Mularaja

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Mularaja
King of Gurjara
Reign c. 941 – c. 996 CE
Predecessor Vanaraja (Chavda dynasty)
Successor Chamundaraja
Dynasty Chaulukya

Mularaja (r. 941 – 996 CE)[1] was the founder of the Chaulukya dynasty of India. Also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat or Solanki, this dynasty ruled parts of present-day Gujarat. Mularaja supplanted the last Chavda king, and founded an independent kingdom with his capital in Anahilapataka in 940-941 CE.[2]

Ancestry[edit]

The Kumarapala-Bhupala-Charita of Jayasimha Suri provides a legendary genealogy of Mularaja. It states that the mythical progenitor of the Chaulukya dynasty was Chulukya, a great warrior. He established his capital at Madhupadma, and the dynasty came to be known as the Chaulukyas after him. His successors included several kings including Simha-Vikrama and Hari-Vikrama. After 85 descendants of Hari-Vikrama came Rama. Bhata or Sahajarama, the son of Rama, defeated the Shakas. Bhata's son Dadakka defeated the Gaja kings of Pipasa. Dadakka's kingdom occupied by Kanchikavyala, who was succeeded by the king Raji. Mularaja was the son of Raji and his queen Liladevi.[3][4]

The Vadasma (Varunasarmaka) grant inscription of Mularaja's son Chamundaraja states that Mularaja was a descendant of one Vyalakanchi-Prabhu. This Vyalakanchi is probably same as the Kanchikavyala mentioned by Jayasimha Suri.[5] Based on this, historian Asoke Majumdar believes that Suri's legendary account seems to be at least partially accurate: Rama and his successors appear to be historical figures. It is possible that they were small princes of a place called Madhupadma. V. V. Mirashi speculated that this place might have been situated on the banks of the river Madhuveni (present-day Mahuwar), which is a tributary of Betwa. Majumdar, on the other hand, identifies it with modern Mathura.[4]

The 14th century chronicler Merutunga states that Mularaja was so named, because he was born under the auspices of the Mula nakshatra. According to this legend, Raji (or Raja), Bija and Dandaka (or Dadakka) were three brothers. Raji's knowledge of horse-riding greatly impressed Samanta-Simha, the Chapotkata (Chavda) king of Anahilapataka. He became a close friend of the king, and married Liladevi, the king's sister. Liladevi died while she was pregnant; her womb was cut open and the infant Mularaja was taken out.[1]

Three other chroniclers — Arisimha, Udayaprabha and Krishnaji — also describe Mularaja as the son of sister of the last Chapotkata ruler.[1]

Ascension[edit]

Mularaja is located in India
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Mularaja
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Find spots of inscriptions issued during the reign of Mularaja [6]

In the mid-tenth century CE, Mularaja supplanted the last Chavada (Chapotkata) king of Gujarat and established the Chaulukya or Chaulukya dynasty.[7]

According to Merutunga's legend, Mularaja gained reputation as a warrior. His uncle Samanta-Simha would often appoint him as the king when drunk, and depose him when he became sober. Mularaja, who was an ambitious man, was regularly disappointed in this way. One day, when a drunk Samanta-Simha appointed him as the king, Mularaja killed his uncle, and became the permanent king. However, Merutunga's legend doesn't seem to be chronologically consistent: it claims that Samanta-Simha ruled for 7 years. If Samanta-Simha's sister married Raji during his reign, as the legend states, Mularaja would have been less than 7 years old at the time of Samanta-Simha's death. This absurdity, coupled with other evidence, has prompted some scholars such as Georg Bühler to dismiss Merutunga's legend as unhistorical.[8]

One of Mularaja's own inscriptions states that he conquered the region watered by Sarasvati river with the strength of his arms. The Vadnagar prashasti inscription of his descendant Kumarapala states that he took the Chapotkata princes captive. Bühler theorized that Mularaja was an outsider who captured Samanta-Simha's kingdom. However, Asoke Majumdar proposed that he was indeed a relative of the king, based on the following facts: The Vadnagar inscription as well as the writings of Hemachandra suggest that Mularaja reduced the tax burden on the citizens. The inscription also states that he shared the wealth of the Chapotkata kings with his relatives, Brahmins, bards, and servants. Majumdar argues that if Mularaja had captured the Chapotkata kingdom with an army, he would not have felt the need to resort to such appeasement. Therefore, Majumdar theorizes that Mularaja indeed murdered his uncle and then consolidated power with 'soft' measures such as reduced tax burden and sharing of wealth.[9]

War against Graharipu and Laksha[edit]

Hemachandra's writings state that Mularaja defeated Graharipu, the king of Saurashtra. However, no other Chaulukya-era accounts mention this victory. According to Hemachandra, one night, Mahadeva appeared in Mularaja's dream, and ordered him to vanquish Graharipu. In the morning, Mularaja consulted his ministers Jambaka and Jehula, as he was apprehensive of causing troubles to the pilgrims who visited Prabhasa in Saurashtra. Jambaka was his Mahamantri (chief minister) while Jehula, the Ranaka of Kahiralu (now Kheralu), was his Mahapradhana (prime minister), according to Abhayatilakagani.[10][11][12] Jehula told Mularaja that Graharipu was a tyrant who tortured pilgrims and indulged in vices such as eating flesh, drinking wine and hunting deer in sacred places. Jambaka described Graharipu as a very strong king, and declared that only Mularaja was capable of defeating him. Both the ministers urged Mularaja to attack Graharipu.[13]

Mularaja launched a campaign against Graharipu on the day of Vijayadashami. Graharipu attempted a peaceful resolution through a messenger, who informed Mularaja that Graharipu had no enmity with him. However, Mularaja turned the messenger away, and continued his march. Graharipu then started his war preparations. His allies included Medas, his friend's son Laksha, and a king named Sindhuraja. After the war began, he was joined by a mlechchha chief (who according to the Hemachandra's commentator Abhayatilaka Gani, was a Turushka).[14][15]

Mularaja was supported by the kings Gangamaha of Gangadvara and his younger brother, Mahirata, Revatimitra, and Shailaprastha. The Paramara king of Abu and Srimala also joined him. In addition, Mularaja was supported by the Bhillas and the Kauravas. After the battle began, several others including the king of Saptakashi and a number of Gujarati soldiers, joined him.[14][16]

The battle took place on the river Jambumalli (identified as Bhogavo river in Saurashtra on which banks a village named Jambu near Limbdi is located). The battle continued for two days indecisively. On third day, Mularaja entered battle on an elephant and Graharipu mounted on his elephant in rage. Mularaja overpowered Graharipu in a single combat and throw him down from his elephant, and had him tied up with ropes.[10][14][16]

Laksha, wearing white clothes, rushed in and abused Mularaja calling him Mula.[10] He asked Mularaja to release Graharipu, but Mularaja refused to comply, on the grounds that the captive was a beef-eater. This led to another single combat, in which Mularaja killed Laksha with a spear. The men of Saurashtra then made a submission before Mularaja, dressed as women. Queen and children of Graharipu request Mularaja to release him which he does. The king then released the prisoners and visited Prabhasa.[17][12] According to Abhayatilakagani, Mularaja prayed on the day of Shivaratri. Within five-six days, Mularaja returned capital with 108 elephants.[10]

Hemachandra has mentioned him as an Abhira and a Yadava chief.[18] The fight between Mularaja and Laksha has also been mentioned by the 14th century writer Merutunga in Prabandhachintamani. According to this version, Laksha (or Lakha) was the ruler of Kachchha. He was son of Phulada and Kamalata, daughter of Parmara king Kirtiraja. He had repulsed Mularaja's attacks 11 times. However, in their 12th fight, Mularaja besieged his fort Kapilkot (now Kera, Kutch), killed him, and trod him on his beard. Enraged by his insulting action, Laksha's mother cursed Mularaja's family to be afflicted with leprosy. The similar account is also given in Kumarapalacharita.[17][16]

Laksha appears to be a historical character, as he has been mentioned in several other chronicles as well. The other kings listed by Hemachandra appear to be fictional names. Historian Asoke Majumdar theorizes that Mularaja attacked Graharipu on "some flimsy pretext", as Mahadeva's-order-in-a-dream was a popular device used by Sanskrit authors to justify the otherwise inexcusable actions of their heroes. Mularaja's descendants fought against the kings of Kachchha and Saurashtra, so it appears that he managed to subjugate these territories only partially.[17]

Religion[edit]

The Jain authors present Mularaja as fully involved in Vedic and Brahmanical notions of kingship, while at the same time extensively supporting the Jains as a matter of royal policy.[19] Although he was a Shaivaite, he built Mulavasatika (Mula's residence) temple for Digambaras and the Mulanatha-jinadeva (the Jina who is Mula's lord) temple for the Svetambaras.[7]

Surathotsava of Someshvara, a thirteenth century Brahmana, describes Mularaja being consecrated as king through the performance of a Vedic Vajapeya sacrifice.[7]

Temples[edit]

The original Rudra Mahalaya Temple at Shristhala (now Siddhpur) is ascribed to him traditionally. According to Kadi copperplate grant, Rudra Mahalaya was already there in 987 CE. He had constructed Munjaladevaswami and Tripurushaprasada temples in Anahilapataka (now Patan). He had also built Mulnarayana-prasada at Siddhpur. The Mulavasahika Jain temple is ascribed to him. Jinaprabha mentions the temple of Mulanathjinadeva which is probably same as Munjaladevaswami. In 954 CE, Minister Kunkana built a Jain temple at Chandravati which was consecrated by Sarvadevasuri. The Mulavastika temple in Patan constructed by Mularaja is also mentioned in an Digambara Jain inscription dated Samvat 1250s of Bhima II rule. Merutunga's Prabandhachintamani mentions building of Muleshwara temple at Mandali (now Mandal) which is the same as Mulanathadeva temple mentioned in Kadi copperplate grants. This is last temple built before 987 CE.[20]

After defeating Graharipu, he had probably rebuilt large temple at Somnath. H. P. Shahstri and M. A. Dhaky had concluded this based on paleographic and stylistic evidences. He had settled Brahmans in Vadnagar migrated from North India. He probably had built Hatakeshwara temple for them but the original temple is obscured following major renovation in 19th century.[20]

Muni Bawa Temple near Thangadh is an extant temple of this period. The older part of Adinath temple at Vadnagar and ruins of Khokhra-dera at Kanthkot were built during later period of his reign. The temple of Harishchandra-ni-Chori in Shamlaji also belongs to this period.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 23.
  2. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen 2013, p. 28-29.
  3. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 7.
  4. ^ a b Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 22.
  5. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 21.
  6. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 498.
  7. ^ a b c John E. Cort 1998, p. 87.
  8. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, pp. 23-24.
  9. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, pp. 23-25.
  10. ^ a b c d Parikh, Rasiklal C. (1938). "Introduction". Kavyanushasana by Acharya Hemachandra. II Part I. Bombay: Shri Mahavira Jaina Vidyalaya. pp. CXXIII–CXXVI. 
  11. ^ Majumdar 1956, pp. 25-26.
  12. ^ a b Lalit Kalā Akademi (1979). Lalit kalā. Lalit Kalā Akademi. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  13. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 25.
  14. ^ a b c Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 26.
  15. ^ Banaras Hindu University. College of Indology; Banaras Hindu University. Dept. of Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology (2001). Bhāratī: bulletin of the College of Indology. The College. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  16. ^ a b c Campbell, James Macnabb (1896). Gazetteer Of The Bombay Presidency: History of Gujarat. I. Part I. Bombay: The Government Central Press. pp. 159–160. 
  17. ^ a b c Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 27.
  18. ^ R. E. Enthoven. The Tribes and Castes of Bombay. Asian Educational Services. p. 25. ISBN 978-81-206-0630-2. 
  19. ^ John E. Cort 1998, p. 86.
  20. ^ a b c Dhaky, Madhusudan A. (1961). Deva, Krishna, ed. "The Chronology of the Solanki Temples of Gujarat". Journal of the Madhya Pradesh Itihas Parishad. Bhopal: Madhya Pradesh Itihas Parishad. 3: 20–23, 73. 

Bibliography[edit]