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They are often a working dog, particularly a livestock or flock guardian or a farm dog. By and large, these dogs tend to have claimed Molosser dogs in their genetic heritage. Most have a double coat.
- FCI Pinscher and Schnauzer, Molossoid and Swiss Mountain Dog Group is a designation used only by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale.
- Sennenhunds — also called Swiss mountain dogs or Swiss cattle dogs — are farm dogs and cart dogs.
Specific breeds or landraces
- Alpine Mastiff, an extinct breed and progenitor of the St. Bernard, among other mountain dog breeds. Also known as the Barry Dog and the Saint Dog.
- Anatolian Shepherd Dog, Turkey
- Armenian Gampr dog, a.k.a. Armenian mountain dog and Armenian wolfhound. An alleged prototypical source of dog genetics and a landrace, not a breed.
- Appenzeller Mountain Dog or Appenzeller Sennenhund, a medium-sized breed of dog, one of the four breeds of Sennenhund
- Bernese Mountain Dog or Berner Sennenhund, a large breed of dog, one of the four breeds of Sennenhund. Circa 1879 this breed almost went extinct, with only 10 left in the world. Luckily, a Swiss farmer cared for them and now they are no longer endangered.
- Bucovina Shepherd Dog
- Bully Kutta a.k.a Indian Mastiff, a large breed of dog originating in India
- Cão de Gado Transmontano, a.k.a. Transmontano Mastiff, a large molosser working dog breed, originating in Portugal
- Carpathian Shepherd Dog
- Caucasian Shepherd Dog (redirect from Caucasian Mountain Dog) (Georgian კავკასიური ნაგაზი "Kavkasiuri nagazi")
- Central Asian Shepherd Dog
- Entlebucher Mountain Dog or Entlebucher Sennenhund, the smallest of the four breeds of Sennenhund, recognized by the American Kennel Club on January 26, 2011
- Estrela Mountain Dog, a breed of dog that has been used to guard herds and homesteads in the Estrela Mountains of Portugal
- Gaddi Kutta, a Mastiff-type dog found in northern India, particularly the western Himalayan region and in Himachal Pradesh. It is also called the Indian Leopard Hound, the Indian Panther Hound and the Mahidant Mastiff. It is a multi-purpose hunting dog, flock guardian and herding dog that is reputed to be strong enough to repulse attacks by snow leopards.
- Georgian Shepherd, a large and powerful guard dog and ancient working dog
- Great Cambrian Shepherd Dog (Bugailgi Mawr Cymreig), a designer dog — combined livestock guardian/herding breed developed in Cymru/Wales, ancestry; Great Pyrenees and Welsh Sheepdog (Ci Defaid Cymreig)
- Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund or Grand Bouvier Suisse, the largest of the four breeds of Sennenhund
- Great Pyrenees or Pyrenean Mountain Dog, a large breed of dog used as a livestock guardian
- Greek Shepherd a.k.a. Hellenikos Poimenikos or Greek Sheepdog
- Himalayan Sheepdog or Bhote kukur, a rare breed from Nepal
- Hovawart, included per FCI
- Karakachan Dog
- Karst Shepherd
- Kuchi, originating in Afghanistan, some of which are said to be in a "mountain" form
- Kumaon Mastiff, an endangered dog breed from India
- Leonberger, a three-way cross between an Alpine Mastiff, a Landseer and a Great Pyrenees. Flock guardian, carting and water rescue dogs that generally do not drool, despite their large size.
- Maremma Sheepdog, an Italian flock guardian dog
- Moscow Watchdog
- Moscow Water Dog, an extinct lifesaving dog, which was a biter due to its genetic heritage
- Newfoundland and Landseer (treated separately by the FCI)
- Polish Tatra Sheepdog
- Pyrenean Mastiff
- Rafeiro do Alentejo
- Cão de Gado Transmontano
- Cão de Castro Laboreiro
- Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, a large breed of livestock guardian dog that originated in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania
- Russian Tracker, extinct dog breed of the Caucasus, precursor to the Golden Retriever
- Šarplaninac (redirect from Sharr Mountain Dog) Yugoslav Shepherd or Illyrian Shepherd Dog, an ancient livestock guarding dog breed from the Šar Mountains region in the Balkans
- Slovensky Cuvac
- South Russian Ovcharka, a large, long-haired white sheepdog
- Spanish Mastiff
- St. Bernard, a very large breed of working dog from the Italian and Swiss Alps, originally bred as a search and rescue dog
- St. John's water dog a.k.a. lesser Newfoundland, an extinct precursor of the Newfoundland; ancestor of the modern retrievers, including the Flat-Coated, Chesapeake Bay, Golden and Labrador Retrievers
- Tibetan Mastiff
- Tornjak, mountain sheepdog native to Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia
- Aidi or Atlas Mountain Dog, a flock guardian dog from Morocco
- Montenegrin Mountain Hound or Yugoslavian Mountain Hound
- Taiwan Dog of Formosan Mountain Dog
- Marien-De Luca, Catherine. "Molosser dog definition". Dog Breeds of the World. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Marien-De Luca, Catherine. "Molosser dog history". Dog Breeds of the World. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- "FCI Breeds Nomenclature". Federation Cynologique Internationale. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- "Characterisitics". Armenian Gampr Club of America. Archived from the original on May 9, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Three New Breed Recognized by AKC". The Globe and Mail. January 26, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2011.