Dryas (plant)

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Dryas
Dryas drummondii6.jpg
Dryas × suendermannii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Dryadoideae
Genus: Dryas
L.
Species

See text

Dryas distribution.svg

Dryas is a genus of perennial cushion-forming evergreen dwarf shrubs in the family Rosaceae, native to the arctic and alpine regions of Europe, Asia and North America. The genus is named after the Greek nymph Dryad. The classification of Dryas within the Rosaceae has been unclear.[1][2] The genus was formerly placed in the subfamily Rosoideae, but is now placed in subfamily Dryadoideae.[3]

The species are superficially similar to Geum, Potentilla and Fragaria, but are distinct in having flowers with eight petals (rarely seven or up to ten), instead of the five petals found in most other genera in the Rosaceae. The flowers are erect and white with a yellow centre (Dryas integrifolia, Dryas octopetala) or pendulous and all-yellow (Dryas drummondii), and held conspicuously above the small plants. The hybrid has pale yellow flowers. This makes them very popular in rockeries and alpine gardens.

Dryas tolerates a wide variety of unshaded habitats, including alpine situations with sand or gravel substrate, similar substrates in flat tundra lowlands, and also fen habitats upon organic substrate where some shading from adjacent sedges or shrubs may occur.

Dryas is the clan badge of Clan MacNeil of Scotland.

The Younger Dryas and Older Dryas stadials are geological periods of cold temperature that are named after Dryas octopetala, which flourished during that time and is used as a fossil indicator of those periods.[citation needed]

Species[edit]

Dryas comprises three species, but the genus is in need of taxonomic revision:[4]

  • Dryas drummondii Richardson ex Hook.—Drummond's avens
    • var. drummondii Richardson ex Hook.—Yellow avens
    • var. tomentosa (Farr) L.O. Williams—Tomentose avens
  • Dryas integrifolia Vahl—Entire-leaved avens
    • subsp. chamissonis (Spreng.) Scoggan—White avens
    • subsp. crenulata (Juz.) J. Kozhevn—Crenulate avens
    • subsp. integrifolia Vahl—Entire-leaved avens
    • subsp. sylvatica (Hultén) Hultén—Forest avens
  • Dryas octopetala L.—Mountain avens
    • subsp. alaskensis (A.E. Porsild) Hultén—Alaskan avens
    • subsp. hookeriana (Juz.) Hultén—Hooker's avens
    • subsp. octopetala L.—Eight-petal avens
      • var. angustifolia C.L. Hitchc.—Narrow-leaved avens
      • var. argentea Blytt—Silvery avens
      • var. kamtschatica (Juz.) Hultén—Kamtschatca avens
      • var. octopetala L.—Eight-petal avens
    • subsp. punctata (Juz.) Hultén—Pointed avens

Hybrids[edit]

Two hybrids have been described:

  • Dryas × suendermannii Kellerer ex Sundermann—(D. drummondii × D. octopetala)
  • Dryas × wyssiana Beauverd—(D. drummondii × D. integrifolia)

Nitrogen Fixation[edit]

Some Dryas plants have root nodules that host the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Frankia.[5]

  • Dryas drummondii forms root nodules and fixes nitrogen with Frankia.[6][7]
  • Dryas integrifolia does not form root nodules or fix nitrogen with Frankia.[8][9][10]
  • Dryas octopetala does not form root nodules or fix nitrogen with Frankia.[8]
  • Dryas × suendermannii (D. drummondii × D. octopetala) does not form root nodules or fix nitrogen with Frankia.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morgan DR, Soltis DE, Robertson KR. (1994). "Systematic and evolutionary implications of rbcL sequence variation in Rosaceae". Am J Bot. 81 (7): 890–903. JSTOR 2445770. .
  2. ^ Eriksson, Torsten; et al. (2003), "The Phylogeny of Rosoideae (Rosaceae) Based on Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA and the trnL/F Region of Chloroplast DNA" (PDF), International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164 (2): 197, doi:10.1086/346163 
  3. ^ Potter D, Eriksson T, Evans RC, Oh S, Smedmark JEE, Morgan DR, Kerr M, Robertson KR, Arsenault M, Dickinson TA, Campbell CS. (2007). "Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266 (1–2): 5–43. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9. .
  4. ^ Skrede I, Eidesen PB, Piñeiro Portela R, Brochmann C. (2006). "Refugia, differentiation and postglacial migration in arctic-alpine Eurasia, exemplified by the mountain avens (Dryas octopetala L.)". Molecular Ecology. 15 (7): 1827–1840. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02908.x. 
  5. ^ Swensen SM, Mullin BC. (1997). "The impact of molecular systematics on hypotheses for the evolution of root nodule symbioses and implications for expanding symbioses to new host plant genera". Plant and Soil. 194: 185–192. JSTOR 42948119. doi:10.1023/A:1004240004063. .
  6. ^ Becking JH. (1984). "Identification of the endophypte of Dryas and Rubus (Rosaceae)". Plant and Soil. 78 (1–2): 105–128. JSTOR 42934565. 
  7. ^ Kohls SJ, Baker DD, van Kessel C, Dawson JO. (2004). "An assessment of soil enrichment by actinorhizal N2 fixation using δ15N values in a chronosequence of deglaciation at Glacier Bay, Alaska". Plant and Soil. 254 (1): 11–17. doi:10.1023/A:1024950913234. 
  8. ^ a b Kohls SJ, van Kessel C, Baker DD, Grigal DF, Lawrence DB. (1994). "Assessment of N2 fixation and N cycling by Dryas along a chronosequence within the forelands of the Athabasca Glacier, Canada". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 26 (5): 623–632. doi:10.1016/0038-0717(94)90251-8. 
  9. ^ Deslippe JR, Egger KN. (2006). "Molecular diversity of nifH genes from bacteria associated with high arctic dwarf shrubs". Microbial Ecology. 51 (4): 516–25. PMID 16649061. doi:10.1007/s00248-006-9070-8. 
  10. ^ Markham JH. (2009). "Does Dryas integrifolia fix nitrogen?". Botany. 87 (11): 1106–1109. doi:10.1139/B09-071. 
  11. ^ (Reported as Dryas drummondii var. eglandulosa.) Kohls SJ, Thimmapuram J, Buschena CA, Paschke MW, Dawson JO. (1994). "Nodulation patterns of actinorhizal plants in the family Rosaceae". Plant and Soil. 162 (2): 229–239. JSTOR 42939545. doi:10.1007/BF01347710. 

External links[edit]