Muhammad bin Ali Rawandi

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Muhammad bin Ali Rawandi (Persian: محمدبن علی راوندی‎), was a Persian[1] historian who wrote the Rahat al-sudur wa ayat al-surur during the fall of the Great Seljuk Empire and the subsequent invasion by the Kharwarzmian empire.

Rawandi was from a scholarly family and studied Hanafi fikh in Hamadhan from 1174 to 1184.[1] As a calligrapher, Rawandi was brought to court to craft a Quran for Toghrul III and gained the sultan's favor. After Toghrul's incarceration, Rawandi gained the patronage of Shihab al-Din al-Kashani, who urged him to write the Rahat al-sudur. Rawandi had intended to dedicate his book to Süleymanshah II, but dedicated it to Kaykhusraw I, following the latter's accession as Sultan of Rum.[2] Later the Rahat al-sudur was translated into Turkish during the reign of Murad II.

Modern era[edit]

In 1921, the Rahat al-sudur was published by Muhammad Iqbal.[3] It was recognized by Iqbal, Edward G. Browne and Mirza Muhammad Qazwini as a source in other texts namely, Jaml al-tawarikh, Rawdat al-safa of Mir Kwand and Tarikh-i guzida of Hamd Allah al-Mustawfi.[3]


  1. ^ a b Muhammad b. Ali Rawandi, Carole Hillenbrand, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VIII, Ed. C.E.Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and G. Lecomte, (E.J.Brill, 1995), 460.
  2. ^ Kaykhusraw, Claude Cahen, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. IV, ed. E. Van Donzel, B. Lewis and CH. Pellat, (Brill, 1997), 816.
  3. ^ a b The History of the Seljuq Turks: from the Jāmi al-Tawārīkh : an Ilkhanid Adaptation of the Saljuq nama, Transl. Kenneth Allin Luther, Ed. C.E. Bosworth, (Curzon Press, 2001), 15.