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They are often a working dog, particularly a livestock or flock guardian or farm dog. By and large, these dogs tend to have a claimed Molosser dog in their genetic heritage. Most have a double coat.
- FCI Pinscher and Schnauzer, Molossoid and Swiss Mountain Dog Group is a designation used only by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale
- Swiss mountain dog or Sennenhund — called Swiss Mountain Dogs or Swiss Cattle Dogs — are farm dogs
Specific breeds or landraces
- Turkish Akbash Dog
- Alpine Mastiff an extinct breed and progenitor of the St. Bernard, among other Mountain dog breeds. Also known as Barry Dog and Saint Dog.
- Anatolian Shepherd Dog, Turkey
- Armenian mountain dog, alternative names being the Armenian Gampr and Armenian wolfhound. An alleged prototypical source of dog genetics and a landrace, not just a breed.
- Appenzeller Sennenhund (redirect from Appenzell Mountain Dog) is a medium-size breed of dog, one of the four Schnauzer-Molossoid breeds- Swiss Mountain and Cattle Dogs
- Bernese Mountain Dog called in Swiss German the Berner Sennenhund, a large breed of dog, one of the four breeds of Sennenhund. Circa 1879 this breed almost went extinct with only 10 left in the world. Luckily a Swiss farmer cared for them and now they are no longer endangered.
- Bucovina Shepherd Dog
- Cão de Gado Transmontano, aka Transmontano Mastiff, is a large molosser working dog breed, originating in Portugal.
- Carpathian Shepherd Dog
- Caucasian Shepherd Dog (redirect from Caucasian Mountain Dog) (Georgian კავკასიური ნაგაზი "Kavkasiuri nagazi"),
- Central Asian Shepherd Dog
- Entlebucher Mountain Dog or Entlebucher Sennenhund is the smallest of the four Sennenhunds in Switzerland, recognized by the American Kennel Club on January 26, 2011.
- Estrela Mountain Dog is a breed of dog that has been used to guard herds and homesteads in the Estrela Mountains of Portugal
- Gaddi Kutta is a Mastiff-type dog found in northern India, the Himalayas region (Himachal Pradesh). They are also called the Indian Panther Hound, as well as Mahidant Mastiff. It is a multipurpose hunting dog, flock guardian and herding dog, and is reputed to be strong enough to repulse attacks by snow leopards.
- Georgian Shepherd Large and powerful Guard dog, ancient working dog.
- Great Cambrian Shepherd Dog (Bugailgi Mawr Cymreig), a designer dog — combined Stock Guard/Herding breed developed in Cymru/Wales, ancestry; Pyrenean Mountain Dog and Welsh Sheepdog (Ci Defaid Cymreig).
- Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund or Grand Bouvier Suisse is a dog breed which was developed in the Swiss Alps
- Great Pyrenees or Pyrenean Mountain Dog is a large breed of dog, used as a livestock guardian dog
- Greek Shepherd a/k/a Hellenikos Poimenikos or Greek Sheepdog
- Himalayan Sheepdog or Bhote kukur, a rare breed from Nepal.
- Hovawart, included per F.C.I.
- Karakachan Dog
- Karst Shepherd
- Kuchi (dog) originating in Afghanistan, some of which are said to be in a "Mountain" form
- Kumaon Mastiff or Indian Sindh Mastiff is an endangered breed
- Leonberger, a cross between an Alpine Mastiff, a Landseer Newfoundland and a Great Pyrenees. Flock guard, carting and water rescue dogs, that generally do not drool despite their large size.
- Maremma Sheepdog, an Italian flock guard dog
- Moscow Watchdog
- Moscow Water Dog, an extinct lifesaving dog, which was a biter due to genetic heritage.
- Newfoundland (dog) and Landseer (treated separately by the F.C.I.)
- Polish Tatra Sheepdog
- Pyrenean Mastiff
- Rafeiro do Alentejo
- Cão de Gado Transmontano
- Cão de Castro Laboreiro
- Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog is a large breed of livestock guardian dog that originated in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania.
- Russian tracker extinct dog breed of the Caucasus, precursor to the Golden Retriever
- Šarplaninac (redirect from Sharr Mountain Dog) Yugoslav Shepherd or Illyrian Shepherd Dog, is an ancient livestock guarding dog breed from the Šar Mountains region in the Balkans.
- Slovak Cuvac
- South Russian Ovcharka, a large, long-haired white sheepdog
- Spanish Mastiff
- St. Bernard a very large breed of working dog from the Italian and Swiss Alps, originally bred as a Search and rescue dog.
- St. John's water dog, a/k/a Lesser Newfoundland, an extinct precursor of the Newfoundland; ancestor of the modern Retrievers: including Flat-Coated, Chesapeake Bay, Golden, and Labrador.
- Tibetan Mastiff
- Tornjak (redirect from Bosnian mountain dog) is a mountain sheep dog native to Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia
- Aidi or Atlas Mountain Dog, a flock guard dog from Morocco
- Formosan Mountain Dog
- Japanese wolf, sometimes called "mountain dog" — nihongo yamainu (ヤマイヌ（豺、犲、山犬）) — in Japanese
- Montenegrin Mountain Hound or Yugoslavian Mountain Hound
- Marien-De Luca, Catherine. "Molosser dog definition". Dog Breeds of the World. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Marien-De Luca, Catherine. "Molosser dog history". Dog Breeds of the World. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- "FCI Breeds Nomenclature". Federation Cynologique Internationale. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- "Characterisitics". Armenian Gampr Club of America. Archived from the original on May 9, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
- "Three New Breed Recognized by AKC". The Globe and Mail. January 26, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
- Knight, John (1997). "On the Extinction of the Japanese Wolf". Asian Folklore Studies. Nanzan University. 56 (1): 129–159. doi:10.2307/1178791. Retrieved January 24, 2014. Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1178791