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Mujaddid

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A mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد‎), is an Islamic term for one who brings "renewal" (tajdid Arabic: تجديد‎) to the religion.[1][2] According to the popular Muslim tradition, refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, cleansing it of extraneous elements, and restoring it to its pristine purity.

The concept is based not on the Quran but on a famous hadith (Prophetic tradition) recorded by Abu Dawood: Abu Hurairah narrated that the Islamic prophet Muhammad said:

Mujaddid tend to come from the most prominent Islamic scholars of the time, although they are sometimes pious rulers.[2]

List of claimants and potential Mujaddids

While there is no formal mechanism for designating a mujaddid, there is often a popular consensus. The Shia and the Naqshbandi order have their own list of mujaddids.[2]

First Century (after the prophetic period) (August 3, 718)

Second Century (August 10, 815)

Third Century (August 17, 912)

Fourth Century (August 24, 1009)

Fifth Century (September 1, 1106)

Sixth Century (September 9, 1203)

Seventh Century (September 5, 1300)

  • Ibn Daqiq Al-Eid (1228–1302)[18] Taj al-Din al-Subki maintained that the Muslim community had agreed that Ibn Daqiq al-'Id was a mujtahid as well as a mujaddid. Ibn Daqiq "was a mujtahid mutlaq with complete knowledge of legal sciences" (Tabaqat, VI, 2, 3, 6).[19]
  • Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328)[9] Considered as a mujaddid by Salafists.[20] Ibn Taymiyya and his disciples such as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya were declared wayward by their Shāfi'i contemporaries such as Taqi al-Din al-Subki [d. 1355] and Taj al-Din al-Subki [d. 1370].[21]

Eighth Century (September 23, 1397)

Ninth Century (October 1, 1494)

Tenth Century (October 19, 1591)

Eleventh Century (October 26, 1688)

Twelfth Century (November 4, 1785)

Thirteenth Century (November 14, 1882)

Fourteenth Century (November 21, 1979)

References

  1. ^ Faruqi, Burhan Ahmad. The Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid. p. 7. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c Meri, Josef W. (ed.). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. p. 678. 
  3. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 37:4278
  4. ^ a b c "Mujaddid Ulema". Living Islam. 
  5. ^ a b c d Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906.
  6. ^ Studies in the History of the Sokoto Caliphate: The Sokoto Seminar Papers / edited by Y.B. Usman
  7. ^ a b c The Muslim 100: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of the Most Influential Muslims in History by Muhammad Mojlum Khan
  8. ^ a b Waliullah, Shah. Izalatul Khafa'an Khilafatul Khulafa. p. 77, part 7. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Nieuwenhuijze, C.A.O.van (1997). Paradise Lost: Reflections on the Struggle for Authenticity in the Middle East. p. 24. ISBN 90 04 10672 3. 
  10. ^ a b Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906
  11. ^ Imam Tahawi has been rightly considered by some nineteenth century authorities as the Mujaddid (Reformer) of the third century [1]
  12. ^ "Imam Ghazali: The Sun of the Fifth Century Hujjat al-Islam". The Pen. February 1, 2011. 
  13. ^ Jane I. Smith, Islam in America, p 36. ISBN 0231519990
  14. ^ Dhahabi, Siyar, 4.566
  15. ^ Willard Gurdon Oxtoby, Oxford University Press, 1996, p 421
  16. ^ "al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din (1149-1209)". Muslim Philosophy. 
  17. ^ On Taqlid: Ibn al Qayyim's Critique of Authority in Islamic Law by Abdul-Rahman Mustafa
  18. ^ Recognised as a mujaddid by Jalal-Al-Din Al-Suyuti. [2]
  19. ^ Law and Legal Theory in Classical and Medieval Islam by Wael B. Hallaq
  20. ^ Ibn Taymiyyah and His Heretical Beliefs - My Religion Islam
  21. ^ Islamic Intellectual History in the Seventeenth Century by Khaled El-Rouayheb
  22. ^ Recognised as a mujaddid by Jalal-Al-Din Al-Suyuti. [3]
  23. ^ "Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani". Hanafi.co.uk. 
  24. ^ a b Azra, Azyumardi (2004). The Origins of Islamic Reformism in Southeast Asia part of the ASAA Southeast Asia Publications Series. University of Hawaii Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780824828486. 
  25. ^ The Origins of Islamic Reformism in Southeast Asia: Networks of Malay-Indonesian and Middle Eastern 'Ulama' in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries by Azyumardi Azra [4]
  26. ^ Islam in Modern Asia by I.K. Khan
  27. ^ Glasse, Cyril (1997). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. p. 432. ISBN 90 04 10672 3. 
  28. ^ "A Short Biographical Sketch of Mawlana al-Haddad". Iqra Islamic Publications. 
  29. ^ Kunju, Saifudheen (2012). "Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi: Thoughts and Contributions". p. 1. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  30. ^ "Gyarwee Sharif". al-mukhtar books. 
  31. ^ "The initial alacrity with which Ibn ‘Ajība set about ‘‘renewing God’s religion” is mirrored by the moralizing, inward-looking character of many passages of his Tafsīr." Esoteric Hermeneutic of Ibn 'Ajiba by Faris Casewit
  32. ^ O. Hunwick, John (1995). African And Islamic Revival in Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources. p. 6. 
  33. ^ Muhammad 'Abduh and Rashid Rida: Contributions to the Reinterpretation of Islamic Constitutional and Legal Theory by Malcolm H. Kerr
  34. ^ Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt by Arthur Goldschmidt
  35. ^ Modernist Islam, 1840-1940: A Sourcebook by Charles Kurzman
  36. ^ Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation and Communication (New Horizons in Islamic Studies) by Stephane A. Dudoignon, Komatsu Hisao, Kosugi Yasushi [5]
  37. ^ Shaikh Muhammad al-Tahir ibn Ashur is the most renowned Zaytuna Imam and one of the great Islamic scholars of the 20th century. [6]
  38. ^ a b Rippin, Andrew. Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. p. 282. 
  39. ^ Praised by Imam Muhammad Abu Zahra as a Reviver (mujaddid). [7]
  40. ^ Egyptian modernist reformer and rector of al-Azhar. Called for social, legal, and educational reforms. Pursued an aggressive campaign to integrate modern sciences into al-Azhar's curriculum. Called for the exercise of ijtihad (independent reasoning) and reconciliation of different schools of Islamic law. Participated in international religious conferences. Desired a greater role for clergy in government. [8]
  41. ^ Mahmud Shaltut and Islamic Modernism by Kate Zebiri
  42. ^ Muhammad Abu Zahrah was a well-known legal theorist and jurist of 20th. His publishers call him Imam, ranking him with the great figures of Islamic scholarship of the past, such as Abu Haneefah, Malik, Al-Shafie and Ibn Hanbal. [9]
  43. ^ "Services As A Mujadid". Alahazrat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan. 
  44. ^ Islam in Britain: Past, Present and the Future by Mohammad Shahid Raza
  45. ^ "The Promised Messiah". Al Islam. 
  46. ^ "Claims of Hadhrat Ahmad". Al Islam.  Chapter Two
  47. ^ "British Government and Jihad" (PDF). Al Islam. 
  48. ^ "Renewal Deeds". AlaHazrat. 
  49. ^ He was an unequalled imam and preacher and the most popular Islamic scholar in the second half of 1900s, so much so that he won the hearts of millions of people in the Arab and Islamic worlds. [10]
  50. ^ "In this latest generation, I have never seen the highest mujaddid like Ahmad Deedat (in terms of comparative religion)" An Interview with Sh. Muhammad Awal [11]
  51. ^ Mostafa Mahmoud: The Life Path of a Polymath by Wael Hazem Fouda

Further reading

  • Alvi, Sajida S. "The Mujaddid and Tajdīd Traditions in the Indian Subcontinent: An Historical Overview" ("Hindistan’da Mucaddid ve Tacdîd geleneği: Tarihî bir bakış"). Journal of Turkish Studies 18 (1994): 1–15.
  • Friedmann, Yohanan. "Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi: An Outline of His Thought and a Study of His Image in the Eyes of Posterity". Oxford India Paperbacks

External links