Muhammad bin Saud

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Muhammad ibn Saud
محمد بن سعود
Emir of Diriyah
Reign 1744–1765
Predecessor Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin
Successor Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud
Issue
Full name
Muhammad ibn Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Migrin
Dynasty House of Saud
Father Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin
Died 1765
Religion Sunni Islam

Muhammad ibn Saud (Arabic: محمد بن سعود ‎) (died 1765), also known as Ibn Saud, was the emir of Ad-Diriyyah and is considered the founder of the First Saudi State and the Saud dynasty, which are technically named for his father – Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin (died 1725).[1] Ibn Saud's family (then known as the Al Muqrin) traced its descent to the tribe of Banu Hanifa but, despite popular misconceptions, Muhammad ibn Saud was neither a nomadic bedouin nor was he a tribal leader. Rather, he was the chief (emir) of an agricultural settlement near modern-day Riyadh, called Diriyah.[2] Furthermore, he was a competent and ambitious desert warrior.[2]

Alliance with Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab[edit]

The initial power base was the town of Ad-Diriyyah, where he met Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab, who came to Ibn Saud for protection.[2] Muhammad ibn Saud granted this and the two decided to work together to implement Ibn Abdel Wahhab's ideas of purifying Islam from innovations (heresies) in its practice by bringing it back to its purest form. They formed an alliance in 1744 which was formalized by the wedding of Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab's daughter to Abdul Aziz, son and successor of Ibn Saud. Thereafter, the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud and the descendants of bin Abdul-Wahhab, the Al ash-Sheikh, have remained closely linked.

Using the ideology of Ibn Abdul-Wahhab, Ibn Saud helped establish the House of Saud among other forces in the Arabian peninsula. The use of religion as a basis for legitimacy differentiated the House of Saud from neighboring clans and built support.

First Saudi State[edit]

Flag of the First Saudi State.

Whilst under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, Ibn Saud is considered the founder of what later became known as the First Saudi State. The way he set up his government has served as the model for rulers of the House of Saud to the present day. The government was based on Islamic principles and made use of shura. He ruled until his death in 1765[3][4] and afterwards his son, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad, became the second ruler of the First Saudi State.

Legacy[edit]

As a forerunner of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University is named after him.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/gulf/abdulaziz.htm
  2. ^ a b c McHale, T. R. (Autumn 1980). "A Prospect of Saudi Arabia". International Affairs 56 (4). Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1. 
  4. ^ Federal Research Division (2004). Saudi Arabia A Country Study. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4191-4621-3. 
Regnal titles
New creation Imam of First Saudi State
1744–1765
Succeeded by
Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud
Preceded by
Zaid bin Markhan
Prince (Emir) of Diriyah
1726–1744
Recreated
Title next held by
Himself
as Imam of First Saudi State

See also S. R. Valentine, Force & Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond, Hurst & Co, London/New York, 2015, passim.