Mozart's Twelfth Mass, K. Anh. 232
Mozart's Twelfth Mass is a commonly used title for a setting of the mass formerly attributed to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Under this title, which was given to it by an English publisher, the piece attained great popularity in the 19th century and contributed to Mozart’s reputation. Today the piece is generally attributed to Wenzel Müller.
Publication and performance history
After its publication by Novello the Mass made a steep rise in popularity, which peaked around 1860, outdoing any major religious composition by, among others, Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven and Mendelssohn. In the English-speaking world the Twelfth Mass broadly contributed to Mozart's fame well into the 20th century.
Within a few years after publication, the music of the mass was described in the press as uncharacteristically showy for Mozart, and in other ways inconsistent with Mozart's usual style. The fugal part of the "Cum sancto spiritu" (in the Gloria), deemed in line with Mozart's greatness, can possibly be traced back to Mozart's days and surroundings.
The key signature of the mass is G major, although apart from the opening Kyrie the mass appears to be in C. This suggests that it may be put together from movements not originally intended for the same composition, maybe even from different composers.
Within a century after its first publication several alternative composers had been named:
- August Eberhardt Müller (indicated as the composer of K. Anh. 248, 249 and 286)
- Wenzel Müller, rather known for his music theatre compositions
- Carl Zulehner, an early advocate of the authenticity of the composition, also composer of K. Anh. 243, who had damaged his reputation with various meddlings with Mozart compositions.
After additional research in the second half of the 20th century, the mass was generally assumed to have been composed by Wenzel Müller between Mozart's death in 1791, and 1803 when it was first mentioned in a library catalogue.
- Everist 2012, p 133
- Grove 1907 (III) pp. 313-314
- Everist 2012, p 132
- Köchel 1862, p 521
- Everist 2012, p 131
- Mozart's Masses with an Accompaniment for the Organ, arranged from the full score by Vincent Novello. London: Gallaway, 1819-1824
- The Three Favorite Masses, Composed by Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven, in Vocal Score, with an Accompaniment for the Organ or Pianoforte, by Vincent Novello. London: Novello, 1850.
- (in German) Ludwig Ritter von Köchel. Chronologisch-Thematisches Verzeichniss sämmtlicher Tonwerke Wolfgang Amade Mozarts. Breitkopf & Härtel: Leipzig, 1862.
- George Grove, A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Vol. 3 (1907), pp 313-314
- ″“Mozart's” “Twelfth Mass”: Case Closed?" in Everist, Mark (2012). Mozart's Ghosts: Haunting the Halls of Musical Culture. Oxford University Press. pp. 129–156. ISBN 978-0-19-538917-3.
- Mass in G major (Müller, Wenzel): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Pajot, Dennis. "KV.Anh C1.04 Mozart's 12th Mass and Two Wenzul Muellers". Mozartforum. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007.
- "Kyrie Elesion of Mass in G Major, K. Anh. 232 (Performed 17 February 1996)". YouTube. 11 July 2011.
- "Gloria of Mass in G Major, K. Anh. 232 (Performed A'capella 2010)". YouTube. 11 November 2010.
- "Gloria of Mass in G Major, K. Anh. 232 (Performed 8 April 2012)". YouTube. 9 April 2012.
- "Gloria of Mass in G Major, K. Anh. 232 (Performed 10 November 2012)". YouTube. 18 December 2012.
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