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Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek or Melekh (Phoenician: 𐤌𐤋𐤊; Arabic: ملك; Hebrew: מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.
Although the early forms of the name were to be found among the Pre-Arab and Pre-Islamic Semites of The Levant, Canaan, and Mesopotamia, it has since been adopted in various other, mainly but not exclusively Islamized or Arabized non-Semitic Asian languages for their ruling princes and to render kings elsewhere. It is also sometimes used in derived meanings.
The name Malik was originally found among various pre-Arab and non-Muslim Semitic peoples such as the indigenous ethnic Assyrians of Iraq, Amorites, Jews, Arameans, Mandeans, Syriacs, Nabateans and pre-Islamic Arabs. It has since been spread among various predominantly Muslim and non-Semitic peoples in Central Asia, the Middle East, and South Asia. Malik is also an angel in the Quran that never smiled since the day the hellfire was created.
The last name "Malik" or "Malík" may also be of West Slavic origin, most predominantly Polish, Czech, and Slovakian, as it comes from a Polish word "mały" meaning "small". It's comparable with surnames such as "Malicki", "Maliczek", or "Malikowski".
Malik is also used as a surname by communities following Hinduism living in India.
The earliest form of the name Maloka was used to denote a prince or chieftain in the East Semitic Akkadian language of the Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea. The Northwest Semitic mlk was the title of the rulers of the primarily Amorite, Sutean, Canaanite, Phoenician and Aramean city-states of the Levant and Canaan from the Late Bronze Age. Eventual derivatives include the Aramaic, Neo-Assyrian, Mandic and Arabic forms: Malik, Malek, Mallick, Malkha, Malka, Malkai and the Hebrew form Melek.
Moloch has been traditionally interpreted the epithet of a god, known as "the king" like Baal was an epithet "the master" and Adon an epithet "the lord", but in the case of Moloch purposely mispronounced as Molek instead of Melek using the vowels of Hebrew bosheth "shame".
Primarily a malik is the ruling monarch of a kingdom, called mamlaka, title used by the former slaves aka Mamluks (مملوك) royal dynasty of Egypt; that term is however also used in a broader sense, like realm, for rulers with another, generally lower titles, as in Sahib al-Mamlaka. Malik is also used for tribal leaders, e.g. among the Pashtuns.
Some Arab kingdoms are presently ruled by a Malik:
- Bahrain, formerly under a hakim, or "ruler", until 16 August 1971, then under an emir, or "prince", and since 14 February 2002 under a malik.
- Jordan, formerly the Emirate of Transjordan;
- Morocco, formerly a Sultanate;
- Tunisia, formerly ruled by maliks, title still worn by descendants of the royal family;
- Saudi Arabia. On 10 June 1916 the Grand Sharif of Mecca assumed the title of King of the Hejaz; from 29 October 1916 "King of the Arabs and Commander of the Faithful"; from 6 November 1916 recognized by the allied powers only as King of the Hejaz, Commander of the Faithful, Grand Sharif and emir of Mecca; also assumed the title of Caliph on 11 March 1924; from 3 October 1924: King of the Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca. In 1925 Nejd conquered Hijaz, so the Sultan of Nejd added the title "King of Hijaz". On 22 September 1932 Nejd and Hejaz were renamed as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, full style: Malik al-Mamlaka al-'Arabiyya as-Sa'udiyya ("King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"); from 1986 prefixed to the name: Khadim al-Haramayn ash-Sharifayn ("Servant (i.e. Protector) of the Two Exalted Holy Places [Mecca and Medina]").
Other historic realms under a Malik include:
- Egypt — the former khedivate and subsequently independent sultanate was ruled by Malik Misr ("King of Egypt") from 1922 to 1951; and Malik Misr wa's Sudan ("King of Egypt and the Sudan") from 16 October 1951 until the proclamation of the republic on 18 June 1953
- Iraq — between 23 August 1921 and 2 May 1958, Iraq was ruled by a Hashemite Malik al-'Iraq ("King of Iraq"). Among the indigenous Assyrians and Kurdish Jews, the term has been (and still is) used since pre Arab and pre Islamic for the title of tribal chief, for example Malik Khoshaba of the Bit-Tyareh tribe.
- Libya — Idris I (1890–1983) (Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi, heir of a Muslim sect's dynasty) reigned as Malik al-Mamlaka al-Libiyya al-Muttahida ("King of the United Libyan Kingdom") from 24 December 1951 through 25 April 1963 and Malik al-Mamlaka al-Libiyya ("King of the Libyan Kingdom") until 1 September 1969
- Maldives — between 1965 and 1968, Muhammad Fareed Didi ruled Maldives as Jala'ala ul-Malik ("King" and the style of "His Majesty"); previous rulers were styled: Sultan of Land and Sea and Lord of the twelve-thousand islands, holding both the Arabic title of Sultan and the more ancient Divehi title of Maha Radun or Ras Kilege
- Oman — the Nabhani dynasty ruled Oman between 1154 and 1470, later it was an imamate/ Sultanate
- Yemen — between *1918 and 27 September 1962, and in dissidence to March 1970, the imamate of Yemen was ruled by Imam al-Muslimin, Amir al-Mu'minin, Malik al-Mamlaka al-Mutawakkiliyya al-Yamaniyya ("Imam of the Muslims, Commander of the Faithful, King of the Mutawakkilite Yemeni Kingdom")
- Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India - The Muslim rulers bestowed the title of Malik on loyal tribal leaders and chieftains in South Asia. The Mughal and colonial India, the princely state of Zainabad, Vanod was ruled by a Malek Shri (Shri is an emphatical honorific).
- In Armenia, the title of Melik was bestowed upon princes who ruled various principalities, often referred to as Melikdoms.
- In Georgia, among the numerous Grandees, often related to Armenia:
- In the fourth class, (Sul-didibuli-tavadi) of the Kingdom of Kartli, commanders of banners (sadrosho), sixth and last in that class, the Malik of Somkhiti (Somkhiti is the name of Armenia in Georgian).
- In the sixth class, Grandees of the second class (mtavari) of the Kingdom of Kartli, ranking first of the second subclass, Grandees under the Prince of Sabaratiano: the Malik of Lori (Lori - region in Armenia), head of the house of Melikishvili.
The word Malik is sometimes used in Arabic to render roughly equivalent titles of foreign rulers, for instance the chronicler Baha al-Din Ibn Shaddad refers to King Richard I of England as Malik al-Inkitar.
- In Pakistan Tanoli head of Village are called Malik in Villages
- It is also one of the Names of God in the Qur'an, and is then al-Malik (الملك) or The King, Lord of the Worlds in the absolute sense (denoted by the definite article), meaning the King of Kings, above all earthly rulers.
- Hence, Abdelmelik ("servant of [Allah] the King ") is an Arabic male name.
- In Biblical Hebrew, Moloch is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in North Africa and the Levant.
- Melqart ("king of the city") was a Phoenician and Punic god.
- The Melkites (from Syriac malkāyâ, ܡܠܟܝܐ, "imperial") are the members of several Christian churches of the Middle East, originally those who sided with the Byzantine emperor.
Compound and derived titles
- Malika is the female derivation, a term of Arabic origin used in Persia as the title for a Queen consort. Frequently also used as part of a lady's name, e.g. Malika-i-Jahan 'Queen of the World'.
- Sahib us-Sumuw al-Malik (female Sahibat us-Sumuw al-Malik) is an Arabic title for His/Her Royal Highness, notably for Princes in the dynasty of the Malik of Egypt.
The following components are frequently part of titles, notably in Persian (also used elsewhere, e.g. in India's Moghol tradition):
- - ul-Mulk (or ul-Molk): - of the kingdom; e.g. Malik Usman Khan, who served the Sultan of Gujarat as Governor of Lahore, received the title of Zubdat ul-Mulk 'best of the kingdom' as a hereditary distinction, which was retained as part of the style of his heirs, the ruling Diwans (only since 1910 promoted to Nawab) of Palanpur.
- - ul-Mamaluk (plural of ul-mulk): - of the kingdoms.
In the great Indian Muslim salute state of Hyderabad, a first rank- vassal of the Mughal padshah (emperor) imitating his lofty Persian court protocol, the word Molk became on itself one of the titles used for ennobled Muslim retainers of the ruling Nizam's court, in fact the third in rank, only below Jah (the highest) and Umara, but above Daula, Jang, Nawab, Khan Bahadur and Khan; for the Nizam's Hindu retainers different titles were used, the equivalent of Molk being Vant.
Usage in South Asia
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The Arabic term came to be adopted as a term for "tribal chieftain" in Afghanistan and the tribal areas of Pakistan, especially among Pashtuns, for a tribal leader or a chieftain. In tribal Pashtun society the Maliks serve as de facto arbiters in local conflicts, interlocutors in state policy-making, tax-collectors, heads of village and town councils and delegates to provincial and national jirgas as well as to Parliament. Malik is a common surname among every Pashtun family leader to solve the problem at the time of conflict with another family.
In the Punjab, "Malik", literally meaning "King" was one of the titles used by well-reputed specific aristocrat families with special lineage, more formally known as Zamindars. The actual Malik clan is also associated with different aspects throughout different generations and periods of history, It is believed that they originated as a clan of warriors while others believe they were wealthy landlords. The Malik clan holds significant historical importance & are considered as royalty among the Punjabi caste system. They are well known for their way of life as well as their martial traditions and customs. The Mughals also give the title of Malik to their Army Generals.
Malik or Malek is a common element in first and family names, usually without any aristocratic meaning, However Malik is a large community and a well known clan of the Awan tribe in Pakistan with Arab heritage.
Some Maliks (Urdu: ملک) are also a clan of Hindu Jatt, Muslim Jatt and a few Sikh Jatt, found primarily in Haryana and Pakistan and parts of Punjab (There also exist Hindu Punjabi Maliks that are part of the Khukhrain or Arora communities but they are entirely different from Jats). The Muslim Malik Jat community is settled all over Pakistan and the Sikh, mainly in the Punjab province. The Malik are also known as the Ghatwala. They are descended from Mann Jats. The Gathwala are now designating themselves as Maliks, which is a title.
List of notable Maliks
Malik Ameer Muhammad Khan, Nawab of Kalabagh and Governor of West Pakistan.
- Malik bin Anas, known as Imam Malik, one of the greatest Sunni Muslim scholars after whom the Maliki school of fiqh was named
- Malik Shabazz, also known as Malcolm X, an American Muslim leader and human rights activist
- Malik Bendjelloul, Swedish Academy Award-winning documentary filmmaker, journalist, and child actor
- Malik Feroz Khan Noon, former Prime Minister of Pakistan
- Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana, Punjab Unionist party Premier of the Punjab
- Malik Peiris, Sri Lankan scientist
- Malik Yoba, American actor and occasional singer.
- Shoaib Malik, Pakistani cricket player
- Veena Malik, Pakistani actress, TV host and model
- Zayn Malik, English former member of One Direction, now soloist
- Malik Riaz, Pakistani businessman and a real estate investor who owns Bahria Town.
- Art Malik, a Pakistani-born British actor
- Malik Khoshaba, an Assyrian tribal leader of the Tyareh tribe.
- Anas bin Malik, a companion of the Prophet Mohammed.
- Malik Makkawi, Head Producer of Just Because at MTV and owner of Shot in a Glass Studios
- The name of the Maluku islands (Indonesia) is thought to have been derived from the Arab trader's term for the region, Jazirat al-Muluk ('the land of many kings').
- The local name of the Minicoy (India), Maliku is also thought to have been derived from the Arab trader's term for the island, Jazirat al-Maliku ('the island of the king'). Since it was the ancient capital of Lakshadweepa.
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- F.Leo Oppenheim - Ancient Mesopotamia
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- "Malik Riaz can help lift Pakistan sports: Saeed Hai", The News International, Karachi, 15 February 2015. Retrieved on 26 February 2015.
- "Leaders & Heroes". My Site.
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- Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
- Lutfy, Mohamed Ibrahim. Thaareekhuge therein Lakshadheebu