Thuluva Vellala

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Thuluva Vellala
Tiruvannamalai-Thuluva-Vellalar-Assembly.jpg
Tuluva Vellala a.k.a Agamudaya Mudaliar association, Tiruvannamalai.
ClassificationThe Arcot Mudaliar and Arcot Vellala sects are classified as Forward Class[1] in Tamil Nadu, while the other sects of Thuluva Vellala are classified as Other Backward Class (OBC) at the Central[2][3] and State level[3] as serial no.1 Agamudayar including Thuluva Vellala.
where as, Thuluva Vellala, Agamudi Mudaliar and Aghamudi Vellala are classified as Backward Class (D) in Andhra Pradesh under the ‘Mudhaliar’ title.[4]
GotraShiva and Vishnu which is further insignificantly grouped as Vanadhirayar, Kalingarayar, Siva Maharshi etc.,
Kuladevi (female)Pachayamman, Angala Parameshwari, Saptha Kannimar and Ammachchar
ReligionsPredominantly Vaishnavism, also Shaivism,and Jainism[citation needed]
LanguagesTamil
RegionTamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka Cities : Chennai, Bangalore, Vellore.
Feudal titleMudaliar, Udayar, Naicker, Gounder, Reddy, Rao and Pillai.
Related groupsTulu People, Tamil people & Thondaimandala Vellala

Thuluva Vellalar (Thondamandala Tuluva Vellalar), [5][a] also known as Agamudaya Mudaliars [7][8] and Arcot Mudaliars,[9] is a caste found in northern Tamil Nadu, southern Andhra Pradesh and southern Karnataka, India.[10][11][12] They were originally significant landowners.[13]

Etymology[edit]

The term Vellalar may be derived from the word Vellam meaning water (flood), denoting their ability to control and store water for irrigation purposes.[14] It may also be derived from Vēl, the title of the Vēlir chieftains of the Sangam period.[15] Since they migrated from the Tulu country, they are called Thuluva Vellalar.[10][11][12]

History[edit]

An early Tamil tradition states that a king known variously as Ātontaicholan and Ādonda Chakravarthi brought a large number of agriculturists (now known as the Tuluva Vellalas) from the Tulu country in order to reclaim forest lands for cultivation in Thondaimandalam.[16] Sometimes this migration of Tuluva Vellalas is also assigned to later Chola times when Hoysala Ballalas of Karnataka had occupied portions of Kanchipuram and Trichy.[17]

Demographics[edit]

Their original stronghold in the Tamil country was Thiruvannamalai in North Arcot district, the town that served as the capital of the Hoysala king Veera Ballala III in the 14th century.[18][19]

Tuluva Vellalars are progressive and prosperous[10] in the society. They are considerably advanced in the matter of education[20] and the community was eagerly involved in business, Government and Non- governmental institutions.

The community commonly use Mudaliar[21] and Udayar titles. However Naicker,[22] Gounder, Reddy and Pillai titles are also present in some pockets.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Susan Bayly has noted of the Vellalar communities generally that "they were never a tighly-knit community ... In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries Vellala affiliation was a vague and uncertain as that of most other south Indian caste groups. Vellala identity was certainly thought of as a source of prestige, but for that very reason there were any number of groups who sought to claim Vellala status for themselves".[6]


  1. ^ "அரசியல் ரீதியாக அங்கீகாரம் கிடைத்தாலும் 10 சதவீத இட ஒதுக்கீடு நிறைவேறுவதில் சிக்கல்". Dailythanthi.com. 18 July 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  2. ^ "CENTRAL LIST OF OBCs FOR THE STATE OF TAMILNADU" (PDF). www.bcmbcmw.tn.gov.in. Department of Backward Classes and Most Backward Classes and Minorities Welfare, Tamil Nadu. p. 1. Retrieved 11 March 2021. Entry.No 1
  3. ^ a b "List of Backward Classes approved by Government of Tamil Nadu". Department of Backward Classes and Most Backward Classes and Minorities Welfare, Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 6 March 2021. Sl.No 1
  4. ^ Staff Reporter (12 December 2016). "'Mudaliar' title added in BC (D) list". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 6 February 2021.:”The State government has decided to add the title ‘Mudaliar’ in the first line of Sl. No. 39 of Group D of BC list following a request from the Mudaliar community. This will benefit Agamudimudaliar, Aghamudian, Aghamudiar, Agamudivellalar, and Agamudimudaliar, including Thuluva Vellalas.”
  5. ^ Neild (1979)
  6. ^ Bayly (2004), p. 411
  7. ^ "ப உ சண்முகம் பிறந்தநாள் விழா". Dinamani. 16 August 2012.
  8. ^ "துளுவ வேளாளர் சங்கம் கோரிக்கை". Dinamalar. 14 May 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  9. ^ Jacob Pandian (1987). Caste, Nationalism and Ethnicity: An Interpretation of Tamil Cultural History and Social Order. Popular Prakashan. p. 115.
  10. ^ a b c Tañcai Tamil̲p Palkalaik Kal̲akam, Tañcai Tamiḻp Palkalaik Kaḻakam (1994). Glimpses of Tamil Civilization. Articles from the University Quarterly, Tamil Civilization. Tamil University. p. 142. Tuluva Vellala is a prosperous and progressive caste in Tamil Nadu and they migrated from Tulu Nadu to Tamil Nadu in ancient times.
  11. ^ a b Anthony R. Walker (1994). New Place, Old Ways, Essays on Indian Society and Culture in Modern Singapore. Hindustan Publishing Corporation. p. 200. The names of these four main Vellalar divisions are the Tondaimandalam (residents of the Pallava country), the Sōliyan (of the Cōla country), the Pandya (from the ancient Pandyan kingdom) and the Konku (from Konku country). Each of these four great divisions is further divided on a territorial basis. For example, the Tuluva are that branch of the Tondaimandalam Vellalar with origins in the Tulu country.
  12. ^ a b M. D. Raghavan. Tamil Culture in Ceylon: A General Introduction. Kalai Nilayam, 1971. p. 130. The Thondaimandalam Vellalas are sub-divided into the Tuluvas, originally of the Tulu country;
  13. ^ Rajadurai, S. V.; Geetha, V. (2004). "Response to John Harriss". In Wyatt, Andrew; Zavos, John (eds.). Decentring the Indian Nation. Routledge. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-13576-169-1.
  14. ^ Vijaya Ramaswamy (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 390.
  15. ^ M. D. Raghavan. Tamil Culture in Ceylon: A General Introduction. Kalai Nilayam, 1971. p. 136.
  16. ^ Krishnaswamy Ranaganathan Hanumanthan. Untouchability: A Historical Study Upto 1500 A.D. : with Special Reference to Tamil Nadu. Koodal Publishers. p. 101.
  17. ^ Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference. 1964.
  18. ^ India. Office of the Registrar (1962). Census of India, 1961. Manager of Publications. p. xxii.
  19. ^ A. Krishnaswami (Professor of History) (1975). Topics in South Indian From Early Times Upto 1565 A.D. History. p. 212.
  20. ^ "3". Census Book of India 1961 (in Tamil). Vol. 9 North Arcot District. Madras: The Director of stationery and Printing, Madras. 1961. p. 31.
  21. ^ AP court orders. "Doctypes".
  22. ^ Glossary of Caste Name, North Arcot District, 1951
  23. ^ "Vallal Pachaiyappa | Pachaiyappa's College". pachaiyappascollege.edu.in. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  24. ^ K, Kumaresan (1984). Dravida Thalaivar C. Natesanar. Madras. pp. Introduction, p.4.
  25. ^ Andrew wyatt, John Zavos. Decentring the Indian Nation. p. 115.
  26. ^ "ப உ சண்முகம் பிறந்தநாள் விழா". Dinamani. 16 August 2012.