Mukkuvar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Mukkuvar
Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam[1]
Languages Tamil, Malayalam
Related groups Tamil people, Malayali people, Sri Lankan Tamils

Mukkuvar (Tamil: முக்குவர், Malayalam: മുക്കുവര്‍) is a caste found in the coastal regions of Sri Lanka and the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.[2] They are traditionally occupied in fishing, but are also found as involved in agriculture.[3][4] They also include the major landlords in the Eastern Province.[5]

Etymology[edit]

The name of the caste has several etymology theories. According to one is Mukkuvar derived from Tamil word mukku (means tip or corner) and the suffix ar (people), thus the term denotes "those from tip of the landmass".[6] Another theory states that the word Mukkuvan (singular form), means "diver" derived from the Dravidian word muluku (to immerse or to dive).[7][8] Other titles used by the community are Kukankulam, Murkukan and Mukkiyar.[9][10]

History[edit]

The earliest mention of the Mukkuvar is in the Sinhalese panegyric called Dambadeni asna (13th century AD), mentioning them as soldiers of Parakramabahu II.[11] Their folk origin varies from region to region. According to the legend of the Mukkuvar from Kerala, did they emigrate from Sri Lanka[12] The Mattakallappu Manmiyam, attribute the emigration of the Sri Lankan Mukkuvar from South India under the rule of Kalinga Magha in 12th century AD. [13]

The Mukkuvar although majorily residing in Eastern Province were historically widespread in Northern and Western parts of Sri Lanka. Mukkuvar tribes migrated from Kilakarai in Tamil Nadu to cities in Puttalam and Jaffna Kingdom in 8th century.[14] The Jaffna chronicle, Yalpana Vaipava Malai, mentions the exile of Mukkuvar from Jaffna Kingdom to Batticaloa. The Mukkuvars established a local polity in Puttalam of northwestern Sri Lanka. However they along with the Sonakar were defeated in a three-month siege by the Karaiyar chieftains sponsored by the Kingdom of Kotte in the 15th century AD, celebrated in a Sinhalese palm leaf manuscript called the Mukkara Hatana (The Mukkuvar War).[15]

The Mattakallappu Manmiyam mention the victorious defeat of the Thimilar by the Mukkuvar and the Sonakar in eastern parts of the Island. Several place names in Eastern Province bears names from this event.[16]The basic theme of the Mukkuvar seeking the aid of Muslim Sonakar were always present. Alliances and intermarriage between both communities were at that period present.[17][18] The Batticaloa region was under the leadership of Mukkuvar Vannimai chiefs.[19]

Religion[edit]

One of the earliest tribes to get converted to Christianity by Thomas the Apostle were the Mukkuvars from Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala. The Christian Mukkuvar identify with the Catholic church.[2] The Mukkuvar practising Islam are known as Pusalan, Pulasar, Puislam or "New muslims", derived from the Tamil word putiya (new) and Islam.[20][21] The Mukkuvars from the western coastal areas of Sri Lanka are mostly Muslim and Roman Catholic however are mostly Hindus in the eastern coastal areas of Sri Lanka.[22][23]

Customs[edit]

The Mukkuvars of eastern parts of Sri Lanka follow the Mukkuva Law, also known as Mukkuva Ēṟppāṭu. This Law is applicable for marriage and property.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://books.google.no/books?id=qBQwAQAAIAAJ&q=mukkuvar+malabar&dq=mukkuvar+malabar&hl=no&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjVkcHf6__WAhWGApoKHd2FBKsQ6AEINzAC
  2. ^ a b Ponnumuthan, Selvister (1996). The Spirituality of Basic Ecclesial Communities in the Socio-religious Context of Trivandrum/Kerala, India. Pontifical Gregorian University. p. 75. ISBN 9788876527210. 
  3. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (2008-04-16). Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka. Duke University Press. p. 64. ISBN 0822389185. 
  4. ^ (Jaffna), University Teachers for Human Rights (1991). The Debasement of the law and of humanity and the drift towards total war. UTHR (Jaffna), University of Jaffna, Thirunelvely. p. 31. 
  5. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (1982-09-02). Caste Ideology and Interaction. Cambridge University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780521241458. 
  6. ^ Suryanarayan, V. (2005). Conflict Over Fisheries in the Palk Bay Region. Lancer Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 9788170622420. 
  7. ^ Colombo, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland Ceylon Branch (1967). Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Colombo Apothecaries Company. p. 42. 
  8. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (2008-05-07). Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka. Duke University Press. p. 60. ISBN 0822341611. 
  9. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (2008-04-16). Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka. Duke University Press. pp. 58, 60. ISBN 0822389185. 
  10. ^ Holmes, Walter Robert (1980). Jaffna, Sri Lanka 1980. Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society of Jaffna College. p. 219. 
  11. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (1982-09-02). Caste Ideology and Interaction. Cambridge University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780521241458. 
  12. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (1974). Tamils and Moors: caste and matriclan structure in eastern Sri Lanka. University of Chicago. p. 25. 
  13. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (1982-09-02). Caste Ideology and Interaction. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521241458. 
  14. ^ Kulendiren, Pon (2012-10-11). Hinduism a Scientific Religion: & Some Temples in Sri Lanka. iUniverse. p. 126. ISBN 9781475936759. 
  15. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (2008-05-07). Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka. Duke University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0822341611. 
  16. ^ (Jaffna), University Teachers for Human Rights (1993). Land, human rights & the eastern predicament. UTHR (Jaffna), University of Jaffna, Thirunelvely. p. 89. 
  17. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (1974). Tamils and Moors: caste and matriclan structure in eastern Sri Lanka. University of Chicago. p. 26. 
  18. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (2008-04-16). Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka. Duke University Press. p. 77. ISBN 0822389185. 
  19. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (2008-04-16). Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka. Duke University Press. p. 64. ISBN 0822389185. 
  20. ^ Kurien, Prema A. (2002). Kaleidoscopic Ethnicity: International Migration and the Reconstruction of Community Identities in India. Rutgers University Press. p. 77. ISBN 9780813530895. 
  21. ^ Singh, Kumar Suresh; Menon, T. Madhava; Tyagi, D.; India, Anthropological Survey of; Kulirani, B. Francis (2002). Kerala. Affiliated East-West Press [for] Anthropological Survey of India. p. 991. ISBN 9788185938998. 
  22. ^ Raghavan, M. D. (1971). Tamil culture in Ceylon: a general introduction. Kalai Nilayam. p. 154. 
  23. ^ Hussein, Asiff (2007). Sarandib: an ethnological study of the Muslims of Sri Lanka. Asiff Hussein. p. 479. ISBN 9789559726227. 
  24. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (1982-09-02). Caste Ideology and Interaction. Cambridge University Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780521241458. 
  • ^ The Mukkuva law: or, The rules of succession among the Mukkuvars of Ceylon. / By C. Brito, Imprint Colombo, H. D. Gabriel, 1876
  • ^ Sri Lankan Tamil society and heritage by Prof Sivathamby [1]
  • ^ Tamils of Sri Lanka: historical roots of Tamil identity By S. K. Sitrampalam [2][permanent dead link]
  • ^ The ancient myths of the aborigines Kerala Calling, July 2004 by Dr. M.V Vishnu Namboodiri [3]

External links[edit]