Muhammad Hasan al-Najafi

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Muhammad Hasan al-Najafi

Muhammad Hasan al-Najafi (Arabic: محمد حسن النجفي‎, translit. Muḥammad Ḥasan al-Najafī; 1788–1850 AD),[1] author of Jawahir al-kalam fi sharh shara’i‘ al-islam, a 42-volume work on fiqh,[2] was a Shia Marja' and jurist.


Though the exact date of Muhammad Hasan's birth is unclear, Agha Bozorg Tehrani puts it at around 1212 lunar Hijri (AD 1797). His father, Shaykh Muhamad Baqir Najafi,[3] was the nephew of Abd Al Rahim Sharif, who emigrated from Iran to Iraq. His family lineage includes numerous religious scholars and his brother, Muhammad Hossein, who was killed as a young man. Muhammad Hasan had eight sons, and several daughters.

Scientific movement and Najaf seminary[edit]

The appearance of Muhammad Hasan was the result of a development in which some important persons contributed.[4] Najaf seminary was the place where Akhbarism first appeared at the time when Mohammad Hasan lived in Najaf. In fact, after the period of the establishment of the Usuli school in shia thought, scholars such as Muhammad Baqir Behbahani, Moḥammad Mahdī Baḥr al-ʿUlūm, Shaykh Jafar Kashef Al Qata developed Usulism from those foundations. When Kashef Al Qata died, Muhammad Hasan was appointed as the chief of Najaf seminary. Many of the scholars and Ulama supported him for this position. He became very famous after his Excellency Agha Sayyed Ibrahim died. Muhammad Hasan then endorsed the injunctions of the late Ibrahim, and afterward became acquainted with the late Ibrahim's students. Shaykh Ansari also was the pupil of Muhammad Hasan and he followed what had been laid down by his master in managing the seminary.[5]

It is said that the institution of Marjaiite in Shia was not centralized until the time of Muhammad Hasan.[6] According to one of his students, during that time he developed the leadership of Imamis. Sayyed Muhammad Nasirabadi believes that Muhammad Hasan had an esoteric relationship with Shia's twelfth Imam.[7]


Muhammad Hasan tried to continue the style of thought that has been started by Allameh Helli. According to that style, they tried to bring substantial changes in tradition but without breaking the tradition.[8]


  • Al Risalah Al Amaliyah
  • An essay on Alms and Khmos
  • Najat Al Ibad fi Yaum Al Maaad
  • Hidayat Al Nasekin
  • Jawahir Al Kalam[9]


  • Mulla Zayn al-'Abidin al-Mazandarani
  • Sayyid Husayn Kuhkamari'i
  • Mull Ali Kani (the author of Idah al-mushtabahat wa tawdih al-maqal)
  • Muhammad Irawani
  • Shaykh Ja'far al-Shushtari
  • Shaykh Jawad (the author of Sharh al-lum'atayn)
  • Shaykh Muhsin Khanfar
  • Shaykh Muhsin A'sam (the author of Kashf al-falam)
  • Sayyid Asad Allah Isfahani
  • Shaykh al-'Iraqiyyin
  • Shaykh Hasan al-Mamaqani
  • Sayyid Husayn Al Bahr al-'Ulum
  • Sayyid Mahmud al-Burujirdi
  • Mulla Ali al-Khalili
  • Sayyid Ibrahim Shari'atmadar al-Sabziwari
  • Shaykh Murtaza shushtari Ansari[10]


  1. ^ Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ḥusaynī Farāhānī; Hafez Farmayan; Elton L. Daniel (1990). A Shi'ite Pilgrimage to Mecca, 1885-1886: The Safarnâmeh of Mirzâ Mo Ammad Osayn Farâhâni. p. 73.
  2. ^ Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (1988). "Introduction". The Just Ruler in Shî‘ite Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 22.
  3. ^ Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ḥusaynī Farāhānī; Hafez Farmayan; Elton L. Daniel (1990). A Shi'ite Pilgrimage to Mecca, 1885-1886: The Safarnâmeh of Mirzâ Mo Ammad Osayn Farâhâni. p. 73.
  4. ^ Denis MacEoin (2009). The Messiah of Shiraz: Studies in Early and Middle Babism,Volume 3 of Iran Studies. Brill. p. 53.
  5. ^ Said Amir Arjomand (1988). Authority and Political Culture in Shi'ism. SUNY Press. p. 113.
  6. ^ ʻAbd al-Hādī Ḥāʼirī (1977). Shīʿīsm and Constitutionalism in Iran: A Study of the Role Played by the Persian Residents of Iraq in Iranian Politics. Brill Archive. p. 63.
  7. ^ Juan Cole (2002). Sacred Space And Holy War: The Politics, Culture and History of Shi'ite Islam. I.B.Tauris. p. 93.
  8. ^ Hamid Mavani (2013). Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi'ism: From Ali to Post-Khomeini. Routledge.
  9. ^ Gholamali Haddad Adel, Mohammad Jafar Elmi, Hassan Taromi-Rad (2012). Hawza-yi ‘Ilmiyya, Shi‘i Teaching Institution: An Entry from Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam. p. 290.
  10. ^ Hamid Algar (1980). Religion and State in Iran, 1785-1906: The Role of the Ulama in the Qajar Period. p. 163.