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Mujaddid

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Imam Al-Shafi‘i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal are the only two Madhhab founders regarded as Mujaddids.[1][2]

A mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد‎), is an Islamic term for one who brings "renewal" (تجديد tajdid) to the religion.[3][4] According to the popular Muslim tradition, it refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, cleansing it of extraneous elements and restoring it to its pristine purity. In contemporary times, a mujaddid is looked upon as the greatest Muslim of a century.[5]

The concept is based on a hadith (a saying of Islamic prophet Muhammad),[6] recorded by Abu Dawood, narrated by Abu Hurairah who mentioned that Muhammad said:

Allah will raise for this community at the end of every 100 years the one who will renovate its religion for it.

— Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 37: Kitab al-Malahim [Battles], Hadith Number 4278[7]

Ikhtilaf (disagreements) exist among different hadith viewers. Scholars such as Al-Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani have interpreted that the term mujaddid can also be understood as plural, thus referring to a group of people.[8][9]

Mujaddids can include prominent scholars, pious rulers and military commanders.[4]

List of claimants and potential mujaddids

While there is no formal mechanism for designating a mujaddid in Sunni Islam, there is often a popular consensus. The Shia and Ahmadiyya[10][page needed][11] have their own list of mujaddids.[4]

First Century Hijri Calendar

Second Century Hijri Calendar

Third Century Hijri Calendar

Fourth Century Hijri Calendar

Fifth Century Hijri Calendar

Sixth Century Hijri Calendar

Seventh Century Hijri Calendar

Eighth Century Hijri Calendar)

Ninth Century Hijri Calendar

Tenth Century Hijri Calendar

Eleventh Century Hijri Calendar

Twelfth Century (November 4, 1785)

Thirteenth Century Hijri Calendar)

Fourteenth Century Hijri Calendar

Fifteenth Century Hijri Calendar

Notes

Note:Ibn Taymiyyah is known by a large majority of Muslims as a anthropomorphist.Therefore Muslims regard him as a blasphemer.

References

  1. ^ a b c d Waliullah, Shah. Izalat al-Khafa'an Khilafatul Khulafa. p. 77, part 7.
  2. ^ Mohammed M. I. Ghaly, "Writings on Disability in Islam: The 16th Century Polemic on Ibn Fahd's "al-Nukat al-Ziraf"," The Arab Studies Journal, Vol. 13/14, No. 2/1 (Fall 2005/Spring 2006), p. 26, note 98
  3. ^ Faruqi, Burhan Ahmad (16 August 2010). The Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid. p. 7. ISBN 9781446164020. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Meri, Josef W., ed. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. p. 678. ISBN 9780415966900.
  5. ^ "Mujaddid - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  6. ^ Neal Robinson (2013), Islam: A Concise Introduction, Routledge, ISBN 978-0878402243, Chapter 7, pp. 85-89
  7. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 37:4278
  8. ^ Fath al-Baari (13/295)
  9. ^ Taareekh al-Islam (23/180)
  10. ^ Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures. ABC-CLIO, LLC. 10 March 2015. ISBN 9781610692502.
  11. ^ Jesudas M. Athyal, Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures, (ABC-CLIO, LLC 2015), p 1. ISBN 9781610692496.
  12. ^ a b "Mujaddid Ulema". Living Islam.
  13. ^ a b c d Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906.
  14. ^ a b c Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0521539064.
  15. ^ a b c Van Nieuwenhuijze, C. A. O. (1997). Paradise Lost: Reflections on the Struggle for Authenticity in the Middle East. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 90-04-10672-3.
  16. ^ Mohammed M. I. Ghaly, "Writings on Disability in Islam: The 16th Century Polemic on Ibn Fahd's "al-Nukat al-Ziraf"," The Arab Studies Journal, Vol. 13/14, No. 2/1 (Fall 2005/Spring 2006), p. 26, note 98
  17. ^ a b Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906
  18. ^ Ihya Ulum Ad Din, Dar Al Minhaj: Volume 1. p. 403.
  19. ^ The Legal Thought of Jalāl Al-Din Al-Suyūṭī: Authority and Legacy, Page 133 Rebecca Skreslet Hernandez
  20. ^ "Imam Ghazali: The Sun of the Fifth Century Hujjat al-Islam". The Pen. February 1, 2011.
  21. ^ Jane I. Smith, Islam in America, p 36. ISBN 0231519990
  22. ^ Dhahabi, Siyar, 4.566
  23. ^ Willard Gurdon Oxtoby, Oxford University Press, 1996, p 421
  24. ^ Advocate of Dialogue: Fethullah Gulen by Ali Unal and Alphonse Williams, 10 June 2000; ISBN 978-0970437013
  25. ^ "al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din (1149-1209)". Muslim Philosophy.
  26. ^ Sufi Movements in Eastern India - Page 194
  27. ^ The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. 227-228
  28. ^ Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought, p. 214. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-7848-8
  29. ^ "Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani". Hanafi.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2004-09-02.
  30. ^ a b Azra, Azyumardi (2004). The Origins of Islamic Reformism in Southeast Asia part of the ASAA Southeast Asia Publications Series. University of Hawaii Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780824828486.
  31. ^ Glasse, Cyril (1997). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. p. 432. ISBN 90-04-10672-3.
  32. ^ "A Short Biographical Sketch of Mawlana al-Haddad". Iqra Islamic Publications. Archived from the original on 2011-05-27.
  33. ^ The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam - Page 286
  34. ^ The Fundamental Principles of Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy by Reza Akbarian
  35. ^ Kunju, Saifudheen (2012). "Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi: Thoughts and Contributions": 1. Retrieved 5 April 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  36. ^ "Gyarwee Sharif". al-mukhtar books. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26.
  37. ^ Rippin, Andrew. Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. p. 282.

Further reading

  • Alvi, Sajida S. "The Mujaddid and Tajdīd Traditions in the Indian Subcontinent: An Historical Overview" ("Hindistan’da Mucaddid ve Tacdîd geleneği: Tarihî bir bakış"). Journal of Turkish Studies 18 (1994): 1–15.
  • Friedmann, Yohanan. "Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi: An Outline of His Thought and a Study of His Image in the Eyes of Posterity". Oxford India Paperbacks

External links