Muhammad Taqi Usmani

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Muhammad Taqi Usmani
Title Mufti, Shaikhul Islam
Born 5 October 1943 (age 72)
Deoband, British India
Religion Islam
Denomination Sunni
Jurisprudence Hanafi[1]
Movement Deobandi
Main interest(s) Shari'a, Hadith, Islamic finance, Tafsir, Sufism
Notable idea(s) Evolution of Islamic economics, Islamic banking
Alma mater Darul Uloom Karachi
Karachi University
Punjab University
Website Official website

Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Urdu: محمد تقی عثمانی‎, Muhammad Taqī ‘Usmāni, born 5 Ocotber 1943) (also spelled Uthmani) is a Hanafi Islamic scholar from Pakistan. He served as a judge on the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan from 1981 to 1982 and the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan between 1982 and 2002. He is an expert in the fields of Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh), economics, Tasawwuf, and hadith. He also held a number of positions on the Shariah Boards of prestigious Islamic institutions.[2] He is the brother of Islamic scholars Muhammad Rafi Usmani, Muhammad Wali Razi, and Muhammad Razi Usmani, as well as of the Urdu poet Muhammad Zaki Kaifi.[citation needed] He translated of the Holy Qur'an in both English and Urdu language.

Early life[edit]

Muhammad Taqi Usmani was born on 5 October 1943[3] (1362 AH) in Deoband, a city in the Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India.[citation needed]

In 1958, Usmani passed the Fazil-e-Arabi (Arabic language examination) with distinction, administered by the Punjab Board.[3] In 1959 he graduated from the `Alim course at Darul Uloom Karachi.[4][5] He then specialised in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) under the guidance of his father,[6] the Mufti of Darul Uloom Karachi, Muhammad Shafi, receiving his Takhassus degree (equivalent to a PhD) in fiqh and ifta (issuance of Islamic legal opinions) from Darul Uloom Karachi in 1961, earning the title of Mufti. He graduated from the University of Karachi with a Bachelor of Arts in 1964, then received a Bachelor of Laws with distinction from the University of Karachi in 1967. He received a Master of Arts in Arabic literature, with distinction, from the University of Punjab in 1970.[5][7]

Usmani received ijaza to teach hadith from Islamic scholars including Muhammad Shafi, Muhammad Idris Kandhlawi, Qari Muhammad Tayyib, Saleemullah Khan, Mufti Rashid Ahmad Ludhianvi, Sahban Mahmud, Zafar Ahmad Usmani, Muhammad Zakariya Kandhalvi, Hasan al-Mahshat, and others.[6]

His Teachers also include Mufti Wali Hasan Tonki, the Grand Mufti of Jami' ul Uloom Al-Islamiyyah. His elders include Shaikh Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah.

In tradition to the scholars of Deoband, recognising the importance of Tasawwuf, he traversed the path under the guidance of his Shaikh Dr. Abdul Hai Arifi and Maulana Muhammad Masihullah Khan both khulafa of Hakeemul Ummat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (rahmetullah ajmaeen). He is authorized by both of his mentors in Silsila e Ashrafia: Chistiyyah, Naqshbandiyah, Qadiriyah and Suharwardiyah. In addition to his busy schedule he is himself a mentor to numerous spiritual aspirants all over the world.

Usmani pioneered the concept of Islamic banking in Pakistan when he established the Meezan Bank. Usmani has authored a number of books in Arabic, Urdu, and English on Islamic topics in addition to a large number of articles on Islamic banking and finance published in a number of journals and magazines.[citation needed]

In March 2004, United Arab Emirates Vice President and Prime Minister Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum presented an award to Taqi Usmani in recognition of his lifetime service and achievement in Islamic finance during the annual International Islamic Finance Forum (IIFF) in Dubai.[citation needed]

In accordance with the tradition of the scholars of Deoband and recognising the importance of tasawwuf, Usmani's bay'ah was accepted by Abdul Hayy Arifi and Maseehullah Khan. Usmani is currently a mentor to numerous spiritual aspirants all over the world and delivers weekly lectures on self-improvement at Darul Uloom Karachi on Sundays between Asr Salaah and Maghrib Salaah. [1]

He currently teaches Sahih al-Bukhari, fiqh, and Islamic economics at Darul Uloom Karachi and is known for his Islahi Khutbat. He was a key member of a team of scholars which helped declare Ahmadis (Qadianis), as non-Muslims by Pakistan's National Assembly during the era of former Pakistani president, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, in the 1970s. During the presidency of General Zia ul Haq, he was instrumental in drafting laws pertaining to Hudood, Qisas, and Dayiat.

Views[edit]

He strongly opposed the Women's Protection Bill, which he believes was designed to distract attention from issues such as flaws in the law enforcement system.[citation needed]

At a religious conference in 1984 he urged a more "dynamic attitude" towards the practice of ijtihad, arguing there is no shortage of fine minds capable of interpreting the sharia, but warning against the contamination of sharia by Western ideas such as the elimination of hudood penalties such as amputation and stoning.[8][9]

Positions[edit]

Positions currently holding[edit]

  • Vice President and Shaykh al-Hadith, Jamia Darul Uloom Karachi
  • Chairman, International Shariah Standard Council, Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions, Bahrain[10]
  • Permanent Member, Vice Chairman, International Islamic Fiqh Academy, Jeddah, organ of the OIC.[4]
  • Member, Islamic Fiqh Academy of Rabita-al-‘Alam-e-Islami, Makkah
  • Permanent Member International Islamic Fiqh Academy, Jeddah, sponsored by OIC.
  • Chairman Centre for Islamic Economics Pakistan since 1991
  • Chairman Shariah Board Central Bank of Bahrain
  • Chairman Shariah Board Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, U.A.E.
  • Chairman Shariah Board Meezan Bank Ltd., Karachi, Pakistan
  • Chairman Shariah Board International Islamic Rating Agency, Bahrain
  • Chairman Shariah Board Pak-Kuwait Takaful, Karachi
  • Chairman Shariah Board Pak-Qatar Takaful, Karachi
  • Chairman Shariah Board JS Investments Islamic Fund, Karachi
  • Chairman Shariah Board of JS Islamic Pension Savings Fund
  • Chairman Shariah Board Arif Habib Investments – Pakistan International Islamic Fund, Karachi
  • Member Shariah Board Arcapita Investment Fund, Bahrain
  • Member Unified Shariah Board Islamic Development Bank Jeddah
  • Member Shariah Board Guidance Financial Group, USA [11]

Positions held in the past[edit]

  • Judge, Shariat Appellate Bench, Supreme Court of Pakistan (1982 to May 2002)[12]
  • Chairman, Centre for Islamic Economics, Pakistan since 1991
  • Judge, Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan from 1980 to 1982
  • Member, Syndicate University of Karachi 1985 to 1988
  • Member, Board of Governors, International Islamic University Islamabad, 1985 to 1989.
  • Member, International Institute of Islamic Economics 1985 to 1988
  • Member, Council of Islamic Ideology 1977 to 1981
  • Member, Board of Trustees International Islamic University, Islamabad 2004 to 2007
  • Member, Commission for Islamisation of Economy of Pakistan. [13]

Bibliography[edit]

Arabic

  • Ahkam-ul-Auraq An-Naqdiyah (Rulings regarding paper money).
  • Ahkam-uz-Zaba'ih (The Legal Rulings on Slaughtered Animals)
  • Bahouth Fee Qadaya Fiqheyah Ma'asirah (Fiqh discussions on some important contemporary issues).
  • Ma Hea An-Nasraniyah? (What is Christianity?)
  • Nathrat 'Abarah Houl At-Ta'limi Al-Islamiyah (About Islamic Education).
  • Takmila Fathul Mulhim (An encyclopaedic work of interpretation of Saheeh Muslim in 6 volumes, complimentary to Fathul Mulhim by 'Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani).
  • Fiqh-ul-Buyoo' (2 Volumes)
  • Usool al Ifta wa A'dabuhu
  • Mu'aqqaf Ummat-ul-Islamiyah Minal Qadiyaniyah (The View of the Ummah on Qadiyanism/Qadiyanism on Trial)


Urdu

  • Tauzeeh Al-Qur'an/Aasan Tarjuma-e-Qur'an (The Translation of the Holy Qur'an)
  • 'Uloom-ul-Qur'an (An Approach to the Qur'anic Sciences)
  • Ina’mul Bari (Explanation of famous Hadeeth collection Saheeh Bukhari) (7 volumes published as yet)
  • Khatm-e-Bukhari Shareef
  • Durse Tirmidhi (3 Volumes) (Explanation of famous hadith collection Sunan-e-Tirmidhi)
  • Taqreer-e-Tirmidhi (2 Volumes)
  • Hudhur (Salla-Allahu alayhi wa Sallam) ney Farmaya (Sayings of Prophet Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam)
  • Aik Hazar Hadeeth (with Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Jameel Ahmad Thanwi, and Wahid Uddeen Panipati (R'A))
  • Hujjiyat-e-Hadeeth (The Authority of Sunnah)
  • Deen Kya Hai?
  • Namazein Sunnat Ke Mutabiq Parhey (Offer Salah according to the Sunnah)
  • Aap Zakat Kis Tarah Ada Karein?
  • Ahkam-e-I'tikaf (The Rules of I'tikaf)
  • Pur Noor Duain (Radiant Prayers) (Collection of Prayers for all occasions)
  • Aasan Nakiyan (Easy Good Deeds)
  • Taqleed Ki Shari'i Hasiyat (The Legal Status of Following a Madhab)
  • Deeni Madaris ka Nisab wa Nitham
  • Zabet-e-weladat (Birth Control: Islamic rulings)
  • Maghribi Mumalik Kay Jadeed Fiqhi Masa'il Aur Un Ka Hal
  • Mahe Rawjabb Chand Galat Fehmiyon Ka Azala
  • Tarashay (Excerpts from Islamic works)
  • Akabir 'Ulama-e-Deoband Kya Thay? (The Scholars of Deoband Islamic Seminary)
  • Irshadat-e-Akabir - Ifadaat (collected)
  • Nuqoosh-e-Raftigan (Obituaries of Islamic Scholars and other dignitaries)
  • Meray Walid Meray Sheikh (My Father, My Shaikh)
  • Ma'asir Hazrat Arifi (Sayings and memories of Dr Adbul Hai Arifi)
  • Hakeemul Ummat Kay Siasi Afkar (The Political Thoughts of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi)
  • Islam aur Seasate Hazra (Islam and Contemporary Politics)
  • Islam Aur Siyasi Nazriyat
  • Andulus Mei Chand Roz (Travelogue) (A Few Days in Andalusia)
  • Dunya Meray Aagay (Travelogue)
  • Jahaney Deda (Travelogue)
  • Safar Dar Safar (Travelogue)
  • Hazrat Ameer Mu'awiyah (Radi-Allahu 'anhu) aur Tareekhi Haqa`iq (Hadhrat Mu'awiyah (Radi-Allahu 'anhu) and the Historical Facts) ()
  • Qadiyani Fitnah aur Millat-e-Islamiyah Ka Mu'aqqaf (with Samiul-Haqq) [Mu'aqqaf Ummat-ul-Islamiyah Minal Qadiyaniyah (The View of the Ummah on Qadiyanism/Qadiyanism on Trial)]
  • Bible Se Qur'an Tak (3 volumes)
  • Bible Kya Hai? (What is the Bible?)
  • 'Eesayat Kya Hai? [Ma Hea An-Nasraniyah? (What is Christianity?)]
  • Islam Mein Khula Ki Haqeeqat
  • Islam Mein Pooray Dakhil Ho Jao
  • Islami Bankari Ki Buyadayn
  • Islami Bankari
  • Jalsay O Jaloos
  • Jhoot Aur Uski Murawwaja Sooratayn
  • Allah Keliye Jeena Marna
  • Andhera Ho Raha Hai Bijli Ki Roshni Mein
  • Aulad Ki Islah-o-Tarbiyat Waldain Ki Zimmadari Hai
  • Azadi-e-Niswan ka Faraib
  • Bidat - Aik Ghumrahi
  • Bismillah Ki Ahmiyat
  • Daulat-e-Qur'an Ki Qadr-o-Azmat
  • Dunya K Uss Paar (Beyod this World)
  • Dunya Say Dil Na Lagao
  • Durood Shareef Aik Ehm 'Ibadat Hai
  • Falsafa-e-Hajj O Qurbani
  • Ghair Soodi Bankari
  • Gunahgar Say Nafrat Mat Kijiyay
  • Haqooq-ul-'Ibadd Aur Mu'amalat
  • Harawm Ashiya Se Ilaj Ka Hukm
  • Hasad - Aik Muhlik Bemari
  • Hudood - Aik Ilmi Jaiza (The Case of the Hudood Ordinances)
  • 'Ilm Par A'mal Karein
  • Islam aur Jidat Pasandi (Islam and Modernism)
  • Islah-e-Ma'ashara (Perfecting society)
  • Islahi Mawa’iz (Discourses for spiritual perfection) (3 volumes)
  • Islahi Majalis (Discourses on Tasawwuf) (7 volumes published as yet)
  • Islahi Khutubat (The Discourses on the Islamic Way of Life) (16 volumes published as yet)
  • Islam aur Humaray Zindagi (10 Volumes)
  • Islam aur Jadeed Mu'ashi Masa'il (8 Volumes)
  • Fiqhi Maqalat (6 volumes) (Collection of articles on Islamic Jurisprudence)
  • Maqalat-e-Uthmani (2 Volumes)
  • Fatawa-e-Uthmani (3 Volumes)
  • Zikr o Fikr (Collection of articles written for Daily newspaper Jang)
  • 'Idalatey Faislay (Court Rulings)
  • Nashri Taqreerain (Speeches aired on Radio Pakistan)
  • Dastoor-ul 'Amal baeraey Talibeen e Islah (Instructions for aspirants of spiritual improvement)
  • Fard Ke Islah (Individual Reform)
  • Milkiyat-e-Zamion aur uske Tahdeed (Land ownership and its limitation)
  • Nifaz-e-Shariat aur uske Masa'il (The Establishment of Sharee'ah and its Rulings)
  • Hamaray 'A`eli Masa`il (Our Family Issues)
  • Hamara Ta'lemi Nizam (Our Educational System)
  • Hamara Ma'ashi Nizam (Our Economic Sysytem)
  • Islam aur Jadeed Ma'eeshat wa Tijarat (Islam and Modern Economics & Commerce)
  • Mu'amalaat Saaf Rakhayn (Live like Brothers, Deal like Strangers)
  • Mu'asharti Huqooqq O Fara'iz
  • Nafs Ki Kashmakash
  • Namoos-e-Risalat Ki Hifazat Kijiyay
  • Parosion K Huqooq
  • PLS Account Ki Haqeeqat
  • Prize Bond Ki Sharee Haseeat
  • Qatal Aur Khana Jangi
  • Rahat Kis Tarah Hasil Ho
  • Ramadan Kis Tarah Guzaarein
  • Rizqq Ka Sahih Istemaal
  • Roza Hum Say Kia Mutalba Kerta Hai
  • Sahafat (Article)
  • Seerat-un-Nabee (S) Aur Hamari Zindagi
  • Sood Per Tareekhi Faisla (The Historic Judgement on Usury-Interest)
  • Soodi Nizam Ki Kharabiyan Aur Uss Ka Mutabadil
  • Taqdeer Per Raazi Rehna Chahiye
  • Tawakkul K Ahmiyat
  • Tawakkul Ki Haqeeqat
  • Waldain Ki Khidmat - Jannat Ka Zariya

English

  • The Meanings of the Noble Qur'an with explanatory notes (2 Volumes)
  • Qur'an-e-Kareem (The English Translation of the Qur'an)
  • An Introduction to Islamic Finance
  • The Language of the Friday Khutbah
  • Hajj - Merits and Precepts
  • Islamic Months - Merits and Precepts
  • The Present Financial Crisis - the Causes & the Remedies from the Islamic Perspective
  • Contemporary Fatawa

As Editor[edit]

Works in Translation[edit]

  • Hudhur (Salla-Allahu alayhi wa Sallam) ney Farmaya (Sayings of Prophet Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam)
  • 'Uloom-ul-Qur'an (An Approach to the Qur'anic Sciences)
  • Hujjiyat-e-Hadeeth (The Authority of Sunnah)
  • Dunya K Uss Paar (Beyod this World)
  • Aasan Nakiyan (Easy Good Deeds)
  • Islam aur Jidat Pasandi (Islam and Modernism)
  • Mu'amalaat Saaf Rakhayn (Live like Brothers, Deal like Strangers)
  • Perform Salah Correctly
  • *Pur Noor Duain (Radiant Prayers) (Collection of Prayers for all occasions)
  • Hudood - Aik Ilmi Jaiza (The Case of the Hudood Ordinances)
  • Islahi Khutubat (The Discourses on the Islamic Way of Life) (10 volumes published as yet, includes Salah - a Unique Meeting and Solutions to Domestic Conflicts)
  • Akabir 'Ulama-e-Deoband Kya Thay? (The Scholars of Deoband Islamic Seminary)
  • Sood Per Tareekhi Faisla (The Historic Judgement on Interest)
  • Ahkam-uz-Zaba'ih (The Legal Rulings on Slaughtered Animals)
  • Taqleed Ki Shari'i Hasiyat (The Legal Status of Following a Madhab)
  • Ahkam-e-I'tikaf (The Rules of I'tikaf)
  • The Sanctity of Life in the Qur'an & Sunnah
  • Qadiyani Fitnah aur Millat-e-Islamiyah Ka Mu'aqqaf (with Samiul-Haqq) [Mu'aqqaf Ummat-ul-Islamiyah Minal Qadiyaniyah (The View of the Ummah on Qadiyanism/Qadiyanism on Trial)]
  • 'Eesayat Kya Hai? [Ma Hea An-Nasraniyah? (What is Christianity?)]

Many of these books are available online. He also gave many lectures that are available online in audio formats.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jocelyne Cesari, Encyclopedia of Islam in the United States, p 23. ISBN 0313336253.("The Pakistani Hanafi scholar and judge Muhammad Taqi al-Deen Usmani...")
  2. ^ "Shaykh Taqi Usmani Profile". TheMuslim500.com. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Mr. Justice Maulana Muhammad Taqi Usmani" (PDF). Federal Shariat Court, Pakistan. Retrieved Jan 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Brian Kettell, Introduction to Islamic Banking and Finance, p 28. ISBN 047097804X.
  5. ^ a b "Islamic Finance Scholars". IjaraLoans.com. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  6. ^ a b "Mufti Taqi Usmani". Albalagh. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  7. ^ Brian B. Kettell, Introduction to Islamic Banking and Finance, p 28. ISBN 1119990602
  8. ^ Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia ... Macmillan. p. 228-9. ISBN 9780099523277. 
  9. ^ Usmani, Taqi. "THE ISLAMIC WAY OF LIFE. Misunderstandings about “Ijtehad” [excerpt taken from Islam and Modernism by Taqi Usmani]". Islamic reality. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  10. ^ http://www.aaoifi.com/en/about-aaoifi/sharia-standards-board/ssb-committees/
  11. ^ http://muftitaqiusmani.com/en/?page_id=11333
  12. ^ Theodore Friend, Professor Philip Jenkins, Woman, Man, and God in Modern Islam, p 81. ISBN 0802866735
  13. ^ http://muftitaqiusmani.com/en/?page_id=11333

4. "Profile". Muhammad Taqi Usmani. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 

External links[edit]