Muhammad bin Saud
|Muhammad ibn Saud
محمد بن سعود
|Emir of Diriyah|
|Predecessor||Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin|
|Successor||Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud|
|Dynasty||House of Saud|
|Father||Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin|
Muhammad ibn Saud (Arabic: محمد بن سعود ; died 1765), also known as Ibn Saud, was the emir of Ad-Diriyyah and is considered the founder of the First Saudi State and the Saud dynasty, which are technically named for his father – Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin (died 1725). Ibn Saud's family (then known as the Al Muqrin) traced its descent to the tribe of Banu Hanifa but, despite popular misconceptions, Muhammad ibn Saud was neither a nomadic bedouin nor was he a tribal leader. Rather, he was the chief (emir) of an agricultural settlement near modern-day Riyadh, called Diriyah. Furthermore, he was a competent and ambitious desert warrior.
Alliance with Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab
The initial power base was the town of Ad-Diriyyah, where he met Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab, who came to Ibn Saud for protection. Muhammad ibn Saud granted this and the two decided to work together to implement Ibn Abdel Wahhab's ideas of purifying Islam from innovations (heresies) in its practice by bringing it back to its purest form. They formed an alliance in 1744 which was formalized by the wedding of Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab's daughter to Abdul Aziz, son and successor of Ibn Saud. Thereafter, the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud and the descendants of bin Abdul-Wahhab, the Al ash-Sheikh, have remained closely linked.
Using the ideology of Ibn Abdul-Wahhab, Ibn Saud helped establish the House of Saud among other forces in the Arabian peninsula. The use of religion as a basis for legitimacy differentiated the House of Saud from neighboring clans and built support.
First Saudi State
Whilst under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, Ibn Saud is considered the founder of what later became known as the First Saudi State. The way he set up his government has served as the model for rulers of the House of Saud to the present day. The government was based on Islamic principles and made use of shura. He ruled until his death in 1765 and afterwards his son, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad, became the second ruler of the First Saudi State.
- McHale, T. R. (Autumn 1980). "A Prospect of Saudi Arabia". International Affairs 56 (4). Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1.
- Federal Research Division (2004). Saudi Arabia A Country Study. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4191-4621-3.
|New creation||Imam of First Saudi State
Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud
Zaid bin Markhan
|Prince (Emir) of Diriyah
Title next held byHimself
as Imam of First Saudi State
See also S. R. Valentine, Force & Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond, Hurst & Co, London/New York, 2015, passim.