MuSK protein

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muscle, skeletal, receptor tyrosine kinase
MuSKtkd.PNG
Identifiers
Symbol MUSK
Entrez 4593
HUGO 7525
OMIM 601296
RefSeq NM_005592
UniProt O15146
Other data
Locus Chr. 9 q31.3-q32

MuSK (for Muscle-Specific Kinase) is a receptor tyrosine kinase required for the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction. It is activated by a nerve-derived proteoglycan called agrin.

MuSK signaling[edit]

Upon activation by its ligand agrin, MuSK signals via the proteins called Casein kinase 2 (CK2),[1] Dok-7[2] and rapsyn, to induce "clustering" of acetylcholine receptors (AChR). Both CK2 and Dok-7 are required for MuSK-induced formation of the neuromuscular junction, since mice lacking Dok-7 failed to form AChR clusters or neuromuscular synapses, and since downregulation of CK2 also impedes recruitment of AChR to the primary MuSK scaffold. In addition to the proteins mentioned, other proteins are then gathered, to form the endplate to the neuromuscular junction. The nerve terminates onto the endplate, forming the neuromuscular junction - a structure required to transmit nerve impulses to the muscle, and thus initiating muscle contraction.

MuSK's role in disease[edit]

Antibodies directed against this protein (Anti-MuSK autoantibodies) are found in those patients with myasthenia gravis not demonstrating antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (sero-negative).[3] The disease still appears to result in an autoimmune loss of acetylcholine receptor activity,[4] but the phenotype of these patients appears to be different from those of many other myasthenic patients: more likely women, less eye involvement, more likely to have weakness of neck and oropharynx, and more likely to be African-American in ethnicity. In preclinical models of anti-MuSK myasthenia gravis, administration of 3,4-diaminopyridine increases the release of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction and reduces muscle weakness.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cheusova T, Khan MA, Schubert SW, Gavin AC, Buchou T, Jacob G, Sticht H, Allende J, Boldyreff B, Brenner HR, Hashemolhosseini S (Jul 2006). "Casein kinase 2-dependent serine phosphorylation of MuSK regulates acetylcholine receptor aggregation at the neuromuscular junction". Genes & Development 20 (13): 1800–16. doi:10.1101/gad.375206. PMC 1522076. PMID 16818610. 
  2. ^ Okada K, Inoue A, Okada M, Murata Y, Kakuta S, Jigami T, Kubo S, Shiraishi H, Eguchi K, Motomura M, Akiyama T, Iwakura Y, Higuchi O, Yamanashi Y (Jun 2006). "The muscle protein Dok-7 is essential for neuromuscular synaptogenesis". Science 312 (5781): 1802–5. doi:10.1126/science.1127142. PMID 16794080. 
  3. ^ Hoch W, McConville J, Helms S, Newsom-Davis J, Melms A, Vincent A (Mar 2001). "Auto-antibodies to the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK in patients with myasthenia gravis without acetylcholine receptor antibodies". Nature Medicine 7 (3): 365–8. doi:10.1038/85520. PMID 11231638. 
  4. ^ Barrett-Jolley R, Byrne N, Vincent A, Newsom-Davis J (Oct 1994). "Plasma from patients with seronegative myasthenia gravis inhibit nAChR responses in the TE671/RD cell line". Pflügers Archiv 428 (5-6): 492–8. doi:10.1007/BF00374570. PMID 7838671. 
  5. ^ Morsch M, Reddel SW, Ghazanfari N, Toyka KV, Phillips WD (May 2013). "Pyridostigmine but not 3,4-diaminopyridine exacerbates ACh receptor loss and myasthenia induced in mice by muscle-specific kinase autoantibody". The Journal of Physiology 591 (Pt 10): 2747–62. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2013.251827. PMID 23440963.