Page semi-protected

Mulatto

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Mulatto (/mjˈlæt/, /məˈlɑːt/) is a racial classification to refer to people of mixed African and European ancestry. Its use is considered outdated and offensive.[1][2] A mulatta (Spanish: mulata) is a female mulatto.[3][4]

Etymology

Juan de Pareja by Diego Velázquez, CE 1650 – Juan de Pareja was born into slavery in Spain. He was the son of an enslaved African-descended woman and a white Spanish father.

The English term and spelling mulatto is derived from the Spanish and Portuguese mulato. It was a common term in the Southeastern United States during the era of slavery. Some sources suggest that it may derive from the Portuguese word mula (from the Latin mūlus), meaning 'mule', the hybrid offspring of a horse and a donkey.[5][6] The Real Academia Española traces its origin to mulo in the sense of hybridity; originally used to refer to any mixed race person.[7] The term is now generally considered outdated and offensive in non-Spanish and non-Portuguese speaking countries,[8] and was considered offensive even in the 19th century.[9]

Jack D. Forbes suggests it originated in the Arabic term muwallad, which means 'a person of mixed ancestry'.[10] Muwallad literally means 'born, begotten, produced, generated; brought up', with the implication of being born and raised among Arabs, but not of Arab blood. Muwallad is derived from the root word WaLaD (Arabic: ولد, direct Arabic transliteration: waw, lam, dal) and colloquial Arabic pronunciation can vary greatly. Walad means 'descendant, offspring, scion; child; son; boy; young animal, young one'.

In al-Andalus, muwallad referred to the offspring of non-Arab Muslim people who adopted the Islamic religion and manners. Specifically, the term was historically applied to the descendants of indigenous Christian Iberians who, after several generations of living among a Muslim majority, adopted their culture and religion. Notable examples of this category include the famous Muslim scholar Ibn Hazm. According to Lisan al-Arab, one of the earliest Arab dictionaries (c. 13th century AD), applied the term to the children of non-Muslim (often Christian) slaves or non-Muslim children who were captured in a war and were raised by Muslims to follow their religion and culture. Thus, in this context, the term muwallad has a meaning close to 'the adopted'. According to the same source, the term does not denote being of mixed-race but rather being of foreign-blood and local culture.

In English, printed usage of mulatto dates to at least the 16th century. The 1595 work Drake's Voyages first used the term in the context of intimate unions producing biracial children. The Oxford English Dictionary defined mulatto as "one who is the offspring of a European and a Black". This earliest usage regarded "black" and "white" as discrete "species", with the "mulatto" constituting a third separate "species".[11]

According to Julio Izquierdo Labrado,[12] the 19th-century linguist Leopoldo Eguilaz y Yanguas, as well as some Arabic sources[13] muwallad is the etymological origin of mulato. These sources specify that mulato would have been derived directly from muwallad independently of the related word muladí, a term that was applied to Iberian Christians who had converted to Islam during the Moorish governance of Iberia in the Middle Ages.

The Real Academia Española (Spanish Royal Academy) casts doubt on the muwallad theory. It states, "The term mulata is documented in our diachronic data bank in 1472 and is used in reference to livestock mules in Documentacion medieval de la Corte de Justicia de Ganaderos de Zaragoza, whereas muladí (from mullawadí) does not appear until the 18th century, according to [Joan] Corominas".[nb 1]

Scholars such as Werner Sollors cast doubt on the mule etymology for mulatto. In the 18th and 19th centuries, racialists such as Edward Long and Josiah Nott began to assert that mulattoes were sterile like mules. They projected this belief back onto the etymology of the word mulatto. Sollors points out that this etymology is anachronistic: "The Mulatto sterility hypothesis that has much to do with the rejection of the term by some writers is only half as old as the word 'Mulatto'."[15]

Africa

Of São Tomé and Príncipe's 193,413 inhabitants, the largest segment is classified as mestiço, or mixed race.[16] 71% of the population of Cape Verde is also classified as such.[17] The great majority of their current populations descend from unions between the Portuguese, who colonized the islands from the 15th century onward, and black Africans they brought from the African mainland to work as slaves. In the early years, mestiços began to form a third-class between the Portuguese colonists and African slaves, as they were usually bilingual and often served as interpreters between the populations.

In Angola and Mozambique, the mestiço constitute smaller but still important minorities; 2% in Angola[18] and 0.2% in Mozambique.[19]

Mulatto and mestiço are not terms commonly used in South Africa to refer to people of mixed ancestry. The persistence of some authors in using this term, anachronistically, reflects the old-school essentialist views of race as a de facto biological phenomenon, and the 'mixing' of race as legitimate grounds for the creation of a 'new race'. This disregards cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity and/or differences between regions and globally among populations of mixed ancestry.[20]

In Namibia, an ethnic group known as Rehoboth Basters, descend from historic liaisons between the Cape Colony Dutch and indigenous African women. The name Baster is derived from the Dutch word for 'bastard' (or 'crossbreed'). While some people consider this term demeaning, the Basters proudly use the term as an indication of their history. In the early 21st century, they number between 20,000 and 30,000 people. There are, of course, other people of mixed race in the country.

South Africa

In South Africa, Coloured is a term used to refer to individuals with some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry but subjectively 'not enough' to be considered 'black' under the Apartheid era law of South Africa. Today these people self-identify as 'Coloured'. Other Afrikaans terms used include Bruinmense (translates to 'brown people'), Kleurlinge (translates to 'Coloured') or Bruin Afrikaners (translates to 'brown Africans' and is used to distinguish them from the main body of Afrikaners (translates to 'African') who are white). Under Apartheid law through the latter half of the 20th century, the government established seven categories of Coloured people: Cape Coloured, Cape Malay, Griqua and Other Coloured – the aim of subdivisions was to enhance the meaning of the larger category of Coloured by making it all encompassing. Legally and politically speaking, all people of colour were classified "black" in the non-racial terms of anti-Apartheid rhetoric of the Black Consciousness Movement.[21]

In addition to European ancestry, the Coloured people usually had some portion of Asian ancestry from immigrants from India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, China and/or Saint Helena. Based on the Population Registration Act to classify people, the government passed laws prohibiting mixed marriages. Many people who classified as belonging to the "Asian" category could legally intermarry with "mixed-race" people because they shared the same nomenclature.[21] There was extensive combining of these diverse heritages in the Western Cape.

In other parts of South Africa and neighboring states, the coloured usually were descendants of two primary ethnic groups - primarily Africans of various tribes and European colonists of various tribes, with generations of coloured forming families. The use of the term Coloured has changed over the course of history. For instance, in the first census after the South African war (1912), Indians were counted as 'Coloured'. But before and after this war, they were counted as 'Asiatic'.[22]

In KwaZulu-Natal, most Coloureds (that were classified as "other coloureds") had British and Zulu heritage. Zimbabwean coloureds were descended from Shona or Ndebele mixing with British and Afrikaner settlers.

Griqua, on the other hand, are descendants of Khoisan and Afrikaner trekboers, with contributions from central Southern African groups.[23] The Griqua were subjected to an ambiguity of other creole people within Southern African social order. According to Nurse and Jenkins (1975), the leader of this "mixed" group, Adam Kok I, was a former slave of the Dutch governor. He was manumitted and provided land outside Cape Town in the eighteenth century. With territories beyond the Dutch East India Company administration, Kok provided refuge to deserting soldiers, refugee slaves, and remaining members of various Khoikhoi tribes.[21]

Afro-European tribes and clans

Latin America and the Caribbean

Mulattoes in colonial Spanish America

Spaniard + Negra, Mulatto. Miguel Cabrera. Mexico 1763

Africans were transported by Portuguese slave traders to Spanish America starting in the early 16th century. Offspring of Spaniards and African women resulted early on in mixed-race children, termed mulattoes. In Spanish law, the status of the child followed that of the mother, so that despite having a Spanish parent, their offspring were enslaved. The label mulatto was recorded in official colonial documentation, so that marriage registers, censuses, and court documents allow research on different aspects of mulattoes’ lives. Although some legal documents simply label a person a mulatto/a, other designations occurred. In the sales of casta slaves in 17th-century Mexico City, official notaries recorded gradations of skin color in the transactions. These included mulato blanco or mulata blanca ('white mulatto'), for light-skinned slave. These were usually American-born (criollo) slaves. Some said categorized persons i.e. mulata blanca used their light skin to their advantage if they escaped their unlawful and brutal incarceration from their criminal slave owners, thus 'passing' as free persons of color. Mulatos blancos often emphasized their Spanish parentage, and considered themselves and were considered separate from negros or pardos and ordinary mulattoes. Darker mulatto slaves were often termed mulatos prietos or sometimes mulatos cochos.[24] In Chile, along with mulatos blancos, there were also españoles oscuros ('dark Spaniards').[25]

There was considerable malleability and manipulation of racial labeling, including the seemingly stable category of mulatto. In a case that came before the Mexican Inquisition, a woman publicly identified as a mulatta was described by a Spanish priest, Diego Xaimes Ricardo Villavicencio, as "a white mulata with curly hair, because she is the daughter of a dark-skinned mulata and a Spaniard, and for her manner of dress she has flannel petticoats and a native blouse (huipil), sometimes silken, sometimes woolen. She wears shoes, and her natural and common language is not Spanish, but Chocho [an indigenous Mexican language], as she was brought up among Indians with her mother, from which she contracted the vice of drunkenness, to which she often succumbs, as Indians do, and from them she has also received the crime of [idolatry]." Community members were interrogated as to their understanding of her racial standing. Her mode of dress, very wavy hair and light skin confirmed for one witness that she was a mulatta. Ultimately though, her rootedness in the indigenous community persuaded the Inquisition that she was an India, and therefore outside of their jurisdiction.[26] Even though the accused had physical features of a mulatta, her cultural category was more important. In colonial Latin America, mulato could also refer to an individual of mixed African and Native American ancestry, but the term zambo was more consistently used for that racial mixture.[27]

Dominican friar Thomas Gage spent over a decade in the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the early 17th century; he converted to Anglicanism and later wrote of his travels, often disparaging Spanish colonial society and culture. In Mexico City, he observed in considerable detail the opulence of dress of women, writing that "The attire of this baser sort of people of blackamoors and mulattoes (which are of a mixed nature, of Spaniards and blackamoors) is so light, and their carriage so enticing, that many Spaniards even of the better sort (who are too too [sic] prone to venery) disdain their wives for them... Most of these are or have been slaves, though love have set them loose, at liberty to enslave souls to sin and Satan."[28]

In the late 18th century, some mixed-race persons sought legal "certificates of whiteness" (cédulas de gracias al sacar), in order to rise socially and practice professions. American-born Spaniards (criollos) sought to prevent the approval of such petitions, since the "purity" of their own whiteness would be in jeopardy. They asserted their "purity of blood" (limpieza de sangre) as white persons who had "always been known, held and commonly reputed to be white persons, Old Christians of the nobility, clean of all bad blood and without any mixture of commoner, Jew, Moor, Mulatto, or converso in any degree, no matter how remote."[29] Spaniards both American- and Iberian-born discriminated against pardos and mulattoes because of their "bad blood." One Cuban sought the grant of his petition in order to practice as a surgeon, a profession from which he was barred because of his mulatto designation. Royal laws and decrees prevented pardos and mulattoes from serving as a public notary, lawyer, pharmacist, ordination to the priesthood, or graduation from university. Mulattas declared white could marry a Spaniard.[30]

Gallery

Mulattoes in the modern era

Brazil

A Redenção de Cam (Redemption of Ham), by Galician painter Modesto Brocos, 1895, Museu Nacional de Belas Artes. (Brazil) The painting depicts a black grandmother, mulatta mother, white father and their quadroon child, hence three generations of hypergamy through racial whitening.

According to the IBGE 2000 census, 38.5% of Brazilians identified as pardo, i.e. of mixed ancestry.[31][32] This figure includes mulatto and other multiracial people, such as people who have European and Amerindian ancestry (called caboclos), as well as assimilated, westernized Amerindians, and mestizos with some Asian ancestry. A majority of mixed-race Brazilians have all three ancestries: Amerindian, European, and African. According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics census 2006, some 42.6% of Brazilian identify as pardo, an increase over the 2000 census.[33]

According to genetic studies, some of those who identify as White Brazilians (48.4%) also have some mixed-race ancestry (both Subsaharan African and Amerindian ancestry). Brazilians who identify as de raça negra or de cor preta, i.e. Brazilians of Black African origin, make up 6.9% of the population; genetic studies show their average total ancestry is still mixed: 40% African, 50% European, and 10% Amerindian, but they likely grew up within visibly black communities.

Such autosomal DNA studies, which measure total genetic contribution, continue to reveal differences between how individuals identify, which is usually based in family and close community, with genetic ancestry, which may relate to a distant past they know little about.[34][35] An autosomal DNA study from Rio de Janeiro poor periphery showed that self-perception and real ancestry may not go hand in hand. "The results of the tests of genomic ancestry are quite different from the self made estimates of European ancestry", say the researchers. The test results showed that the proportion of European genetic ancestry was higher than students expected. When questioned before the test, students who identified as pardos, for example, identified as 1/3 European, 1/3 African and 1/3 Amerindian.[36][37] On the other hand, students classified as "white" tended to overestimate their proportion of African and Amerindian genetic ancestry.[36]

Haiti

Mulattoes account for up to 5% of Haiti's population. In Haitian history, such mixed-race people, known in colonial times as free people of color, gained some education and property before the Revolution. In some cases, their white fathers arranged for multiracial sons to be educated in France and join the military, giving them an advance economically. Free people of color gained some social capital and political power before the Revolution, were influential during the Revolution and since then. The people of color have retained their elite position, based on education and social capital, that is apparent in the political, economic and cultural hierarchy in present-day Haiti. Numerous leaders throughout Haiti's history have been people of color.[38]

Many Haitian mulattoes were slaveholders and often actively participated in the oppression of the black majority.[39] Some Dominican mulattoes were also slave owners.[40]

Jean-Pierre Boyer, the mulatto ruler of Haiti (1818–43)

The Haitian Revolution was started by mulattoes. The subsequent struggle within Haiti between the mulattoes led by André Rigaud and the black Haitians led by Toussaint Louverture devolved into the War of Knives.[41][42] With secret aid from the United States,[43] Toussaint eventually won the conflict and made himself ruler of the entire island of Hispaniola. Napoleon ordered for Charles Leclerc and a substantial army to put down the rebellion; Leclerc seized Toussaint in 1802 and deported him to France, where he died in prison a year later. Leclerc was succeeded by General Rochambeau. With reinforcements from France and Poland, Rochambeau began a bloody campaign against the mulattoes and intensified operations against the blacks, importing bloodhounds to track and kill them. Thousands of black POW and suspects were chained to cannonballs and tossed into the sea.[44] Historians of the Haitian Revolution credit Rochambeau's brutal tactics for uniting black and mulatto soldiers against the French.

In 1806, Haiti divided into a black-controlled north and a mulatto-ruled south. Haitian President Jean-Pierre Boyer, the son of a Frenchman and a former African slave, managed to unify a divided Haiti but excluded blacks from power. In 1847, a black military officer named Faustin Soulouque was made president, with the mulattoes supporting him; but, instead of proving a tool in the hands of the senators, he showed a strong will, and, although by his antecedents belonging to the mulatto party, he began to attach the blacks to his interest. The mulattoes retaliated by conspiring; but Soulouque began to decimate his enemies by confiscation, proscriptions, and executions. The black soldiers began a general massacre in Port-au-Prince, which ceased only after the French consul, Charles Reybaud, threatened to order the landing of marines from the men-of-war in the harbor.

Puerto Rico

Don Miguel Enríquez, a Puerto Rican privateer, is the only known mulatto knighted by the Monarchy of Spain.

In keeping with Spanish practice, for most of its colonial period, Puerto Rico had laws such as the Regla del Sacar or Gracias al Sacar. A person with African ancestry could be considered legally white if he could prove that at least one person per generation in the last four generations had been legally white. People of black ancestry with known white lineage were classified as white, in contrast to the "one-drop rule" put into law in the early 20th century in the United States. In colonial and antebellum times in certain locations, persons of three-quarters or more white ancestry were considered legally white.[45]

United States

Colonial and Antebellum eras

Advertisement in the Virginia Gazette placed by Thomas Jefferson offering a reward for his escaped slave named Sandy who was defined as "mulatto".[46]

Historians have documented sexual abuse of enslaved women during the colonial and post-revolutionary slavery times by white men in power: planters, their sons before marriage, overseers, etc., which resulted in many multiracial children born into slavery. Starting with Virginia in 1662, colonies adopted the principle of partus sequitur ventrem in slave law, which said that children born in the colony were born into the status of their mother. Thus, children born to slave mothers were born into slavery, regardless of who their fathers were and whether they were baptized as Christians. Children born to white mothers were free, even if they were mixed-race. Children born to free mixed-race mothers were also free.

Paul Heinegg has documented that most of the free people of color listed in the 1790–1810 censuses in the Upper South were descended from unions and marriages during the colonial period in Virginia between white women, who were free or indentured servants, and African or African-American men, servant, slave or free. In the early colonial years, such working-class people lived and worked closely together, and slavery was not as much of a racial caste. Slave law had established that children in the colony took the status of their mothers. This meant that multi-racial children born to white women were born free. The colony required them to serve lengthy indentures if the woman was not married, but nonetheless, numerous individuals with African ancestry were born free, and formed more free families. Over the decades, many of these free people of color became leaders in the African-American community; others married increasingly into the white community.[47][48] His findings have been supported by DNA studies and other contemporary researchers as well.[49]

A daughter born to a South Asian father and Irish mother in Maryland in 1680, both of whom probably came to the colony as indentured servants, was classified as a "mulatto" and sold into slavery.[50]

Historian F. James Davis says,

Rapes occurred, and many slave women were forced to submit regularly to white males or suffer harsh consequences. However, slave girls often courted a sexual relationship with the master, or another male in the family, as a way of gaining distinction among the slaves, avoiding field work, and obtaining special jobs and other favored treatment for their mixed children (Reuter, 1970:129). Sexual contacts between the races also included prostitution, adventure, concubinage, and sometimes love. In rare instances, where free blacks were concerned, there was marriage (Bennett, 1962:243–68).[51]

Creole woman with black servant, New Orleans, 1867.

Historically in the American South, the term mulatto was also applied at times to persons with mixed Native American and African American ancestry.[52] For example, a 1705 Virginia statute reads as follows:

"And for clearing all manner of doubts which hereafter may happen to arise upon the construction of this act, or any other act, who shall be accounted a mulatto, Be it enacted and declared, and it is hereby enacted and declared, That the child of an Indian and the child, grand child, or great grand child, of a negro shall be deemed, accounted, held and taken to be a mulatto."[53]

However, southern colonies began to prohibit Indian slavery in the eighteenth century, so, according to their own laws, even mixed-race children born to Native American women should be considered free. The societies did not always observe this distinction.

Certain Native American tribes of the Inocoplo family in Texas referred to themselves as "mulatto".[54] At one time, Florida's laws declared that a person from any number of mixed ancestries would be legally defined as a mulatto, including White/Hispanic, Black/Native American, and just about any other mix as well.[55]

In the United States, due to the influence and laws making slavery a racial caste, and later practices of hypodescent, white colonists and settlers tended to classify persons of mixed African and Native American ancestry as black, regardless of how they identified themselves, or sometimes as Black Indians. But many tribes had matrilineal kinship systems and practices of absorbing other peoples into their cultures. Multiracial children born to Native American mothers were customarily raised in her family and specific tribal culture. Federally recognized Native American tribes have insisted that identity and membership is related to culture rather than race, and that individuals brought up within tribal culture are fully members, regardless of whether they also have some European or African ancestry. Many tribes have had mixed-race members who identify primarily as members of the tribes.

If the multiracial children were born to slave women (generally of at least partial African descent), they were classified under slave law as slaves. This was to the advantage of slaveowners, as Indian slavery had been abolished. If mixed-race children were born to Native American mothers, they should be considered free, but sometimes slaveholders kept them in slavery anyway. Multiracial children born to slave mothers were generally raised within the African-American community and considered "black".[52]

Influence

Some mixed-race people in the South became wealthy enough to become slave owners themselves. At times they held family members in slavery when there were many restrictions against freeing slaves. By the time of the Civil War, many mixed-race persons, or free people of color, who were accepted in the society supported the Confederacy. For example, William Ellison owned 60 slaves. Andrew Durnford of New Orleans, which had a large population of free people of color, mostly of French descent and Catholic culture, was listed in the census as owning 77 slaves. In Louisiana free people of color constituted a third class between white colonists and the mass of slaves.[56]

Other multiracial people became abolitionists and supported the Union. Frederick Douglass escaped slavery and became nationally known as an abolitionist in the North.

In other examples, Mary Ellen Pleasant and Thomy Lafon of New Orleans used their fortunes to support the abolitionist cause. Francis E. Dumas, also a free person of color in New Orleans, emancipated all his slaves and organized them into a company in the Second Regiment of the Louisiana Native Guards.[57]

Contemporary era

Mulatto was used as an official census racial category in the United States, to acknowledge multiracial persons, until 1930.[58] (In the early 20th century, several southern states had adopted the one-drop rule as law, and southern Congressmen pressed the US Census Bureau to drop the mulatto category: they wanted all persons to be classified as "black" or "white".)[59][60][61]

In the 2000 United States Census, 6,171 Americans self-identified as having mulatto ancestry.[62] Since then, persons responding to the census have been allowed to identify as having more than one type of ethnic ancestry.

Colonial references

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Corominas describes his doubts on the theory as follows: "[Mulato] does not derive from the Arab muwállad, 'acculturated foreigner' and sometimes 'mulatto' (see 'Mdí'), as Eguílaz would have it, since this word was pronounced 'moo-EL-led' in the Arabic of Spain. In the 19th century, Reinhart Dozy (Supplément aux Dictionnaires Arabes, Vol. II, Leyden, 1881, 841a) rejected this Arabic etymology, indicating the true one, supported by the Arabic nagîl, 'mulatto', derived from nagl, 'mule'."[14]
Citations
  1. ^ "MULATTO | Definition of MULATTO by Oxford Dictionary on Lexico.com also meaning of MULATTO". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  2. ^ Mulatto – dictionary.com
  3. ^ "Mulatta definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  4. ^ "mulato | Traducción de MULATTO al inglés por Oxford Dictionary en Lexico.com y también el significado de MULATTO en español". Lexico Dictionaries | Español (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  5. ^ "Chambers Dictionary of Etymology". Robert K. Barnhart. Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd. 2003. p. 684.
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mulatto". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  7. ^ "Mulato". Real Academia Española. Retrieved 14 June 2017. De mulo, en el sentido de híbrido, aplicado primero a cualquier mestizo
  8. ^ Kimberly McClain DaCosta (2007). Making Multiracials: State, Family, and Market in the Redrawing of the Color Line. Stanford University Press. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-0-8047-5545-0. Although the "mulatto" ad is supposed to be streetwise, authentic, and hip, the mixed-race character's use of an outdated, even offensive, term to refer to herself belies such assertions.
  9. ^ Nicholas Patrick Beck (1975). The Other Children: Minority Education in California Public Schools from Statehood to 1890. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 132. Strictly speaking, a "mulatto" is the first-generation offspring of a white and a Negro. Often regarded, even in the 19th century, as an offensive term, the word was frequently used to indicate a person of any mixture of caucasian and Negro ancestry.
  10. ^ Jack D. Forbes (1993). Africans and Native Americans: the language of race and the evolution of Red-Black peoples. University of Illinois Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-252-06321-3.
  11. ^ David S. Goldstein; Audrey B. Thacker, eds. (2007). Complicating Constructions: Race, Ethnicity, and Hybridity in American Texts. University of Washington Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0295800745. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  12. ^ Izquierdo Labrado, Julio. "La esclavitud en Huelva y Palos (1570-1587)" (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  13. ^ Salloum, Habeeb. "The impact of the Arabic language and culture on English and other European languages". The Honorary Consulate of Syria. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  14. ^ Corominas, Joan and Pascual, José A. (1981). Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico, Vol. ME-RE (4). Madrid: Editorial Gredos. ISBN 84-249-1362-0.
  15. ^ Werner Sollors, Neither Black Nor White Yet Both, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 129.
  16. ^ "São Tomé and Príncipe". Infoplease. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  17. ^ "Cape Verde". Infoplease. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  18. ^ "Angola". Infoplease. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  19. ^ "Mozambique". Infoplease. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  20. ^ results, search (17 November 2005). Not White Enough, Not Black Enough: Racial Identity in the South African Coloured Community (1st ed.). Athens: Ohio University Press. ISBN 9780896802445.
  21. ^ a b c Palmer, Fileve T. (April 2015). Through a Coloured Lens: Post-Apartheid Indentity amongst Coloureds in KZN (Thesis). hdl:2022/19854.
  22. ^ Christopher, A.J. (2009). "Delineating the nation: South African censuses 1865–2007". Political Geography. 28 (2): 101–109. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2008.12.003. ISSN 0962-6298.
  23. ^ The Griqua mission at Philippolis, 1822-1837. Schoeman, Karel. Pretoria, South Africa: Protea Book House. 2005. ISBN 978-1869190170. OCLC 61189833.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  24. ^ Vinson, Ben III. (2018). Before Mestizaje: The Frontiers of Race and Caste in Colonial Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 82–83, 86. ISBN 978-1-107-02643-8.
  25. ^ Undurraga Schüler, Verónica (2009). "Españoles oscuros y mulatos blancos: Identidades múltiples y disfraces del color en el ocaso de la colonia chilena: 1778–1820". In Gaune, Rafael; Lara, Martín (eds.). Historias de racismo y discriminación en Chile (in Spanish). Santiago. pp. 341–68. ISBN 978-956-8601-61-4.
  26. ^ Tavárez, David. "Legally Indian: Inquistorial Readings of Indigenous Identity in New Spain” in Imperial Subjects: Race and Identity in Colonial Latin America. Eds. Andrew B. Fisher and Matthew D. O’Hara. Durham: Duke University Press 2009, (quoting AGN Mexico, Inquisition 669, no, 10m 481r-v) pp. 91-93.
  27. ^ Schwaller, Robert C. (2010). "Mulata, Hija de Negro y India: Afro-Indigenous Mulatos in Early Colonial Mexico". Journal of Social History. 44 (3): 889–914. doi:10.1353/jsh.2011.0007. PMID 21853621. S2CID 40656601.
  28. ^ Thompson, J. Eric S., ed. (1958) [1648]. Thomas Gage's Travels in the New World. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 68–69. OCLC 229491.
  29. ^ Twinam, Ann. "Purchasing Whiteness: Conversations on the Essence of Pardo-ness and Mulatto-ness at the End of Empire" in Imperial Subjects, p. 146.
  30. ^ Twinam, "Purchasing Whiteness" p. 147.
  31. ^ "Last stage of publication of the 2000 Census presents the definitive results, with information about the 5,507 Brazilian municipalities". Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  32. ^ "Populaçăo residente, por cor ou raça, segundo a situaçăo do domicÌlio e os grupos de idade - Brasil" (PDF). Censo Demográfico 2000. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  33. ^ Síntese de indicadores sociais 2006 (PDF). IBGE. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2007.[page needed]
  34. ^ Alves-Silva, Juliana; da Silva Santos, Magda; Guimarães, Pedro E. M.; Ferreira, Alessandro C. S.; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Prado, Vania Ferreira (2000). "The Ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA Lineages". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (2): 444–461. doi:10.1086/303004. PMC 1287189. PMID 10873790.
  35. ^ Ferreira, Luzitano Brandão; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Wiezel, Cláudia Emília Vieira; Luizon, Marcelo Rizzatti; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz (2006). "Y-STR diversity and ethnic admixture in White and Mulatto Brazilian population samples". Genetics and Molecular Biology. 29 (4): 605–607. doi:10.1590/S1415-47572006000400004.
  36. ^ a b "Rio de Janeiro's Black and Multiracial people carry more European ancestry in their genes than they supposed, according to research" Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine, MEIO News
  37. ^ Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Fry, Peter H.; Monteiro, Simone; Maio, Marcos Chor; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Bastos‐Rodrigues, Luciana; Pena, Sérgio D. J. (1 December 2009). "Color, Race, and Genomic Ancestry in Brazil: Dialogues between Anthropology and Genetics". Current Anthropology. 50 (6): 787–819. doi:10.1086/644532. PMID 20614657. S2CID 7497968.
  38. ^ Smucker, Glenn R. "The Upper Class". A Country Study: Haiti (Richard A. Haggerty, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (December 1989).
  39. ^ "Haitian Revolution". Britannica.
  40. ^ "Anti-Haitianism, Historical Memory, and the Potential for Genocidal Violence in the Dominican Republic".
  41. ^ Corbett, Bob. "The Haitian Revolution of 1791-1803". Webster University.
  42. ^ Smucker, Glenn R. "Toussaint Louverture". A Country Study: Haiti (Richard A. Haggerty, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (December 1989).
  43. ^ "Jefferson on the Haitian Revolution".
  44. ^ Clodfelter, Micheal (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015 (4th ed.). McFarland. p. 141. ISBN 978-0786474707.
  45. ^ Kinsbruner, Jay (1996). Not of Pure Blood. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822318423.
  46. ^ "Fugitive Slave Laws". Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  47. ^ Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, 1995–2005, Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co, 1995-2005
  48. ^ Dorothy Schneider, Carl J. Schneider, Slavery in America, Infobase Publishing, 2007, pp. 86–87.
  49. ^ Felicia R Lee, "Family Tree’s Startling Roots", New York Times. Accessed November 3, 2013.
  50. ^ Assisi, Francis C. (2005). "Indian-American Scholar Susan Koshy Probes Interracial Sex". INDOlink. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
  51. ^ Floyd James Davis, Who Is Black?: One Nation's Definition, pp. 38–39
  52. ^ a b Miles, Tiya (2008). Ties that Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25002-4. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
  53. ^ General Assembly of Virginia (1823). "4th Anne Ch. IV (October 1705)". In Hening, William Waller (ed.). Statutes at Large. Philadelphia. p. 252. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  54. ^ "Mulato Indians". The Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  55. ^ Sewell, Christopher Scott; Hill, S. Pony (1 June 2011). The Indians of North Florida: From Carolina to Florida, the Story of the Survival of a Distinct American Indian Community. Backintyme. p. 19. ISBN 9780939479375. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  56. ^ Joseph Conlin (2011). The American Past: A Survey of American History. Cengage Learning, p. 370. ISBN 111134339X
  57. ^ Thompson, Shirley Elizabeth (2009). Exiles at Home: The Struggle to Become American in Creole New Orleans. Harvard University Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-674-02351-2.
  58. ^ Schor, Paul (2017). "The Disappearance of the 'Mulatto' as the End of Inquiry into the Composition of the Black Population of the United States". Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 155–168. ISBN 978-0-19-991785-3.
  59. ^ "Introduction". Mitsawokett: A 17th Century Native American Community in Central Delaware.
  60. ^ "Walter Plecker's Racist Crusade Against Virginia's Native Americans". Mitsawokett: A 17th Century Native American Settlement in Delaware. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  61. ^ Heite, Louise. "Introduction and statement of historical problem". Delaware's Invisible Indians. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  62. ^ "Mulatto ancestry in 2000 U.S census". Census.gov. Retrieved 17 August 2018.

Further reading

External links