Moxidectin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Moxidectin
Structural formula of moxidectin
Ball-and-stick model of the moxidectin molecule
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Routes of
administration
oral, subcutaneous, topical
ATCvet code
Identifiers
CAS Number
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ECHA InfoCard 100.163.046
Chemical and physical data
Formula C37H53NO8
Molar mass 639.819 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Moxidectin (Milbemycin B[1]) is an anthelmintic drug which kills parasitic worms (helminths), and is used for the prevention and control of heartworm and intestinal worms. It can be found in treatments prescribed for animals such as dogs, cats, horses, cattle and sheep. Application methods for moxidectin vary by treatment, and include oral, topical, and injectable solutions. Cydectin Pour On is a trade name for a formulation for use on cattle and red deer. Moxidectin has shown some successes in the treatment of humans suffering from Onchocerciasis, 'river-blindness', by showing substantial reduction of microfilarial loads, or 'bumps', associated with extreme itching and migration of larvae in the late stage. The switch from Ivermectin use would reduce the chances of the helminth's larvae from developing immunity. However, more studies are required to highlight its ability and its toxicity within the human body at high doses. [2]

Moxidectin is a semisynthetic derivative of nemadectin [3] which is produced by fermentation by Streptomyces cyano-griseus. This Streptomyces species was discovered in a soil sample from Australia in the late 1980s collected by an agronomist working for the American Cyanamid company.

Moxidectin treats and controls some of the most common internal and external parasites by selectively binding to a parasite's glutamate-gated chloride ion channels. These channels are vital to the function of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells; when moxidectin binds to the channels, it disrupts neurotransmission, resulting in paralysis and death of the parasite.

Studies of moxidectin show the side effects vary by animal and may be affected by the product’s formulation, application method and dosage. The products are usually recommended by a veterinarian to ensure correct use and application. Herding dogs may be avermectin-sensitive, but avermectin-sensitive dogs can tolerate standard doses for heartworm prevention. Moxidectin is apparently safe for collie breeds. As a heartworm preventative, moxidectin can be injected once every six months under the brand name Proheart6, or every 12 months under the brand name Proheart SR 12.

Moxidectin is the subject of a trial to assess its suitability, as an alternative to ivermectin, to treat onchocerciasis in humans.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ MeSH: Milbemycin
  2. ^ Turner, Hugo C.; Walker, Martin; Attah, Simon K.; Opoku, Nicholas O.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Kuesel, Annette C.; Basáñez, María-Gloria (2015-01-01). "The potential impact of moxidectin on onchocerciasis elimination in Africa: an economic evaluation based on the Phase II clinical trial data". Parasites & Vectors. 8: 167. doi:10.1186/s13071-015-0779-4. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC 4381491Freely accessible. PMID 25889256. 
  3. ^ (Asato & France 1990)
  4. ^ 'Study comparing moxidectin and ivermectin in subjects with Onchocerca volvulus infection', retrieved 17 November 2009.

External links[edit]