Muhammad al-Faqih al-Muqaddam

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Imam
Muhammad ibn Ali
al-Faqih Muqaddam
محمّد الفقيه المقدم
Native name محمد
Born Muhammad
574 H / 1178 CE
Tarim, Hadramaut, Yemen
Died 1232 (aged 53–54)
Tarim
Resting place Zanbal, Hadramaut
Residence Tarim
Nationality Yemenite
Citizenship Yemenite
Occupation Islamic scholar, Sufi
Known for Founder of
Ba 'Alawiyya sufi order
Title Imam
Religion Islam (Sunni (Shafi'i), BaAlawi Sufism)
Spouse(s) Zaynab bint Khuzayma
Children Alwi al-Ghoyur, Ali, Ahmad, Abdullah, Abdel Rahman
Parent(s) Ali (father)

Muhammad al-Faqih al-Muqaddam (Arabic: محمد الفقيه المقدم‎‎, Arabic pronunciation: [muˈħammɑd al-faˈqiːh al-ˈmuqaddam]; 574 H - 653 H or 1178 CE - 1232 CE) is known as the founder of Ba 'Alawiyya Sufi order[1] which has influenced Sufism in Yemen, Pakistan, India and Southeast Asia. He is the only son of Ali son of Muhammad Sahib Mirbath whom all 75 families of Ba 'Alawi sada that spread out from Yemen to Southeast Asia are rooted.[2]

Epithet[edit]

The Title al-Faqih was given because he was a great teacher who mastered a lot of religious sciences, including the science of jurisprudence. One of his teachers, Ali Bamarwan said that he mastered the science of jurisprudence as great as the former scholar Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Shafi'i Furak who died in 406 H.[2]

While the title al-Muqaddam means he is the foremost. In this case, Muhammad ibn Ali throughout his life was always given precedence. His grave located in Zanbal [1] in Hadramaut is frequently visited by Muslims often before they visit other religious sites in Yemen.[2]

Life[edit]

Muhammad was born in Tarim, Yemen. His lineage is

  1. Muhammad
  2. Ali
  3. Muhammad
  4. Ali al Khal'i Qasm
  5. Alwi al Thani
  6. Muhammad
  7. Alwi al Awall
  8. Ubaydullah
  9. Ahmad al-Muhajir
  10. Isa al Rumi
  11. Muhammad al Naqib
  12. 'Ali al-Uraidhi
  13. Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq
  14. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir
  15. Imam Zayn al-Abidin
  16. Imam Husayn bin Ali
  17. Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib

Muhammad grew up in an environment of knowledge and righteousness, memorizing the Qur'an and mastering the sciences of the Sacred Law in his youth. He studied until became a Mujtahid. He taught and fasted in the daytime, while in the night he spent his nights in one of the caves being busy in meditation in Nu'ayr Valley outside Tarim.[3]

Teachings[edit]

Muhammad was the founder of Ba 'Alawiyya tariqa (Sufi order) and the first who introduce Sufism in Yemen. He received his Ijazah from Abu Madyan through one of his prominent students, Abd al-Rahman bin Ahmad al-Hadhrami al-Maghribi (he died before reaching Hadramaut, but it was continued by another Moroccan Sufi he met in Mecca).[4] However, Muhammad al-Faqih did not follow fully Abu Madyan's tariqa, but he combined it with the teachings of his forefathers and the tariqa of Abdul-Qadir Gilani.[3]

During his time, Sayyid families in Hadramaut were seen as a threat by other tribes. Due to instability in the region, it was normal during his study that Muhammad bin Ali put a sword on his lap for protection. Muhammad grew tired of the tension and bloodshed in the ranks of the believers thus symbolically broke his sword and announced that his Tariqa and the way of Alawiyyin Sayyids are non-violence and renounced any tariqa that uses violence.[3] It is believed the dissemination of Islam in Southeast Asia was carried out by Sufi traders and clerics of Hadramaut (followers and descendants of Muhammad al-Faqih Muqaddam) who transited in India since 15th century as the Sufism and its influences can be traced strongly in the region.[5][6]

Among the followers of his teachings and also his descendants that are prominent before 20th century are Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad and Sayyid Abu Bakr Al-Aidarus (saint). and in modern time are Habib Umar bin Hafiz and Habib Ali al-Jifri, among others. Another follower in modern time who is not directly descendants of him is Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Walter Dostal, Wolfgang Kraus (Jul 8, 2005). Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. I.B.Tauris. p. 238. 
  2. ^ a b c Nasab Ahlul-Bait Nabi dari Keluarga Alawiyyin
  3. ^ a b c Amin Buxton (2012). Imams of The Valley. Western Cape, South Africa: Dar al-Turath al-Islami. 
  4. ^ Bang, Anne (October 17, 2003). Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860-1925 (1 ed.). UK: Routledge. p. 272. ISBN 978-0415317634. 
  5. ^ J. M. Barwise, Nicholas J. White. A Traveller's History of Southeast Asia. ISBN 978-1566564397. 
  6. ^ El Hareir, Idris, ed. (2011). The Spread of Islam Throughout the World: Volume 3 of Different aspects of Islamic culture Multiple History Series. UNESCO. ISBN 978-9-231041532. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ali Qasim Aziz, Muhammad (2004). Medieval Sufism in Yemen: the case of Aḥmad b. ʻAlwân. University of Michigan. 
  • Bang, Anne (October 17, 2003). Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860-1925 (1 ed.). UK: Routledge. p. 272. ISBN 978-0415317634. 
  • Buxton, Amin (2012). Imams of The Valley. Western Cape, South Africa: Dar al-Turath al-Islami. 
  • Yadav, Rama Sankar & B.N. Mandal (Jan 1, 2007). Global Encyclopaedia of Education. Global Vision Publishing House. p. 1185. ISBN 978-8-182202276.