Pondo people

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Mpondo
AmaMpondo, iMpondo, isiMpondo
Imfene.jpg
Imfene, a Mpondo Dance Festival, Kennedy Road Shack Settlement, Durban, December 2008
Regions with significant populations
Eastern Cape ( South Africa)
Languages
isiMpondo, Xhosa, English
Religion
Christianity, African Traditional Religion
Related ethnic groups
Xhosa, Swati, Zulu other Bantu peoples
Pondo
Person uMpondo
People amaMpondo
Language isiMpondo
Country kwaMpondo, emaMpondweni

AmaMpondo or Mpondo people are an ethnic group whose homeland is in the modern-day Eastern Cape province of South Africa. AmaMpondo are descendants of Mpondo, the grandson of Sibiside who is widely accepted as last prominent leader of the once-powerful Mbo nation (AbaMbo or MaMbo). AmaMpondo speak an ancient mixture of the Mbo languages including isiSwati and the language today known as isiZulu, however since isiXhosa was introduced in schools around Mpondoland and as such a large portion of Mpondo people speak fluent isiXhosa and constantly identify themselves as Xhosa speakers. It is also very common for people to incorrectly refer to amaMpondo as a Xhosa subgroup, a mistake that is now even repeated by modern Mpondo people as well.

Origins[edit]

AmaMpondo are part of AbaMbo group who migrated from the Great Lakes into modern-day South Africa, having settled along the way in areas like Zambia and Swaziland. It is through king Sibiside that Mpondo the forefather of the nation emerges together with other well known tribes. AmaMpondo share a common lineage with AmaMpondomise, AmaXesibe, AbakwaMkhize, AmaBomvu and AmaBomvana.

Sibiside's offsprings:[1]

  1. Mavovo (Sibiside's heir and father of the Mkhize clan)
  2. Gubhela (his descendants also call themselves abakwaMkhize)
  3. Nomafu (AmaBomvu and AmaBomvana)
  4. Njanya (AmaMpondo, AmaMpondomise, AmaXesibe)

Mpondo and Mpondomise were twins. There's an ongoing argument about which twin is the eldest, the most commonly-held view is that Mpondomise is the senior twins. It is said that when out hunting, Mpondo killed a Lion and refused to hand over the skin to Mpondomise as was the custom (the senior was entitled to skins of certain animals).[2] The tension between the two started from that day and Mpondo and his followers were the first ones to leave and settle elsewhere away from their father's land.

Kingdom[edit]

The main house of AmaMpondo is called Qawukeni and is situated in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape. The right-hand house is called Nyandeni and is situated in Libode, Eastern Cape. The Nyandeni house enjoyed autonomy for decades and was often referred to as Western Mpondoland, while the Qawukeni house was referred to as Eastern Mpondoland.

These are the areas that constitute the Mpondo kingdom:

  1. Lusikisiki
  2. Siphaqeni (known as Flagstaff)
  3. Mbizana (erroneously called Bizana)
  4. Ntabankulu
  5. Port St John's
  6. Libode
  7. Ngqeleni

Mzintlava (now known as Kokstad) was alloted to Adam Kok of the Griquas[3]

Genealogy of kings[edit]

The most prominent of all kings of AmaMpondo is Faku (1780-1867), he resided in Qawukeni as it's still the tradition today. The Nyandeni house was established by Ndamase, Faku's right-hand son and a prominent general of the Mpondo army during the Mfecane wars.

The genealogy of Mpondo kings in order:[4]

  • Mpondo
  • Sihula
  • Mthwa
  • Santsabe
  • Mkhondwane
  • Sukude
  • Hlambangobubende
  • Ziqelekazi
  • Hlamandana
  • Thobe
  • Msiza
  • Ncindisi
  • Cabe
  • Gangatha
  • Bhala
  • Chithwayo
  • Ndayini
  • Thahle
  • Nyawuza
  • Ngqungqushe
  • Faku
  • Mqikela
  • Sigcau
  • Marelane
  • Mandlonke
  • Bhota
  • Mpondombini

King Cabe was the first king of AmaMpondo to cross Mthamvuna river and settled in Siphaqeni. King Ngqungqushe's mother was the first woman whose "ikhazi" (dowry) was paid for by the kingdom, which makes King Ngqungqushe the first "kumkani" in the modern sense. [5]

Mpondo Clans and tributory clans[edit]

There are three types of clans you find in Mpondoland (kwa-Mpondo/emaMpondweni) today. First, there clans that arise out of the many houses of the Kings listed in the section above (Mpondo's descendents). Secondly, there are clans of the older AbaMbo/MaMbo tribe from which Mpondo himself was born out, therefore these are people of his ancestors. Thirdly, there are clans/tribes who have immigrated to Mpondoland and now pay tribute to the Mpondo kingdom.

In more detail:

Mpondo clans.[6][7][8][edit]

  • From Sihula we have ImiQwane, AmaNtusi
  • From Mthwa we have ImiThwa, AmaThawuzela, AmaWoshe, AmaNgcwangule, AmaGingqi, AmaKhwalo,
  • From Mkhondwane we have AmaNtlane, AmaValela, AmaGcuda
  • From Sukude we have AmaSame, AmaNcenjane
  • From Cabe we have AmaCabe, AmaTshomane, AmaDwera, AmaQhiya, AmaNjilo, AmaGqwaru, AmaNqanda
  • From Gangatha we have AmaGangatha, ImiCapathi
  • From Bhala we have AmaBhala, AmaChithwayo, AmaKhonjwayo, AmaHeleni, AmaNgcoya, AmaNyathi, AmaJola
  • From Ndayini we have AmaNdayini
  • From Thahle we have AmaThahle
  • From Nyawuza we have AmaNyawuza

AbaMbo clans[9][10][edit]

Some were followers of Mpondo from the beginning, some only came later during the reign of Faku.

  • AmaYalo
  • AmaMpisi
  • AmaKhanyayo
  • ImiZizi
  • AmaNtshangase
  • AmaKhwetshube
  • AmaNgutyana
  • Izilangwe
  • AmaXolo
  • AmaDiba
  • AmaNci
  • AmaCwera
  • AmaMpinge

Tributory clans[edit]

These tribes are not unique to Mpondoland, they usually are small groups in Mpondoland.

  • AmaTolo (AmaMpondomise)
  • AmaZizi
  • Bakwena (Sotho)
  • Other small groups from other kingdoms

Apartheid[edit]

The Mpondo Revolt (1960–1962) was the result of the resistance of the Mpondo people against the implementation of the Bantu Authorities Act, part of the Apartheid legislation. Under the Apartheid ideology, separate development of the various ethnic groups of South Africa was proposed and part of that was to segregate black Africans into 'homelands' that were granted independence from South Africa.

Arts and entertainment[edit]

The Mpondo people are one of the major tribes that produce and consumes the genre of music called Maskandi but the Mpondo people are unique in a performance of what is called "imfene" (baboon dance). This dance is performed by young ones and adults of both sexes to the sounds of Maskandi music.

Beliefs and cosmology[edit]

The supreme being according to Mpondo people is known as "Umdali" (The creator) or "uNkulunkulu" (The Great great one). Mpondo people also practice the appeasement of ancestors like all other Bantu tribes.

Mpondo people still practice the old tradition of rain-making. Rain-makers usually come from the AmaYalo clan and some from AmaKhwetshube. Mpondo people also perform facial scarification known as "ukuchaza" which is normally necessitated by the sickness of the person to be scarified, which is interpreted as a patient needing the ritual of its ancestors.

In Mpondoland there are people are said to have a calling to be diviners, healers and medicine experts.

Mpondo lunar calendar[edit]

According to the ancient AbaMbo people, September is the first month of the year. There are Mpondo people who recognise the appearance of the Pleiades ("isilimela") to signal the beginning of the year,[11] but it is most likely that this interpretation was adopted from the Xhosa people.

  • uMphanda (September)
  • uZibandlela (October)
  • uLwezi (November)
  • uNtsinga (December)
  • uNtlolanja (January)
  • uNdazosela (February)
  • um'Basa (March)
  • umGudlula (April)
  • uNtlangula (May)
  • uNtulikazi (June)
  • uNcwabakazi (July)
  • uMfumfu (August)

Notable Mpondos[edit]

  • Winnie Madikizela-Mandela
  • Stella Sigcau
  • Chief Mwelo Nonkonyana
  • Oliver Tambo
  • Inkunzi Emdaka

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mkhize, Siyabonga (2009). Uhlanga Lwas'eMbo. Sibisisde Publishers. ISBN 978-0-620-43055-5
  2. ^ Soga, John Henderson (1930). The South Eastern Bantu (Abe-Nguni, Aba-Mbo, Ama-Lala. Witwatersrand University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-06682-2
  3. ^ Ndamase, Victor Poto (1926). AmaMpondo: Ibali ne-ntlalo. Lovedale Institution Press
  4. ^ Soga, John Henderson (1930). The South Eastern Bantu (Abe-Nguni, Aba-Mbo, Ama-Lala. Witwatersrand University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-06682-2
  5. ^ King Mpondombini speaks: youtube.com/watch?v=WGssEzptRwE&feature=youtu.be
  6. ^ Soga, John Henderson (1930). The South Eastern Bantu (Abe-Nguni, Aba-Mbo, Ama-Lala. Witwatersrand University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-06682-2
  7. ^ Jackson, A.O. (1974). The Ethnic Composition of the Ciskei and Transkei: Ethnological Publications No. 53 ISBN 0 621 021032
  8. ^ Ndamase, Victor Poto (1926). AmaMpondo: Ibali ne-ntlalo. Lovedale Institution Press
  9. ^ Jackson, A.O. (1974). The Ethnic Composition of the Ciskei and Transkei: Ethnological Publications No. 53 ISBN 0 621 021032
  10. ^ Ndamase, Victor Poto (1926). AmaMpondo: Ibali ne-ntlalo. Lovedale Institution Press
  11. ^ Ndamase, Victor Poto (1926). AmaMpondo: Ibali ne-ntlalo. Lovedale Institution Press