Mudau lies in the southeastern Odenwald mountains between the Neckar and Main rivers, 75 km southeast of Frankfurt am Main and 40 km northeast of Heidelberg. The area is heavily forested, resting on coloured sandstone plateaus at 285 to 576 m elevation, sloping downward to the Bauland region. Many streams originate in the area around Mudau, owing to its location on the Neckar-Main watershed; some have cut canyons as much as 200 m deep into the sandstone. Streams considered significant are the Gabelbach, Mudbach, and Steinbächlein which flow into the Main, and the Reisenbach, Trienzbach, and Elz which flow into the Neckar.
1848: During the German Revolutions of 1848 (also known as the March Revolution), the principality's property at Marienhoehe bei Buchen and the revenue office in Ernsttal were burned. The city halls were stormed.
1849: Two-thirds of the town was destroyed by a major fire.
trail along the Neckar-Odenwald Limes in Schlossau with numerous remnants. The Neckar-Odenwald Limes led from Bad Wimpfen at the Neckar to the north across Neckarburken, Oberscheidental, Schlossau after Woerth at the Main river.