Muhammad Husain Azad

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Muhammad Husain Azad
Born5 May 1830
Died22 January 1910
Notable work

Muhammad Husain Azad (Urdu: مُحمّد حُسَین آزاد‎ — Mọḥammad Ḥusẹ̅n Āzād; 5 May 1830– 22 January 1910) was an Urdu writer who wrote both prose and poetry, but he is mostly remembered for his prose. His best known work is Aab-e-Hayat ("Elixir of Life").

Early life and family[edit]

Azad was born in Delhi to a Persian immigrant family. His mother died when he was four years old. His father, Muhammad Baqir was educated at the Delhi College. In early 1837, Azad bought a press and launched the Delhi Urdu Akhbaar (Delhi Urdu Newspaper).

Azad married Aghai Begum, the daughter of another Persian immigrant family. Following his father's death and a period of turmoil in Delhi, Azad migrated to Lahore in 1861.


Azad started teaching at the newly founded (1864) Government College, Lahore, and later at Oriental College, Lahore. In Lahore he came in contact with G. W. Leitner, who was the principal and founder of Anjuman-e-Punjab. In 1866 Azad became a regularly paid lecturer on behalf of the Anjuman and a year later became its secretary. In 1887 he established the Azad Library. Azad died in Lahore on 22 January 1910 at the age of 79.


  • Qisas ul-hind ("Stories of India") - 1869
  • Nairang-e Khiyāl ("The Wonder-World of Thought") - 1880
  • Aab-e-Hayat ("Water of Life/Elixir") - 1880
  • Sair-i Iran - 1886.
  • Sukhandān-e fārs ("On Iranian Poets") - completed in 1887 and published in 1907.
  • Darbār-e akbarī ("The Court of Akbar") - 1898

External links[edit]

  • Table of Contents -- Digital South Asia Library at Aab-eHayat link to 1907 edition printed Naval Kishore Press, Lahore.
  • [1] at Aab-eHayat link to English Translation, Translated and edited by Frances W. Pritchett, in association with Shamsur Rahman Faruqi