Mullan Road

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Mullan Road
Mullan Road as it crosses SR 26 near Washtucna IMG 1257.jpg
Looking north at one of the few remaining gravel stretches of the Mullan Road as it crosses Washington State Route 26 near Washtucna, Washington. The portion south of SR 26 has reverted to grazing.
Nearest city St. Maries, Idaho
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
Built 1853, 164 years ago
NRHP Reference # 90000548 [1]
Added to NRHP April 5, 1990

Mullan Road was the first wagon road to cross the Rocky Mountains to the Inland of the Pacific Northwest.[2] It was built by U.S. Army troops under the command of Lt. John Mullan, between the spring of 1859 and summer 1860. It led from Fort Benton, which at the time was in the Dakota Territory, then Idaho Territory from July 1863, and Montana Territory beginning in May 1864, and the navigational head of the Missouri River (and once farthest inland port in the world). The road connected to Fort Walla Walla, Washington Territory, near the Columbia River. The road previewed the route approximately followed of modern-day Interstate 15 and Interstate 90 through present-day Montana, Idaho, and Washington.

Parts of the Mullan Road can still be traveled; one such section is near Washtucna, Washington.

A segment of the Mullan Road in the vicinity of Benton Lake was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975,[3] and the American Society of Civil Engineers designated it a historic civil engineering landmark in 1977. Three segments of the road in Idaho were also listed on the National Register in 1990. In 2009, the Point of Rocks segment in Montana was also listed on the National Register as part of the Point of Rocks Historic Transportation Corridor.


Mullan Pass near Helena, Montana

As early as 1852 the US government began to think about building an overland route to the Pacific Ocean to help settle the area with pioneers and eliminate any claims that France, England or Russia had on the disputed territories. Despite the Lewis and Clark expedition, little detail was known about the country. Isaac Ingalls Stevens, a West Point graduate appointed the first governor of the Washington Territory, was ordered to survey a route from the Missouri River to the Columbia River suitable for building a railroad. Stevens assumed the task, but also kept in mind that the route should be suitable for a wagon road.

In the spring of 1853, Congress authorized a U.S. Army expedition, led by Stevens. It was made up of engineers and explorers; they organized near St. Paul, Minnesota. They were to detail the geographical and topographical character of the country. Among them was a small, dark-haired young man, Lieutenant John Mullan; just a year out of West Point, he was anxious to prove his mettle as an engineer.

Mullan was placed in charge of surveying, and later improving, a wagon route (now commonly called the Mullan Road) between Fort Benton (Montana) and Fort Walla Walla (Washington). Lieutenant Mullan, a topographical engineer, began gathering information in 1854. Delayed by the Yakima War which ended in 1858, construction began in 1859 from Fort Walla Walla in what was then Washington Territory. Lieutenant Mullan commanded a workforce of more than 200, including civilian workers, surveyors, engineers, and soldiers who carved a 25-foot (7.6 m) wide road across the region.[4][5]

After the difficult project was completed in 1860, floods wiped out substantial stretches of the road. It was re-routed in 1861. Floods again damaged the road, and ultimately, no provision for maintenance was provided.[4][5]

Although the road was never heavily used by the military, it was an important conduit for civilian passage, which hastened settling of the northwestern United States. In the first year after completion, it was used by an estimated 20,000 people, 6,000 horses and mules, 5,000 cattle and 83 wagons. The discovery of gold in North Central Idaho in 1860 by Capt. E.D. Pierce contributed to this usage, making Lewiston, Washington Territory, the largest town in the Pacific Northwest and the capital of the new Idaho Territory beginning July 4, 1863. The Mullan Road helped Walla Walla become the largest town in Washington Territory by 1870, with a population of 1,394. The road continued to serve as an important route until the completion of the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1883 provided faster and more convenient access to the region.[4]

Route of the Mullan Road[edit]

From the origin at Fort Benton, Montana, the Mullan Road proceeded:


  1. ^ National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  2. ^ Swergal, Edwin (December 14, 1952). "Captain Mullan sees it through". Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washi. This Week section. p. 8. 
  3. ^ "Montana - Cascade County". National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  4. ^ a b c Trafzer, Clifford E. & Scheuerman, Richard D. (1986). Renegade Tribe: The Palouse Indians and the Invasion of the Inland Northwest. Washington State University Press, Pullman, Washington. ISBN 0-87422-027-0. 
  5. ^ a b Essay 5225
  6. ^ "See the 1904 map on page 16" (PDF). 
  7. ^

Further reading[edit]

  • Coleman, Louis C.; Rieman, Leo (1968). B.C. Payette, ed. Building the Mullan Road; As it is today and Interesting Occurrences Along the Road; Captain John Mullan, His Life. 730 St. Jacques, Montreal, Canada: Payette Radio Limited. 
  • Jackson, W. Turrentine (1938). Wagon Roads West. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. pp. 257–278. ISBN 0-8032-9402-6. 
  • McDermott, Paul D.; Grim, Ronald E.; Mobley, Philip (2015). The Mullan Road, etc. Missoula, Montana: Montana Press Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87842-632-4. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 46°46′8.3″N 118°12′22.6″W / 46.768972°N 118.206278°W / 46.768972; -118.206278