOM in 1976. WHOM and WMTW-TV shared a transmitter building, which also housed the generators to supply power to the mountain. On February 9, 2003, a fire[31] destroyed the transmitter building and the generators (where it started), which at the time still had WHOM's transmitters inside it. WHOM subsequently built a new transmitter building on the site of the old power building, and also constructed a new standby antenna on the Armstrong tower. (For the first time since 1948, the Armstrong tower was used for broadcasts.)

In 1987, WHOM and WMTW were joined on the peak of the mountain by WMOU-FM (renamed WZPK and now WPKQ) on a separate tower. Steve Powell, owner and president of New England Broadcasting, had the tower for WZPK (known as "The Peak") built higher than the other structures on the summit; it became the highest point east of the Mississippi and north of the Carolinas. The WPKQ transmitters are located in the back of the Yankee Building. Due to the extreme weather on Mount Washington, both WHOM and WPKQ use specially designed FM antennas which are housed in special cylindrical radomes, manufactured by Shively Labs of nearby Bridgton, Maine.

The National Weather Service forecast office in Gray, Maine operates NOAA Weather Radio station KZZ41 on 162.5 mHz from the summit of Mount Washington. Due to its point as the highest elevation in the Northeast and the frequency range NWR broadcasts on, the station can be heard at very far distances. It has been heard in northwest Vermont (at Vergennes, much of western Maine, and northern Massachusetts (at Dracut and Salisbury, the latter of which had a totally clear reception). Based on the official NWS coverage area map,[32] it can be heard clearly throughout most of New Hampshire, western Maine, northeast Vermont and portions of southern Canada. During very clear conditions KZZ41 has the potential to reach the majority of northern Massachusetts (including some northern areas of Greater Boston and much of the North Shore) as well as the majority of Vermont and Maine.

In June 2008, the possibility of television returning to Mount Washington came to light, with the filing by New Hampshire Public Television to move WLED-TV from its current location near Littleton to the old WMTW mast on top.[33][34]

Deaths[edit]

Since 1849 over 135 people have died on Mount Washington and other peaks in the Presidential Range.[35][36] William Buckingham Curtis, often called "the father of American amateur athletics" after his death, died on June 30, 1900 during a snowstorm.[37]

Artistic tributes[edit]

Mount Washington has been the subject of several famous paintings, part of a New England school of art known as White Mountain art. Inspired by the Hudson River School of landscape painting, a number of artists during the Victorian era ventured into the White Mountains in search of natural subjects. Conway became their base, first arriving by coach and boarding at farmhouses, then in the 1870s by train to newly opened inns and hotels. They created a flood of paintings that found their way around the world, most notably to Hampton Court. The interest their works generated attracted others to visit Mount Washington and the region, initiating the tourism business that remains vital today.[38]

Musical tributes have also been made, such as Symphony no. 64, Op. 422 ("Agiochook"), composed around 1990 by the American composer Alan Hovhaness (1911–2000), dedicated to Mount Washington, which the composer climbed during his youth.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The current record gust of 113.2 m/s was measured at Barrow Island, Australia, on October 4, 1996.[4]
  2. ^ Measurable (0.1 in/2.5 mm) precipitation occurs on an average 210 days annually, with 26 of those days seeing 1 in/25 mm or more.
  3. ^ July 1 thru June 30 of the following calendar year

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Mount Washington". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  2. ^ "Mount Washington, New Hampshire". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  3. ^ "Mount Washington". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  4. ^ "World: Maximum Surface Wind Gust (3-Second)". World Weather / Climate Extremes Archive, Arizona State University. 
  5. ^ "Dartmouth College Library Collections". Proquest.com. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  6. ^ a b c Howe, Nicholas (2009). Not WIthout Peril: 150 Years of Misadventure on the Presidential Range of New Hamoshire. Guilford, Connecticut: Appalachian Mountain Club. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-934028-32-2. 
  7. ^ USGW Archives C. Norris & Co. , Exeter, NH, ©1817 (1817). "Gazetteer of the State of New Hampshire 1817". Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  8. ^ a b c Condensed Facts About Mount Washington, Atkinson News Co., 1912.
  9. ^ Frank Hunt Burt, ''Mount Washington; A Handbook for Strangers;'' Frank H. Burt, publisher; Boston, Massachusetts 1906. Books.google.com. 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  10. ^ "Battle Brews Over Attempt To Trademark 'Mount Washington'". WMUR-TV, Manchester. November 11, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  11. ^ "Hotel Owners Say Concerns Over Mount Washington Name Overblown". WMUR-TV, Manchester. November 12, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  12. ^ U.S. Trademark Applications Serial Nos. 7669738, 76690735 and 76690740
  13. ^ a b c d e f "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 19, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Mount Washington Observatory: Distance Learning, Retrieved Jul. 1, 2009". Mountwashington.org. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  15. ^ "Info note No.58 — World Record Wind Gust: 408 km/h". World Meteorological Association. 2010-01-22. 
  16. ^ a b "History for Mt. Washington, NH". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Mount Washington Observatory: Normals, Means and Extremes". Mount Washington Observatory. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  18. ^ "Allen Press "The Mount Washington Weather Observatory - 50 Years Old"". Ams.allenpress.com. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  19. ^ "The Worst Weather In the World". Davidalbeck.com. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  20. ^ "Station Name: NH MT WASHINGTON". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  21. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for MOUNT WASHINGTON, NH 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  22. ^ "Today's Weather atop Mount Washington". Mount Washington Observatory. 2013-01-14. Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. 
  23. ^ Mount Washington Observatory. "Surviving Mount Washington". Retrieved November 27, 2012. 
  24. ^ ibid.
  25. ^ "Mount Washington National Landmark of Soaring". Mount Washington Soaring Association, chapter of Soaring Society of America. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  26. ^ "Winter Visits to Mount Washington". Mount Washington Observatory. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  27. ^ "Winter Hiking Routes on Mount Washington". Mount Washington Observatory. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  28. ^ "Lion Head Winter Route, Mount Washington". IIAWT. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  29. ^ http://www.climbtotheclouds.com/general-info/results/
  30. ^ Marty Engstrom. Marty on the Mountain: 38 Years on Mt. Washington. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  31. ^ "WMTW: fire on the mountain". GGN Information Systems. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  32. ^ "KZZ41". National Weather Service. U.S. Department of Commerce/National Weather Service Gray, ME. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  33. ^ "Application for Construction Permit for Reserved Channel Noncommercial Educational Broadcast Station". U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). June 20, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  34. ^ "Mount Washington, N.H.: A Look Back". fybush.com. 2003-02-20. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  35. ^ "Surviving Mount Washington". Mount Washington Observatory. Retrieved 2014-01-06. "More than 135 fatalities have occurred on and around Mount Washington since 1849, many of them involving ill-prepared hikers, skiers and climbers." 
  36. ^ When Women and Mountains Meet. 2001. "Over the past century and a half, over 120 people have died on Mount Washington and the Presidential Range" 
  37. ^ "William B. Curtis, the Father of American Amateur Athletics. The Tragic End of an Existence Filled with Much That Was Good and Healthful". New York Times. July 8, 1900. Retrieved 2014-01-06. "By the tragic death of William B. Curtis in a blinding storm on Mount Washington about a week ago, the world of amateur sport has lost one of its most commanding figures ..." 
  38. ^ "White Mountain Art & Artists". Whitemountainart.com. 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 

External links[edit]