Multimedia over Coax Alliance
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|First published||February 2006|
13 April 2016
The Multimedia over Coax Alliance (MoCA) is an international standards consortium that publishes specifications for networking over coaxial cable. The technology was originally developed to distribute Internet Protocol television in homes using existing wiring, but is now used as a general-purpose Ethernet link where it is inconvenient or undesirable to replace existing coaxial cable with more widely used optical fibre or twisted pair cabling.
The first version of the standard, MoCA 1.0, was ratified in 2006 and supports transmission speeds of up to 135 Mb/s. The most recently released version of the standard, MoCA 2.5, supports speeds of up to 2.5 Gb/s.
MoCA was established in 2004.
MoCA 1.0 was approved in 2006, MoCA 1.1 in April 2010, MoCA 2.0 in June 2010, and MoCA 2.5 in April 2016.
The Alliance currently has 45 members including pay TV operators, OEMs, CE manufacturers and IC vendors.
Within the scope of the Internet protocol suite, MoCA is a protocol that provides the link layer. In the 7-layer OSI model, it provides definitions within the data link layer (layer 2) and the physical layer (layer 1). DLNA approved of MoCA as a layer 2 protocol. A MoCA network can contain up to 16 nodes for MoCA 1.1 and higher, with a maximum of 8 for MoCA 1.0. The network provides a shared-medium, half-duplex link between all nodes using time-division multiplexing; within each timeslot, any pair of nodes communicates directly with eachother using the highest mutually-supported version of the standard.
MoCA 1.1 provides 175 Mbit/s net throughputs (275 Mbit/s PHY rate) and operates in the 500 to 1500 MHz frequency range.
MoCA 2.0 offers actual throughputs (MAC rate) up to 1 Gbps. Operating frequency range is 500 to 1650 MHz. Packet error rate is 1 packet error in 100 million.
MoCA 2.0 also offers lower power modes of sleep and standby and is backward interoperable with MoCA 1.1.
In March 2017, SCTE/ISBE society and MoCA consortium began creating a new "standards operational practice" (SCTE 235) to provide MoCA 2.0 with Docsis 3.1 interoperability. Interoperability is necessary because both MoCA 2.0 and Docsis 3.1 may operate in the frequency range above 1 GHz. The standard "addresses the need to prevent degradation or failure of signals due to a shared frequency range above 1 GHz". 
MoCA 2.5 (introduced April 13, 2016) offers actual data rates up to 2.5 Gbit/s, continues to be backward interoperable with MoCA 2.0 and MoCA 1.1, and adds MoCA protected setup (MPS), Management Proxy, Enhanced Privacy, Network wide Beacon Power, and Bridge detection.
MoCA Access is intended for multiple dwelling units (MDUs) such as hotels, resorts, hospitals, or educational facilities. It is based on the current MoCA 2.0 standard which is capable of 1 Gbps net throughputs, and MoCA 2.5 which is capable of 2.5 Gbps.
The MoCA 3.0 standard is currently in development and is expected to increase the maximum throughput to 10 Gbps.
MoCA performance profiles
|MoCA 1.0||MoCA 1.1||MoCA 2.0||MoCA 2.0
|MoCA 2.1||MoCA 2.1
|MoCA 2.5||MoCA 3.0|
|Mbit/s actual throughput||100||175||500||1000||500||1000||2500||10,000|
|Number of channels bonded||2||2||3~5||≤4|
|Power save (standby and sleep)||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|MoCA protected setup (MPS)||X||X||X|
|Network wide beacon power||X||X||X|
Frequency band plan
|Channel||Frequency (center), MHz|
- Channel C4 is commonly used for Verizon FiOS for the "WAN" link from the ONT to the router.
- Channels D1-D8 are commonly used for "LAN" links, between set-top boxes and the router.
- E band channels are commonly used by DirecTV converter boxes. The DirecTV Ethernet-to-Coax Adapter (DECA) uses MoCA on this "Mid-RF" frequency band.
- Ethernet over coax
- Home gateway
- HomePlug Powerline Alliance
- Home network
- IEEE 802.3
- IEEE 802.11
- IEEE 1905
- Router (computing)
- Ultra high definition television
- Wireless LAN
- Monk, Anton; Lee, Ronald; Hebron, Yoav (2013-07-12). "The Multimedia Over Coax Alliance". Proceedings of the IEEE. 101 (11): 2322–2338. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2013.2266299. ISSN 0018-9219. Retrieved 2021-01-09.
- Ovadia, Shlomo (2007-09-09). Jain, Raj; Dingel, Benjamin B.; Komaki, Shozo; Ovadia, Shlomo (eds.). MoCA: ubiquitous multimedia networking in the home. Boston, MA. pp. 67760C. doi:10.1117/12.726808. Retrieved 2021-01-09.
- "Home Networking Gets a New Performance Standard". www.mocalliance.org. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
- O'Shea, Dan (2006-11-20). "The IPTV battle enters the home". Telephony. Chicago, United States: Informa. 247 (19): 20–21. eISSN 2161-8690. ISSN 0040-2656. Retrieved 2021-01-13 – via ProQuest.
- Zhou, Shujia; Song, Yingxiong; Lin, Rujian (2011-09-25). FTTB multimedia access solution based on MoCA technology. 2011 IEEE 13th International Conference on Communication Technology. pp. 1037–1040. doi:10.1109/ICCT.2011.6158037. Retrieved 2021-01-13.
- "MoCA Members". MoCAlliance.org. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- MOCA FAQs
- "Introducing MoCA 2.0". MoCA website. June 15, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- "MoCA FAQs". MoCA web site. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- KMCreative. "SCTE/ISBE Standards, MoCA® Team Up on New Operational Practice for DOCSIS® 3.1-MoCA Interoperability". www.mocalliance.org. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "SCTE 235, Operational Practice for the Coexistence of DOCSIS 3.1 Signals and MoCA Signals in the Home Environment" (PDF). Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-22. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "MoCA 2.5 News". MoCA web site. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
- KMCreative. "MoCA Access™". www.mocalliance.org. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
- "MoCA 1.1 Specification for Device RF Characteristics" (PDF). MoCAlliance.org. Multimedia over Coax Alliance.
- Verizon Online FiOS FAQ → 3.2 MOCA