Muda language

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Muda
Native toChina
Native speakers
2,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3ymd
Glottologmuda1235[2]

Muda (木达 or 母打) is a Loloish language of China.

There are over 2,000 Muda speakers in Nanlianshan Village Community 南联山村委会[3] (formerly Nanlianshan District, 南联山乡, now part of Gasa Township 嘎洒镇), Jinghong City, Yunnan, China (Xu 1991).[4]

Classification[edit]

Xu (1991) classifies Muda as a Ha-Ya language (see Hani languages).

Hsiu (2018)[5] classifies Muda as an Akha language containing a Bisoid substratum, with the substrate language being an early split from Bisoid. Muda has Cl- consonant clusters like various Bisoid languages, Siloid languages, and Jinuo, while words of Bisoid origin include 'leg', 'house', and 'smoke'.

Phonology[edit]

Muda has the complex consonant onsets /pl, pʰl, bl, ml, pj, pʰj, bj, mj/ (Xu 1991:34).

Vocabulary[edit]

The following vocabulary of Muda is from Xu (1991).

English gloss Chinese gloss Muda Page
White pʰlu˥ 35
Full blaŋ˧ 35
Pus -blaŋ˥ 36
Arrow -mla˧˩ 36
Broom 扫帚 -pʰjɔ˥ 36
Bee 蜜蜂 bja˧˩ 36
Lose, to 遗失 -bjo̱˧ 36
Fly, to jɔ˧ 36
Monkey 猴子 -mjo̱˧˩ 36
Many mja˧˩ 36
Foot kʰɯ˥ 37
Six ko̱˧˩ 37
Gallbladder -kʰɯ˥ 37
Star 星星 -gɯ˥ 37
Copper gɯ˧˩ 37
Tendon -gu˧˩ 37
Manure cçʰe˧˩ 38
Root (classifier) 根(量词) cçʰaŋ˧˩ 38
Wide -ɟje˥ 38
Drop, to ɟja˧ 38
Day (time) 天(日子) naŋ˧ 38
Soft nø̱˧˩ 38
Cook, to tɕa̱˧˩ 38
Sour tɕʰɛ˥ 38
Narrow tɕu̱˧˩ 38
Lick, to tɕʰy˥ 38
Stick (classifier) tɕa̱˧ 38
Cry, weep ɴo˥ 39
Steal, to qʰø˧˩ 39
Bitter qʰa˧˩ 39
Smoke (fog) 烟(雾) -qʰø˧˩ 39
Nine ɢø˧˩ 39
Curved ɢaŋ˧˩ 39
Play, to 玩耍 -ɢa˧ 39
Enter, to aŋ˥ 40
Horse maŋ˧˩ 40
Open (door) 开(门) pʰaŋ˧ 40
Sell, to aŋ˧˩ 40
Throat 喉咙 kʰaŋ˧˩- 40
Dark jaŋ˥ 40
Pus -blaŋ˥ 40
Full blaŋ˧ 40
Money -kʰaŋ˥ 40
Bear 狗熊 -xum˥ 40
Otter 水獭 -ɕum˥ 40
Iron ɕʰum˥ 41
Pile (of soil) 堆(土) blum˥ 41
House 房屋 ʑum˥ 41
Roast, to lum˥ 41
Round laŋ˧ 41
Surround, to 包围 -laŋ˥ 41
Pond 池塘 laŋ˧- 41
Axe 斧子 -dzɨ˧ 41
Woman 女人 -mi˧˩ 41
Louse 虱子 ɕɛ˥- 41
Goose gɛ̱˧- 41
Push, to dɛ˧˩ 41
Edge 边上 -dzɛ˥- 41
Eagle 老鹰 -dzɛ˥ 41
Saddle 鞍子 -qɔ̱˧ 41
Shallow tɛ̱˧ 41
Change, to pʰa˧ 41
Winnow (rice), to 簸(米) ja˥ 41
See, to 看见 -mɔ˥ 41
Mosquito 蚊子 -gɔ˧˩ 41
Change, to pʰa˥ 41
Stick (classifier) tɕa̱˧ 41
Leg bɔ˥- 41
Store, to qʰɔ˧˩ 41

References[edit]

  1. ^ Muda at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Muda". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ 景洪市嘎洒镇南联山村委会
  4. ^ Xu Shixuan [徐世璇] (1991). 缅彝语几种音类的演变. Minzu Yuwen.
  5. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2018. Classifications of some lesser-known Lolo-Burmese languages.