Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown
First edition cover 1924
|Cover artist||Vanessa Bell|
The writer Arnold Bennett had written a review of Woolf's Jacob's Room (1922) in Cassell's Weekly in March 1923, which provoked Woolf to rebut it. She recorded in her diary in June that Bennett accused her of writing about characters that couldn't survive. Her response was published in the United States in Nation and Athenaeum in December as Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown. The response encouraged her to develop her ideas of cultural relativism further. The following year she presented these ideas as a paper read to the Heretics Society at Cambridge University on 18 May 1924. T.S. Eliot, then editor of The Criterion asked her for an article, and she submitted her talk, which was published in July under the title Character in Fiction and then by the Hogarth Press on 30 October 1924 under its original title as No. 1 of the Hogarth Essays (1924–1926). The cover was illustrated by Vanessa Bell.
Woolf addresses what she sees as the arrival of modernism, with the much cited phrase "that on or about December 1910 human character changed", referring to Roger Fry's exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionists. She argued that this in turn led to a change in human relations, and thence to change in "religion, conduct, politics, and literature". She envisaged modernism as inherently unstable, a society and culture in flux. She develops her argument through the examination of two generations of writers. Mr. Bennett was a critic of not just Woolf, but modern writers in general. In particular, Bennett challenged modern writer's depiction of "reality".
Woolf throws out a challenge to Bennett:
"Mr. Bennett says that it is only if the characters are real that the novel has any chance of surviving. Otherwise, die it must. But, I ask myself, what is reality? And who are the judges of reality?"
Her argument is that as times change, writers and the tools that they use must evolve, "the tools of one generation are useless to the next". She places Bennett in the Edwardians, and the subjects of his attacks as "Georgians" to reflect the change of monarch in 1910 that coincided with Fry's exhibition. She characterises Georgian writers in modernist terms as impressionistic, and those that are "telling the truth".
Bell's modernist cover design shown here was used for the entire essay series, depicting a woman reading, and whose hairs and clothing reflect 1920s style.
Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown has become a key element of the analysis of Woolf's work but also twentieth century literature in general. It eventually contributed to a decline in Bennett's reputation.
- Majumdar, Robin; McLaurin, Allen (2003) . Virginia Woolf: The critical heritage. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-72404-8.
- Woolf, Virginia (2017) [1924 Hogarth Press]. Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown. ISBN 978-88-260-3291-7. Complete text
- British Library (2018). "'Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown' by Virginia Woolf". 20th century collection. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Hovanec, Cari. "Cambridge Heretics Society". Literature and Science in Modern Britain. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Woolf, Virginia (1924). "Character in Fiction". Sally Greene, University of Virginia. Retrieved 3 April 2018.