Muhammad bin Saud
|Muhammad ibn Saud|
محمد بن سعود
|Muhammad I |
Emir of Diriyah
|Predecessor||Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin|
|Successor||Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud|
|Dynasty||House of Saud|
|Father||Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin|
|Religion||Sunni Islam (Wahhabi)|
Muhammad I ibn Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin Al-Maridi (Arabic: محمد الأول بن سعود بن محمد آل مقرن آل مريدي; died 1765), also known as Ibn Saud, was the emir of Ad-Diriyyah and is considered the founder of the First Saudi State and the Saud dynasty, which are named for his father, Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin (died 1725). Ibn Saud's family (then known as the Al Muqrin) traced its descent to the tribe of Banu Audi and Hanifa tribes but, despite popular misconceptions, Muhammad ibn Saud was neither a nomadic bedouin nor was he a tribal leader. Rather, he was the chief (emir) of an agricultural settlement near modern-day Riyadh, called Diriyah. Furthermore, he was a competent and ambitious desert warrior.
Alliance with Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab
The initial power base was the town of Ad-Diriyyah, where he met Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab, who came to Ibn Saud for protection. Muhammad ibn Saud granted him entry into Diriyah. They formed an alliance in 1744 which was formalized by the wedding of Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab's daughter to Abdulaziz, son and successor of Ibn Saud. Thereafter, the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud and the descendants of bin Abdul-Wahhab, the Al ash-Sheikh, have remained closely linked.
First Saudi State
Whilst under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, Ibn Saud is considered the founder of what later became known as the First Saudi State. The way he set up his government has served as the model for rulers of the House of Saud to the present day. The government was based on Islamic principles and made use of shura. He ruled until his death in 1765 and afterwards his son, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad, became the second ruler of the First Saudi State.
- Pike, John. "King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud". Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- McHale, T. R. (Autumn 1980). "A Prospect of Saudi Arabia". International Affairs. 56 (4). JSTOR 2618170.
- Joel Carmichael (July 1942). "Prince of Arabs". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
- Historical Memorandum on the Relations of the Wahabi Amirs and Ibn Saud with Eastern Arabia and the British Government, 1800-1934. Qatar Digital Library: British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers. 1934. p. 2.
- Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1.
- Saudi Arabia A Country Study. Kessinger Publishing. 2004. ISBN 978-1-4191-4621-3.
See also S. R. Valentine, Force & Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond, Hurst & Co, London/New York, 2015, passim.
Zaid bin Markhan
| Prince (Emir) of Diriyah
Title next held byHimself
as Imam of First Saudi State
|New creation|| Imam of First Saudi State
Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud