22 January 1922|
Panipat, East Punjab, British India, (present day Haryana, India)
Indian (1922–1947) |
Pakistani (1947– Present)
Iowa State University
Co-founded Pakistan Peoples Party|
Help created the Science Ministry
Established the Kahuta Project
|Institutions||University of Engineering and Technology|
|Doctoral students||Shamsul Mulk|
|Influenced||Zulfikar Ali Bhutto|
Mubashir Hassan (Urdu: مبشر حسن; 22 January 1922) is a Pakistani civil engineer and science administrator known for his work in Hydraulics and his political role in the development of the atomic bomb project.
In 1967, Hassan co-founded the Pakistan Peoples Party, a democratic socialist political force, with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and J.A. Rahim. In 1972, Hassan helped Bhutto establish the Ministry of Science, where he financially assisted large number of Pakistan's academic scientists in the application of Science in warfare. During the 1970s, Hassan emerged as effective public policy maker and was in effect as third Prime minister's science adviser, and was seen as a strong vocal and proponent of democratic technocracy and of the centrality of technological innovation and entrepreneurship for both economic and geopolitical security. However, after removal of Prime minister Bhutto, Hassan became troubled, and was successfully silenced by the military government of General Zia-ul-Haq.
Born in Panipat, Punjab, Hassan attended the Punjab University in 1947 prior to establishment of Pakistan, gaining BSc in civil engineering. In the 1950s, Hassan travelled to United States where he gained MSc in civil engineering from Iowa State University, and finally gaining doctorate in civil engineering after submitting his doctoral thesis on fundamental problems and their solution on Hydraulic engineering.
After returning to West-Pakistan, Hassan joined the University of Engineering and Technology at Lahore teaching courses on civil engineering which remained his lifelong passion. His political philosophy began to take place in 1967, after witnessing the 1965 war with India. In 1967, Hassan published the political manifesto, "A Declaration of Unity of People", advocating for Techno- Democratic socialism in East-Pakistan, during which he was lecturing in the topic of Engineering physics at the Dhaka University.
After gaining appreciation and popularity, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto called Hassan to West-Pakistan where at his house, the Pakistan Peoples Party was founded along with J.A. Rahim. His wide knowledge in ranging from science and politics, Hassan became one of the closest confidant and adviser of Bhutto, and acted on behalf of Bhutto in 1970 to form a coalition government with Mujibur Rahman of Peoples League. After the 1971 Winter war, Hassan was appointed Finance Minister and helped Bhutto established the Ministry of Science in 1972.
Atomic bomb project
His political role in atomic bomb project started in 1972, when Bhutto asked him to meet with Munir Ahmad Khan of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. Bhutto responded by abolishing several committees dealing with atomic energy in various ministries, and ordered Finance Minister Hassan to manage the finance of the atomic bomb project.Meanwhile, Hassan reportedly worked closely with Munir Ahmad Khan on technical and economical aspects of the atomic bomb project. He remained supportive and administrative figure in Pakistan's non-nuclear proliferation, and monitored Abdul Qadeer Khan's suspicious activities throughout the 1976. However, he was soon pulled out after being warned by Bhutto, therefore, Hassan focused his attention on PAEC's efforts.
In 1974, he developed serious issues with Bhutto after Bhutto deposed Malik Meraj Khalid, a Marxist and Law Minister when Bhutto decided to expand the activities of the establishment in the government to keep an eye on Bhutto rivals. In 1974, Hassan resigned from Finance Ministry after learning this incident, but remained loyal with Bhutto. In 1974, Bhutto finally appointed Hassan as his Science Advisor to the Prime minister Secretariat in 1974. As Director of Directorate for Science, Hassan played a significant role in the establishment of Kahuta Project, advising Bhutto on various aspects of atomic bomb project. He objected the idea of giving the Kahuta Project's responsibilities to Corps of Engineers, but was over-ruled by Bhutto. However, the progress on atomic bomb project was slowed down after an intensified civil disorder began to take place, shrinking the credibility of Bhutto. Throughout 1976, Hassan made several unsuccessful attempts to bring the leadership of Pakistan National Alliance on table and was finally arrested by Military Police in 1977. Hassan was placed in Adiala Jail with Bhutto where he spent his next seven years in prison even after Bhutto's execution.
Post war activities
Released in 1984, Hassan joined the UET Lahore's Faculty of Engineering as professor of civil engineering. In 1988, Prime minister Benazir Bhutto made an attempt to appoint him as Finance Minister but denied after Benazir had planned deregulation of industries. Although, Hassan had retired from any political activism, Hassan continued to write articles in hydraulics engineering and its extended mathematical problems. Hassan also writes about the economic issues and remains a loyal supporter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and his policies. His articles are regularly published in The News International, though he is associated with the Pakistan Peoples Party (Murtaza Bhutto) since its inception. In 2011, Hassan visited his native city in India, where Hassan advocate for normalisation of Indo-Pakistan relations, and maintained that:
Since 1974, Pakistan had enormously helped the people of Afghanistan in expelling the Soviet Union.... Judging by present situation, if the [United States]-[Afghanistan] axis were to invade Pakistan, India would stand by Pakistan and not with the invaders— Hassan Mubasir, 
- Member, Pakistan Atomic Scientists Foundation (PASF)
- Member, Pakistan Civil Engineer Society
- Professor, Civil Engineering at UET Lahore
Books and bibliography
- 2001, Birds of the Indus, Mubashir Hasan, Tom J. Roberts
- 2000, The Mirage of Power, Dr. Mubashir Hassan, PhD, (2000) (ISBN 0-19-579300-5)
- 1989, An Enquiry into the Bhutto Yean, Dr. Mubashir Hassan
- 1986, National unity: what is to be done?, Mubashir Hasan, I. A. Rahman, A. H. Kardar
- 1977, United front for people's democracy
- 1976, Pakistan's illiterate leaders
- 1967, A Declaration of Unity of People
- 1954, On the general education of an engineer
- "Dr. Mubashir Hassan". Chowk.com.
- "Professor Mubashir Hassan". revolution.com.
- Hassan, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Dr. Professor Mubashir (May 2000) , "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: All Power to People! Democracy and Socialism to People!", The Mirage of Power, Oxford University, United Kingdom: Dr. Professor Mubashir Hassan, professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Engineering and Technology and the Oxford University Press, pp. 100–393, ISBN 0-19-579300-5
- Bhutto, Fatima (2010). Songs of Blood and Sword: A Daughter's Memoir. Washington D.C. United States: National Books (United States). pp. 116–130. ISBN 978-1-56858-632-8.
- Rahman, Shahidur (1999). Long Road to Chagai: §A Man hurry for the Bomb. Islamabad: Printwise Publications. p. 157. ISBN 969-8500-00-6.
- Hassan, Professor Dr. Mubashir. "On the general education of an engineer". Dr. Mubashir Hassan. Dr. Mubashir Hassan, UET Journal of Engineering Government.
- Pakistan Herald. "Intellectual: Dr. Mubashir Hassan". Pakistan Herald.
- "Delegation visits with Dr. Mubashir Hasan".
- Zia Mian, Smitu Kothari. Out of the Nuclear Shadow§ Condemning the Nuclear war. New Delhi; Islamabad: Lokyan and Rainbow Publishing Limited. pp. 416–490. ISBN 8186962263.
- Articles written by dr. Hassan Muabshir. "Reducing the trust deficit". The News International. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- Our Correspondent (24 October 2011). "'True advocate of PPP ideology'". The News International, Islamabad. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
| Science Advisor to the Prime minister Secretariat
22 October 1974 – 5 July 1977
MGen Zahid A. Akbar
Muzaffar Ali Khan Qizilbash
| Finance Minister of Pakistan
24 December 1971 – 22 October 1974
RM Hanif Khan