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The Muixeranga (Valencian pronunciation: [mujʃeˈɾaŋɡa] About this sound Muixeranga ) is the collective name given to the performance of ancient street dances and human castles, originating in the ancient Kingdom of Valencia (actually Valencian Community), which are still preserved in the town of Algemesí, 30 km (19 mi) southwest from Valencia.

The muixeranga is much more than an artistic acrobatic dance. It is a collection of ancient human choreographies of enormous plasticity illustrating various figures and shapes, which are held during the Algemesí town festival (September 7 and 8th), in honor of the Virgin of Health (Mare de Déu de la Salut).

The Muixeranga resembles the modern castellers in many ways, the latter being spread all over Catalonia. Both traditions share the same origin, the "Moixiganga", (a series of dances of human towers) once found throughout the Iberian Peninsula. Muixeranga differs from castellers mainly in that the Muixeranga has a more religious background, is accompanied by a dance, and does not care too much about the height of the human towers, trying to find a plastic, figurative scene.

Logo of Intangible Cultural Heritage, UNESCO

Mare de Déu de la Salut[edit]

The feast day of Our Lady of Health, patroness of Algemesi is September 8, and commemorates the legendary discovery in 1247 of a statue depicting the Madonna and Child. The image venerated in the town since the mid-twentieth century is a replica, because during the Civil War the original image of the Virgin of Health was destroyed, as was the chapel. The festival appears to have originated in a street party in the area of the Chapel of Finding and gradually spread to other neighborhoods. The main celebration in held on 7 and 8 September, is preceded by a novena at the Chapel of the Finding, which begins August 29 and ends on September 6. The festival has preserved traditional dances and music, and has served as a source for the recovery of dances that formally existed in other locations and have been able to be re-established. UNESCO has recognized the ritual, festive and community participation dimension of the Valencian celebration Our Lady of Health as part of the "intangible heritage of humanity".[1]

Origin and evolution[edit]

There are several theories on the origin of muixeranga, especially in relation to its name. The first theory advocates that the word comes from the Arabic word mochain, meaning "mask". A second theory links it with ancient processions held on the streets to commemorate some special event.

Even though the tradition in the Iberian Peninsula may date back to the 13th century, the first written record of the muixeranga in Algemesí can be traced to the first third of the 18th century. However, its constant, strong presence suggests a much older origin.

The first solemn celebrations of the Virgin of Health happened in 1724, so this is the earliest that the muixeranga could be linked to this celebration. However, the first concrete date comes from the town account book in the year 1733, when the dulzaina players employed in the festival were given an annual stipend.

The guilds were the real driving force behind the event, and in changing times, they died out. The Muixeranga began to wane and by 1973 it had almost disappeared altogether. A group including writer Martí Domínguez i Barberà, Mayor Manuel Rico, Vicent Raga, festival organiser in the Capella neighbourhood, and Father Vicent Castell Maiques, with the support of the students’ association Associació d'Antics Alumnes dels Maristes, were responsible for re-launching it under the guidance of Tomàs Pla. A year later the Friends of assossiació Muixeranga was founded.[2] Eloi Miralles, a member of the Colla de Castellers de Vilafranca del Penedès, arranged for the muixeranguers to visit the Penedès capital and on August 31, 1978, the Muixeranga rose up in Villafranca’s main square, banishing forever that lack of visibility which might have proved fatal.[3]


The Promeses Processó[edit]

At nightfall on 7 September, the beginning of the festivities is signaled by the ringing of the bells of the Basilica of St. James the Apostle. When the ringing stops and silence descends, the first notes of the flutes are sounded and the first of the processions begins. The procession, which begins with the mysteries and martyrdoms, (short theatrical pieces, performed by groups of children), has a scrupulous order with the towers of the Muixeranga second, followed by the Bastonets, the Carxofa, the Arquets, the Pastoretes, Bolero or llauradores.

Processoneta of Mati[edit]

On the morning of September 8, there is a second, shorter procession known as the Processoneta of Mati.

The Volta Great[edit]

The procession called the Volta Great, starts about 4:00 p.m. and is the longest, lasting over seven hours. Starting from the Basilica of St. James, the traditional dances of Algemesí and the image of the patron pass back through the old city, repeating the original itinerary of 1724.


After the mysteries and martyrdoms, all the processions display a series of dances; the Muixerangas leads the rest. The Muixerangas , a set of tableaux composed of human towers and representative figures, has several stages, and opens with all muixerangueros dancing in two rows with candles burning. The dance is accompanied by the music of drum and flute. The muixerangueros then form a human tower moving to the sound of the music. The tower is topped by a child with open arms.

The forms of the Muixerangas assume plastic or pliable shapes that open or appear to form different figures which have all Marian symbolism. The Valencian town of Alzira and its Muixeranga, lays claim to being the origin of the castells found throughout Catalonia.

The people composing the castles are usually a group of men, of virtually any profession, but preferably of strength and physical skill. Nowadays, around 200 men participate in the plastic figures, but historically there were not more than thirty. There is a master, or conductor, which coordinates the dance and the human castles, towers and other figures, as well as admitting and training new people.

The clothes are idiosyncratic in many ways. They are composed of a shirt, trousers, farmer's shoes and sometimes a special hat. The fabric is coloured with vertical red and blue stripes on a white base, like a harlequin. It seems that this strange appearance is unintentional. Older people can still remember that they were once made from old mattress fabric.

Music and symbology[edit]

Performed by Xavier Richart

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The dance is accompanied by the music of tabalet (a drum) and dolçaina (valencian shawm), with a very old characteristic tune, of unknown author.

Some people striving for the recovery of the Valencian culture and its language, such as Joan Fuster, have suggested the music of the Muixeranga as an anthem for the Valencian Community.[3]

See also[edit]



  • Bertran, Jordi: El Ball de Valencians. De la dansa a les torres, Quaderns de la Festa Major, 12, Ajuntament de Tarragona, 1997.

External links[edit]