Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa
|Monotheism and Jihad Movement in West Africa
جماعة التوحيد والجهاد في غرب أفريقيا
Jamāʿat at-tawḥīd wal-jihād fī gharb ʾafrīqqīyā
|Participant in Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present)
2012 insurgency in northern Mali
|Leaders||Hamada Ould Mohamed Kheirou (Alias Abu Qumqum)|
|Area of operations|| Algeria
|Originated as||Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb|
|Allies|| Ansar Dine
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
|Battles and wars||Battle of Gao
Battle of Menaka
Battle of Ifoghas
The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MOJWA), or Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJWA) (Arabic: جماعة التوحيد والجهاد في غرب أفريقيا Jamāʿat at-tawḥīd wal-jihād fī gharb ʾafrīqqīyā; French: Mouvement pour l'unicité et le jihad en Afrique de l'Ouest (MUJAO)), is an active militant organisation that broke off from Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb.
It announced its first armed action on video on 12 December 2011, with the intended goal of spreading jihad across a larger section of West Africa, though operations have been limited to southern Algeria and northern Mali. The group has been sanctioned by the United Nations Security Council, citing an alliance with AQIM in 2012. One faction of the group merged with Mokhtar Belmokhtar's Masked Men Brigade into a new group called Al-Mourabitoun in 2013.
The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MOJWA) broke with Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) in mid-2011 with the alleged goal of spreading jihad further into areas of West Africa that were not within the scope of AQIM. Some analysts believe that the split of the Black African-led MOJWA is a consequence of the Algerian predominance on AQIM's leadership. The group released a video that referenced their ideological affinity for such figures as Al-Qaeda founder Osama bin Laden and Taliban leader Mullah Omar but placed greater emphasis on historical figures of West African origin, claiming to be the "ideological descendants" of Cheikhou Amadou, Usman Dan Fodio and El Hadj Umar Tall. "Today we are inaugurating jihad in West Africa" claimed one of the militants, who spoke in English and Hausa. Al-Qaeda-affiliated groups in Algeria, Mali, Niger and Mauritania had been present for at least a decade prior to the group's founding and escalated further following the 2011 Libyan civil war and the influx of weapons in the desert area.
Following the Battle of Gao, MOJWA warned that it would not hesitate to attack any countries or personnel that would be involved in an invasion force within the Azawad region. On 20 December 2012, the United Nations Security Council passed resolution 2085 which sanctioned the group as part of the "Al-Qaeda sanctions list."
In August 2013, a faction of the group led by Ahmed el Tilemsi merged with the Masked Men Brigade into a group called Al-Mourabitoun. Another faction of MOJWA led by Sultan Ould Badi continued to operate independently.
Mauritanian Hamada Ould Mohamed Kheirou is believed by the local media to be the chief of the group, as the principal speaker on the 12 December 2011 video. Mauritanian authorities issued an international arrest warrant on 28 December 2011. Other key members were Algerian Ahmed Al-Talmasi and Malian Sultan Ould Badi, who is defined by Malian authorities as a "drug trafficker". Omar Ould Hamaha was MOJWA's military commander ("chief of staff"), before being killed by French security forces in March 2014.
The first appearance of the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa was on 22 October 2011, when the group kidnapped three western aid workers from the Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria. The Polisario Front, which administers the refugee camps, initially blamed AQIM. MOJWA released in December a video of the abducted Italian and Spanish women as well as a Spanish man, demanding 30 million euros for their release. The three hostages were freed in July 2012 in exchange for $18 million and the release of three Islamists. On 3 March 2012, MOJWA claimed responsibility for a suicide car bombing at a paramilitary police base in Tamanrasset that resulted in injuries to 10 soldiers and one civilian, some of whom were in serious condition.
After warning that it would attack French targets for their role in attacking northern Mali, MOJWA were suspected of carrying out two car bombings in Niger on 23 May 2013. In March 2014, Mailian military sources reported that Omar Ould Hamaha and Abu Walid Sahraoui had been killed by a French air strike in the northeast. Reports of Sahraoui's death were later proven false.
Capture and seizure of Gao
During the 2012 Tuareg rebellion in late March, MOJWA stated that it had taken part in the capture of Gao, along with Ansar Dine, which was confirmed later by residents of the town. On 9 April, MOJWA claimed the kidnapping of seven Algerians from the consulate in Gao, including the consul and vice-consul. Three days later, it issued a statement that read the hostages were being treated well "according to Sharia law" and they asked for the liberation of imprisoned members of MOJWA in Algeria in exchange for the consular staff, according to sources mentioned by the Algerian newspaper Echorouk. Three of the diplomats were freed in July 2012. After Algeria arrested three Islamists leaders, MOJWA threatened to execute the hostages unless Algeria released Necib Tayeb, also known as Abderrahmane Abou Ishak Essoufi, a senior member of AQIM. The vice-counsul, Tahar Touati was executed on 1 September, according to Agence Nouakchott d'information. Walid Abu Sarhaoui, the president of MOJWA's governing council, said: "We have carried out our threat. The hostage has been killed. Algeria had the time to move negotiations along but did not want to. We executed the hostage on Saturday." However, Algeria's Foreign Ministry released a statement that read: "The statement announcing the execution of the Algerian vice-consular official can only fuel surprise and justify the steps taken to try to confirm the accuracy of the information sent out on late Saturday." At the same time, Algeria's policy of not negotiation or releasing convicted terrorists from prisons was seen by El Watan as an hindrance to the release of the other hostages. Another diplomat, Boualem Sayes, later died in captivity from a chronic illness. The surviving diplomats were released on 31 August 2014.
On 27 June 2012, MOJWA fighters clashed with the forces of the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad. MOJWA took control of the governor's palace and MNLA Secretary General Bilal Ag Acherif's residence, as well as taking 40 MNLA soldiers prisoner. Ag Acherif was wounded in the fighting and was evacuated to Burkina Faso for medical treatment. MOJWA's fighters patrolled the city's streets through the night and arrested at least three people carrying guns.
On 1 September 2012, MOJWA took over the northern town of Douentza, which had previously been held by a Songhai secular militia, the Ganda Iso (Songhai for "Sons of the Land"). Omar Ould Hamaha said that the group had an agreement with the Ganda Iso to govern the town, but had then decided to take it over when the militia appeared to be acting independently. After MOJWA's troops surrounded the town, the militia reportedly surrendered without a fight and were then disarmed.
- "Radical Islamist group threatens France". News24 (AFP). 3 January 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Report: Islamist militants claim 2 deadly attacks in Niger". CNN. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "AFP: Al-Qaeda offshoot claims Algeria attack". Google.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "Belmokhtar's militants 'merge' with Mali's Mujao". BBC. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Jihadists in Mali step up attacks, kill 7 soldiers". Long War Journal. 5 January 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Mali's irrevocable crisis". Al Jazeera. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "New Qaeda spin-off threatens West Africa". Al-Ahram (AFP). 22 December 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Al-Qaeda offshoot claims Algeria attack". Al Jazeera. 3 March 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- "Al Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb issues Mali warning". Hindustan Times. Agence France-Presse. 1 July 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Resolution 2085 (2012)". UN Security Council. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Terrorists, traffickers forge union in African desert". Maghaberia. 24 February 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Al-Qaeda splinter group reveals internal erosion". Maghaberia. 30 December 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- Thiolay, Boris (3–9 October 2012), "Le djihad du "Barbu rouge"", L'Express (in French), pp. 40–41
- Diallo, Tiemoko (14 March 2014), French air strikes kill wanted Islamist militant 'Red Beard' in Mali, Reuters, retrieved 15 March 2014
- "AFP: Islamists want 30 mln euros to free Western hostages: source". TimesLive.co.za. 3 March 2012. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Mali Islamists release Spanish, Italian hostages". Al Arabiya. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Armed group claims Niger suicide attacks". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Rebels seize Timbuktu as junta promises poll". The Sydney Morning Herald. 4 March 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "Un groupe dissident d'AQMI revendique le rapt" (in French). El Watan. 9 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Les sept diplomates enlevés au Mali se portent bien" (in French). Echorouk. 11 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "AFP: Mali Islamists 'free three Algerian hostages'". Google. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Islamist rebels in Mali claim execution of kidnapped Algerian diplomat". Middle East Online. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "AFP: Mali Islamists say Algerian diplomat executed". Google. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- AFP (1 September 2012). "Mali Islamists say Algerian diplomat executed". AFP. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Yasmine Ryan (3 September 2012). "Algeria baffled by reported diplomat murder". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Algerian diplomats freed after two years' captivity in Mali". Yahoo News. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- Serge Daniel (27 June 2012). "Islamists seize north Mali town, at least 21 dead in clashes". Google. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Tuareg rebels driven out of Timbuktu". Al Jazeera. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Islamist rebels gain ground in Mali, seize control of Douentza, ousting former allied militia". The Washington Post. 1 September 2012. Archived from the original on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- "Mali Islamists take strategic town of Douentza". BBC News. 1 September 2012. Archived from the original on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- "Terrorist Designations of the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa, Hamad el Khairy, and Ahmed el Tilemsi". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "About the listing process". Retrieved 20 May 2015.