Multi-stage fitness test

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The multi-stage fitness test, also known as the PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) test or the beep test, is a running test used to estimate an athlete's aerobic capacity (VO2 max). In the test, athletes must run from one line to another before a timed beep. Athletes must continue running back and forth, each time reaching the line before the next beep. Once one can no longer run, the test is over and the number of laps is recorded. As the test continues, the time between beeps gets shorter.

The test is used by sporting organizations around the world along with schools, militaries, and others interested in gauging one's cardiovascular endurance, an important component of overall physical fitness.[1]

The test was created in 1982 by Luc Léger, University of Montreal[2] and published in 1983 with a starting speed of 8 km/h and stages of 2 min duration. It was re-published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology in 1988 in its present form with a starting speed of 8.5 km/h and 1 min stages under the name "The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness".[3] Result equivalences between slightly modified versions are well explained by Tomkinson et al. in 2003.[4]

In the United States, the President's Council on Youth Fitness now recommends schools use the PACER test instead of distance based runs like the mile (1600 m). [5] Reasons for this include...

  • The beeps help young athletes develop a sense of pace
  • There is no embarrassment of having everyone wait for the slowest person to finish or people not finishing at all
  • Inexperienced runners often complete a race and still have energy left. With the PACER, runners continue until they have no energy remaining, ensuring scores reflect cardiovascular fitness over pacing abilities.
  • Even if the distance ultimately completed is similar, psychological studies indicate people find it less daunting to be told to "run as much as you can" as opposed to "run ___ distance." Making fitness more appealing is important because, after graduation, leading a healthy lifestyle ultimately becomes a matter of personal choice.

Correlated measures[edit]

VO2max = (Velocity (km/h) × 6.65 - 35.8) × 0.95 + 0.182 [6]

[METs] = VO2max / 3.5 [7]

Rules[edit]

The test involves running continuously between two points that are 20 m apart from side to side (or 15 m in small gyms). The runs are synchronized with a pre-recorded audio tape, CD or computer software, which plays beeps at set intervals. As the test proceeds, the interval between each successive beep decreases, forcing the athletes to increase their speed over the course of the test until it is impossible to keep in sync with the recording (or, on extremely rare occasions, until the athlete completes the test). Many people who test people using the multi-stage fitness test allow one level to beep before the person makes the line, but some middle and grade schools allow two missed laps. If the person being tested does not make the next interval, the most recent level they completed is their final score.

The recording is typically structured into 25 'levels', each lasting around 62 s. Usually, the interval of beeps is calculated as requiring a speed at the start of 8.5 km/h (see format table), increasing by 0.5 km/h with each level thereafter. The progression from one level to the next is signaled by 3 quick beeps. The highest level attained before failing to keep up is recorded as the score for that test.

[3]Format[edit]

The original beep test was initially available on audio tape format. A problem with the tape was that it could stretch over time, or the tape player would play at inconsistent speed, making the timing between beeps inaccurate. Most versions of the tape had a one-minute recorded interval for calibrating the tape and tape player. Digital audio formats replaced the tapes, but checks were still required on the CD/player due to some tone controls possibly affecting the playback speed.

Inexpensive beep test software is now popular due to modern electronic devices having excellent and consistent timing accuracy. The software generally runs on a portable electronic computer such as a tablet, phone or laptop, making the test easy to organise for teams, and also tracks player fitness over a season. The contemporary accepted format starts at 8.5 km/h with levels of 1 minute as described in Leger's and Lambert's paper of 1988.[3]

Some versions of the test include background music. Coaches may also play their own music as the beeps are going.

Level Laps Cumulative
laps
Speed
(km/h)
Speed
(mph)
Lap
time (s)
Level
time (s)
Level
distance (m)
Cumulative
distance (m)
Cumulative
time (mm:ss)
Expected male age
to complete level
Expected female age
to complete level
1 7 7 8.5 5.3 8.47 67.76 140 160 1:08 7 8
2 8 15 9.0 5.6 8.00 64.00 160 320 2:12 9 10
3 8 23 9.5 5.9 7.58 60.63 160 480 3:12 10 11
4 9 32 10.0 6.2 7.20 64.80 180 660 4:17 11 12
5 9 41 10.5 6.5 6.86 61.71 180 840 5:19 12 13
6 10 51 11.0 6.8 6.55 65.45 200 1040 6:24 13 14
7 10 61 11.5 7.1 6.26 62.61 200 1240 7:27 14 16
8 11 72 12.0 7.5 6.00 66.00 220 1460 8:27 16 19
9 11 83 12.5 7.8 5.76 63.36 220 1680 9:30 17 21
10 11 94 13.0 8.1 5.54 60.92 220 1900 10:31 18 21+
11 12 106 13.5 8.4 5.33 64.00 240 2140 11:35 19
12 12 118 14.0 8.7 5.14 61.71 240 2380 12:37 21+
13 13 131 14.5 9.0 4.97 64.55 260 2640 13:42
14 13 144 15.0 9.3 4.80 62.40 260 2900 14:44
15 13 157 15.5 9.6 4.65 60.39 260 3160 15:44
16 14 171 16.0 9.9 4.50 63.00 280 3440 16:47
17 14 185 16.5 10.3 4.36 61.09 280 3720 17:48
18 15 200 17.0 10.6 4.24 63.53 300 4020 18:52
19 15 215 17.5 10.9 4.11 61.71 300 4320 19:54
20 16 231 18.0 11.2 4.00 64.00 320 4640 20:54
21 16 247 18.5 11.5 3.89 62.27 320 4960 21:56

Users[edit]

Organization Type of organization Country Minimum level attained Comments
Western Australian Rugby Union Referees[citation needed] Sport Australia 10.5 (Premier Grade), 9.5 (Reserve Grade)
Rugby Football referee Sport England (RFU) 10.4 for development squads, 12+ for elite referees Source: [1]
British Army Military UK 10.2 (male), 8.1 (female) [8]
Royal Air Force Military UK 9.10 (male), 7.2 (female) [9]
Royal Air Force Regiment Military UK 11.7 (male) [9]
Royal Marines Military UK 10.5 (aim marine 13+) (aim officer 15+) Source: [2] [3]
Airservices Australia Aviation rescue and fire fighting Australia 9.6 Source: [4]
Metropolitan Fire Brigade (Melbourne) Fire/emergency response Australia 9.6 Source: [5]
Royal Military College of Canada Military Canada 9.5 (male), 7.5 (female) Source: [6]
Police Scotland Police UK 5.4 - 15 Metre shuttle only [10]
South Australia Police Police Australia 9.04 (male), 6.10 (female) Age 18-29. Varies by age [7]
Queensland Fire and Rescue Service Fire/emergency response Australia 8.7 Source: [8]
Western Australia Police Police Australia 8.1 to 10.1+ (male), 6.1 to 7.1 (female) Source: [9]
Western Australia Fire & Rescue Service Fire Australia 9.6 + Source: [10]
Australian Army Military Australia 7.5 Preliminary Fitness Test Standard required prior to enlistment.[11]
Australian Special Forces Military Australia 10.1 Preliminary Fitness Test Standard required prior to direct recruitment scheme.[12]
New Zealand Defence Force Military New Zealand Navy : 7.10 Airforce : 7.10 Army : 8.8 Minimum Fitness Level. Source: 'Get Fit' Application [13]
French Foreign Legion Military France 7 Source: [14]
1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment Military France 10 Source: [15]
Royal Australian Navy Military Australia 6.1 Source: [16]
Royal Australian Air Force Military Australia 6.5 Source: [17]
Police officer Police France 6.5 Source: [18]
Australian Federal Police Police Australia 6.5 Source: [19]
Calgary Police Service Police Canada 7.0 Source: [20]
Edmonton Police Service Police Canada 7.0 Source: [21]
Ontario Provincial Police Police Canada 7.0 Source: [22]
Queensland Police Service Police Australia 6.3 to 9.4 (male), 5.1 to 7.5 (female) Source: [23]
Canadian Forces Military Canada 6.0 (male), 4.0 (female) (under 35) Replaced in 2013 by FORCE Evaluation[11]
Canadian Special Operations Regiment Military Canada 9-10 for passing score, 11-12 for average score, 13+ for highest score Source: [24] Found on page 22
English and Welsh Police Police UK 5.4 (general roles) to 10.5 Source: [25]
Victoria Police Police Australia 5.1 (updated 23/7/2012 to new standards) All ages[12]
New South Wales Police Force Police Australia 7.1 7.1 initial entry, various specialist units have higher requirements. Source: [26]
Royal Canadian Air Cadets[citation needed]| Paramilitary Youth Program Paramilitary Youth Program Canada Depends on age Part of the new 'Fitness and Incentive' program. Used to track improvements in fitness level. Fitness badges may be earned.
Royal Canadian Army Cadets[citation needed]| Paramilitary Youth Program Paramilitary Youth Program Canada Depends on age Part of the new 'Fitness and Incentive' program. Used to track improvements in fitness level. Fitness badges may be earned.
Royal Canadian Sea Cadets[citation needed] Paramilitary Youth Program Canada Depends on age Part of the new 'Fitness and Incentive' program. Used to track improvements in fitness level. Fitness badges may be earned.
Blue Bulls Rugby Referee Association Rugby referee training program South Africa 9.9 for entry-level qualification minimum level increases as a candidate move up in the ranks to ensure that a proper level of fitness is maintained
Slovenian Ice hockey referee Association Ice hockey referee training program Slovenia 9.0 for passing Part of the new Fitness program. Used to track referee fitness improvements off the ice off the season.
Swedish Army, Norrbotten Regiment I19 Mechanized Brigade Reconnaissance Sweden 9.5 for entry-level qualification Each applicant will perform the test after completing basic training
New York City Department of Education School USA Grade depends on number of laps, age, and other body characteristics. 15 meter lap length. Uses a customized version of the FitnessGram PACER test.[13]
Finland (Ministry of Education and Culture) School Finland Use in grading is prohibited.[14] Part of a physical fitness test, mandatory for all schools.[15][16] Replaces the earlier Cooper test.[14]

World record[edit]

The Guinness World Record for the largest group beep test is held by RAF Honington, in Honington, Suffolk where over 586 men and women took part.[17]

In popular culture[edit]

The introductory explanation of one multi-stage fitness test, the FitnessGram PACER test, has been widely spread as a meme and in other comedic ways due to the test's modern use in schools, primarily in physical education classes.[18]

"The FitnessGram™ PACER Test is a multistage aerobic capacity test that progressively gets more difficult as it continues. The 20-meter pacer test will begin in 30 seconds. Line up at the start. The running speed starts slowly but gets faster each minute after you hear this signal. [beep] A single lap should be completed each time you hear this sound. [ding] Remember to run in a straight line, and run as long as possible. The second time you fail to complete a lap before the sound, your test is over. The test will begin on the word start. On your mark, get ready, start."

Episode 12 of the Australian children's comedy show Little Lunch is called 'The Beep Test'. The plot revolves around the school students' reactions to participating in the multi-stage fitness test.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Variations of the Beep Test". Top End Sports.
  2. ^ TESTING PHYSICAL FITNESS, EUROFIT Experimental Battery PROVISIONAL HANDBOOK, STRASBOURG 1983 http://www.bitworks-engineering.co.uk/linked/eurofit%20provisional%20handbook%20leger%20beep%20test%201983.pdf
  3. ^ a b c Léger, L.A.; Mercier, D.; Gadoury, C.; Lambert, J. (1988). "The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness". J Sports Sci. 6 (2): 93–101. doi:10.1080/02640418808729800. PMID 3184250.
  4. ^ "Secular trends in the performance of children and adolescents (1980-2000): an analysis of 55 studies of the 20m shuttle run test in 11 countries". Sports Med. 33 (4): 285–300. 2003. doi:10.2165/00007256-200333040-00003. PMID 12688827.
  5. ^ "Aerobic Capacity" (PDF). President's Council on Youth Fitness.
  6. ^ Flouris, A D; Metsios, G S; Koutedakis, Y (2005). "Enhancing the efficacy of the 20 m multistage shuttle run test". Br J Sports Med. 39: 166–170. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.012500.
  7. ^ Léger, L.; Mercier, D. (1984). "Gross energy cost of horizontal treadmill and track running". Sports Med. 1 (4): 270–7. doi:10.2165/00007256-198401040-00003. PMID 6390604.
  8. ^ "British Army Jobs - Be the Best - Apply Online - British Army". www.army.mod.uk.
  9. ^ a b "RAF Recruitment - Home". www.raf.mod.uk.
  10. ^ "Standards". scotland.police.uk.]
  11. ^ Services, Personnel Support Programs, Assoc DG Personnel and Family Support. "About the FORCE Program". cfmws.com. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  12. ^ "Data". police.vic.gov.au.
  13. ^ "Learn About NYC FITNESSGRAM". NYC Department of Education School Wellness Programs.
  14. ^ a b https://www.hs.fi/kaupunki/art-2000005831147.html
  15. ^ https://www.iltalehti.fi/kotimaa/201809172201202782_u0.shtml
  16. ^ https://www.edu.fi/move/move-mittaus
  17. ^ Mariam Ghaemi. "Video: RAF Honington shows strength in numbers during bleep test record breaker". East Anglian Daily Times.
  18. ^ "FitnessGram Pacer Test". memeorigins.net. 27 March 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  19. ^ "Little Lunch". ABC Television. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

External links[edit]