Mudaito dynasty

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The Mudaito Dynasty (Modaytó Dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of the Sultanate of Aussa (Sultanate of Awsa) in Ethiopia. It was founded by the Asaihemara Modaito clan of the Afars who came from the La'o and Doobi areas.

History[edit]

The Sultanate of Aussa (Afar Sultanate) succeeded the earlier Imamate of Aussa. The latter polity had come into existence in 1577, when Muhammed Jasa moved his capital from Harar to Aussa (Asaita) with the split of the Adal Sultanate into Aussa and Sultanate of Harar. At some point after 1672, Aussa declined and temporarily came to an end in conjunction with Imam Umar Din bin Adam's recorded ascension to the throne.[1] On 26 September 1725, The Modaito Afars invaded Aussa from the North-east Eli Da'ar and central-west of Andhar Kalu and burnt the state of Awsa.[2] They began Modaito expansion through Dobi and Kalo ransacking Adali settlements. The following month they defeated Imam Salman's soldiers, killing 200 Imamate soldiers.[3] By 1734, Kedafo prevailed as Amoyta over the imamate and established the Modaito dynasty. The primary symbol of the Sultan was a silver baton, which was considered to have magical properties.[4] In June 1764 The Modaito extended their power of influence by overpowering all Imamate tribes in and around Awsa.[5] In July 1809, Amir Mahammad bin A'as Ali confronted the Modaito to avenge his father's killing in Awsa but failed.[6] In the following years, The Modaito's leashed heavy blow against pro imamate warriors of Adali Debne We'ima when the powerful Adal's tried to halt Modaito advance.[7] In 1814,The Modaito brutally invaded Tadjourah, the capital of Adali Dardars, killing Adali rulers and destroying homes. This shaped the power struggle in Afar history in favour of Modaito's rule which allowed the expansion of Modaitos (Awsa Sultanate) in creating stable society for the Afar people up until the colonial interference in 1936.[8]

Rulers[edit]

The following is a list of the Mudaito Dynasty rulers (Amoyta).

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Kadhafo
17341749
Kadhafo Mahammad ibn Kadhafo17491779
Aydahis ibn Kadhafo Mahammad17791801
"Asa" Aydahis ibn Mahammad ibn Aydahis
  • Afar: "Qasa" Aydacis Macammad
18011832First official Amoyta
Hanfere ibn Aydahis
  • Afar: Canfaxe Aydacis
18321862
Mahammad "Illalta" ibn Hanfere
  • Afar: Macammad "Illalta" Canfaxe
18621902Won the battle of Arraddo against Menelik II in 1896.
Mahammad ibn Aydahis ibn Hanfere
  • Afar: Macammad Aydacis
1902c. 1910Starting from 1902, the governorship of Mahammad ibn Aydahis was challenged by his cousins, the nine sons of his direct predecessor, Aydahis, Alimirah, Kadhafo, Hanfadhe, Alo and Yayyo (the later sultan)
Yayyo ibn Mahammad ibn Hanfere
  • Afar: Yayyo Macammad
c. 19021927
Mahammad Yayyo
  • Afar: Macammad Yayyo
19271944
AliMirah Hanfere
  • Afar: Qali Mirac Canfaxe
1945 Awsa incorporated into Ethiopia.1975Exiled in 1975
AliMirah Hanfere19912011Returned from exile in 1991
Hanfere AliMirah Hanfere
  • Canfaxe Qali Mirac
2011proclaimed as Sultan

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Abir, p. 23 n.1.
  2. ^ Almanhal p.447 ስለ ሞዳይቶ
  3. ^ AlManhal ስለ ሞዳይቶ page 447
  4. ^ Trimingham, p. 262.
  5. ^ Almanhal p.450
  6. ^ ALmanhal page 450
  7. ^ Almanhal Dr Hashim page451
  8. ^ AlManhal Taarikh AL Afar page446 - 458

References[edit]

  • Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 1, article on Afar literature
  • Didier Morin, Dictionnaire historique des Afar, 2003