Multilingualism in India

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The Constitution of India designates the official languages of India as Hindi and English. [1] The number of bilingual speakers in India is 314.9 million, which is 26% of the population in 2011.[2][3]

Multilingualism[edit]

Hindi[edit]

Hindi is one of the official languages of India and had 528 million native speakers as of the 2011 Census. About 139 million Indians speak Hindi as a second language and 24 million speak it as their third language.[3]

First, Second, and Third languages by number of speakers in India (2011 Census)[4][5]
Language First language
speakers
[6]
First language
speakers
as a percentage

of total population

Second language
speakers
(in crores) [7]
Third language
speakers
(in crores)[7]
Total speakers (in crores) Total speakers as a

percentage of total

population

Hindi 52,83,47,193 43.63 13.9 2.4 69.2 57.10
English 2,59,678 0.02 8.3 4.6 12.9 10.60
Bengali 9,72,37,669 8.30 0.9 0.1 10.7 8.90
Marathi 8,30,26,680 7.09 1.3 0.3 9.9 8.20
Telugu 8,11,27,740 6.93 1.2 0.1 9.5 7.80
Tamil 6,90,26,881 5.89 0.7 0.1 7.7 6.30
Gujarati 5,54,92,554 4.74 0.4 0.1 6.0 5.00
Urdu 5,07,72,631 4.34 1.1 0.1 6.3 5.20
Kannada 4,37,06,512 3.73 1.4 0.1 5.9 4.94
Odia 3,75,21,324 3.20 0.5 0.039 4.3 3.56
Malayalam 3,48,38,819 2.97 0.05 0.021 3.6 2.9
Punjabi 3,31,24,726 2.83 0.223 0.072 3.66 3.0
Sanskrit 24,821 <0.01 0.123 0.196 0.312 0.19

Multilingualism by state[edit]

Combined percentages of first, second and third language speakers of Hindi and English in India from the 2011 Census.[8]

Hindi and English Proficiency in 2011[7]
State or union territory Hindi English
India 57.11% 10.62%
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 79.87% 21.94%
Andhra Pradesh (incl. Telangana) 12.59% 13.06%
Arunachal Pradesh 62.76% 23.08%
Assam 25.24% 8.05%
Bihar 89.37% 2.72%
Chandigarh 94.05% 41.62%
Chhattisgarh 93.64% 2.29%
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 57.50% 10.34%
Daman and Diu 76.19% 15.38%
Delhi 96.75% 31.72%
Goa 53.34% 41.80%
Gujarat 43.63% 12.44%
Haryana 95.34% 15.59%
Himachal Pradesh 96.57% 10.64%
Jammu and Kashmir 38.00% 15.98%
Jharkhand 85.43% 5.15%
Karnataka 12.27% 11.83%
Kerala 9.12% 20.15%
Lakshadweep 17.87% 19.30%
Madhya Pradesh 95.74% 5.44%
Maharashtra 52.09% 14.32%
Manipur 18.44% 31.62%
Meghalaya 13.95% 15.61%
Mizoram 7.01% 15.50%
Nagaland 15.89% 32.57%
Odisha 18.76% 17.23%
Puducherry 3.87% 28.10%
Punjab 51.04% 30.05%
Rajasthan 95.04% 4.55%
Sikkim 47.96% 27.69%
Tamil Nadu 2.11% 18.49%
Tripura 9.95% 7.53%
Uttar Pradesh 97.40% 6.42%
Uttarakhand 97.19% 8.36%
West Bengal 13.83% 6.70%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Constitutional Provisions: Official Language Related Part-17 of The Constitution Of India". Department of Official Language, Government of India. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  2. ^ "Hindi migrants speaking Marathi rise to 60 lakh".
  3. ^ a b "Indiaspeak: English is our 2nd language". Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  4. ^ "How languages intersect in India". Hindustan Times.
  5. ^ "How many Indians can you talk to?".
  6. ^ ORGI. "Census of India: Comparative speaker's strength of Scheduled Languages-1951, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991 ,2001 and 2011" (PDF).
  7. ^ a b c http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/C-17.html
  8. ^ https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/hindi-the-first-choice-of-people-in-only-12-states/article27459774.ece