Mouvement d'Action Civique
The origins of the MAC lay in the 1960 independence of the Belgian Congo and the resulting Congo Crisis which saw the vast majority of white colonials, who were largely French-speaking, return to Belgium. From within this group a number of extremist organisation began to grow up, most notably the Comité d'Action et de Défence des Belges d'Afrique (CADBA or Committee for Action and the Defence of African Belgians), which had worked against the decolonization of the Belgian Congo. When this aim was not forthcoming (and became increasingly undesirable due to the trouble in Congo and the return of most Belgians) CADBA reinvented itself as the MAC, becoming more of an extremist white armed group. A minor movement, it worked with Jeune Europe domestically, as well as the British Union Movement and the Organisation armée secrète in France and was a founder member of the National Party of Europe.
- G. Desolre, 'The Far Right in Belgium: The Double Track', L. Cheles, R. Ferguson & M. Vaughan (eds.), The Far Right in Western & Eastern Europe, London: Longman, 1995, pp. 245-57
- Paul Hainsworth, The Extreme Right in Europe and the USA, Pinter, 1992, p. 130
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