Multinational Force in Lebanon
The Multinational Force in Lebanon (M.N.F) was an international peacekeeping force created in September 1982, after the demand was made by Lebanon to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and was subsequently dissolved on March 31st 1984 following the October 1983 Beirut barracks bombing. Nevertheless, unike the greater naval deterrences present in the Mediterranean Sea; the French paratrooper regiments of the French Armed Forces as of February 25th, the Irish Armed Forces, the Italian Armed Forces and Foreign Legion remained committed and dedicated around the security of Lebanon in and out of the land and sea based peacekeeping operations of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (U.N.I.F.I.L).
The Peacekeeping force was and initially to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestine Liberation Organization. The participants included Her Majesty's 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards, American contingents of United States Marine Corps and United States Navy; the 1st inter-arm Foreign and French Brigade, 4 Foreign Legion Regiments, 29 exclusive French Armed Forces regiments, French and Foreign paratroopers, units of the National Gendarmerie while regiments of the Foreign Legion, whom activated their language skills, trained various sector units of the Lebanese Armed Forces; Italian paratroopers from the Folgore Brigade, infantry units from the Bersaglieri regiments and Marines of the San Marco Battalion.
The mission of the international peacekeeping force (M.N.F) was replaced by the mission of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (U.N.I.F.I.L) already present in ground operations since 1978 under the leadership of Ghanaian Lieutenant General Emmanuel Erskine.
- 1 Leadership of Irish Army Lieuteant General William O' Callaghan (1981-1986)
- 2 Mission
- 3 Seas, Air and Landings
- 3.1 Global French and Foreign Constitution
- 3.2 Joint Security Evacuation Operations
- 4 History since 1958
- 5 Increased involvement
- 6 Barracks bombing
- 7 Later confrontations and withdrawal
- 8 Casualties
- 9 See also
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Leadership of Irish Army Lieuteant General William O' Callaghan (1981-1986)
In 1981, with the war raging in full throttle while rising in tempo, Irish Lieutenant General William O'Callaghan exercised initiative while delegating combat command of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon through his tactical command leadership of an assumed needed neutral United Nations peacekeeping force; throughout specially, the southern chaotically heated border and country during the Lebanese Civil War; maintained a stable affecting environment for Foreign Forces of the Multinational Force including French Foreign Legion and Lebanese Armed Forces deployed around Beirut and the majority of Southern Lebanon to accomplish their various security tasks and gave way for securing in a direct effect the success of numerous military operations, peacekeeping missions and general formalizing initiatives.
In an interview in April 1982 with American magazine "People," with UNIFIL having suffered 145 combat casualties in its previous 4 years, 35 of them fatalities, he said:
|“||"Peacekeeping is not about firing shots. Its about not firing and stopping those who are. We must look for trouble at the 4 points of the compass, and then we look behind our backs.||”|
other individuals quoting on Lieutenant General William O' Callaghan:
|“||A great man and a great general. He was a great role model at home and abroad. A holy terror though with any officer whose standards fell short of what he expected.||”|
|“||a fine soldier, officer and gentleman.||”|
The mission of the multiforce was to aid, support and train the Lebanese Armed Forces to restore the sovereignty of the Lebanese Government at the request of the latter in Beirut, its constituent areas and insure and guarantee the security and safety of mass civilian populations; specially women and children.
Seas, Air and Landings
Global French and Foreign Constitution
Avoiding accentuation escalation both Sea, Air and Land, sticking with the mission while protecting the mass of innocent civilians, local francophone mediterranean lifestyle way of life, maintaining order, maintaining a stable United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, and mainly maintaining the peace effort from 1982 to 1984 required the service deployment rotation of 1 inter-arm Foreign and French Brigade, 4 Foreign Legion Regiments, 29 exclusive French Armed Forces regiments, constituents including parachute regiments and units from the French Army, the Foreign Legion, the deterrence of La Royale de France, the deterrence of the French Air Force along with the National Gendarmerie:
Foreign Legion and French Army Brigade
- (1) 1st Inter-Arm Foreign Legion and French Army Brigade
- Commanded by Foreign Legion Groupment, G.L.E
French Army Regiments
- 11 French Paratrooper Regiments
- (9) French Para, (1) French Para Artillery, (1) French Para Engineer
- 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment, 1e R.C.P
- 1st Parachute Hussard Regiment, 1e R.H.P since 1978 in United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon as well.
- 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment, 1e R.P.M.I.a
- 3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment, 3e R.P.M.I.a
- 6th Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment, 6e R.P.M.I.a
- 7th Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment, 7e R.P.M.I.a
- 7th Marine Infantry Parachute Command and Support Regiment, 7e R.P.C.S
- 8th Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment, 8e R.P.M.I.a
- 9th Parachute Chasseur Regiment, 9e R.C.P
- 17th Parachute Engineer Regiment, 17e R.G.P
- 35th Parachute Artillery Regiment, 35e R.A.P
- 6 French Troupe de Marine Regiments
- (4) Marine Infantry, (1) Marine Artillery, (1) Marine Combat Tank
- 1st Marine Infantry Regiment, 1e R.I.M
- 2nd Marine Infantry Regiment, 2e R.I.M
- 3rd Marine Infantry Regiment, 3e R.I.M
- 21st Marine Infantry Regiment, 21e R.I.M
- 11th Marine Artillery Regiment, 11e R.A.M.a
- Marine Tank Regiment, R.I.C.M
- 12 French Regular Infantry, Engineer, Artillery and Tank
- (5) Infantry, (3) Engineer, (3) Artillery, (1) Tank Combat
- 9th Command and Support Regiment, 9e B.I.M.a
- 41st Infantry Regiment, 41e R.I
- section T.G.P 41st Transmission Regiment, 41e R.T
- 42nd Infantry Regiment, 42, R.I
- 92nd Infantry Regiment, 92e R.I
- 31st Engineer Regiment, 31e R.G
- 59th Engineer Company, 59e C.G
- 71st Engineer Regiment, 71e R.G
- 12th Artillery Regiment, 12e R.A
- 17th Artillery Regiment, 17e R.A
- 68th Artillery Regiment, 68e R.A
- 501st Tank Combat Regiment, 501e R.C.C
French Foreign Legion
- 1 Foreign and French Brigade
- commanded by Foreign Legion Groupment
- 31st Brigade, 31e BDE
- 1 Foreign Paratrooper Regiment
- (1) Foreign Para
- 3 Foreign Infantry, Cavalry Regiment
- (2) Foreign Infantry, 1 Foreign Cavalry
- 1st Foreign Regiment, 1e R.E
- 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment, 2e R.E.I
- 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment, 1e R.E.C
- La Royale's Ships of deterrence and Commandos Marine
- (1) Naval Battle Group, (3) Commandos Marine
French Air Force
- Fighther Squadrons and Groups of Commando de l'Air
- Gendarmes Parachute Group Squadrons
- National Gendarmerie - 1st Marching Group Squadron of Auxiliary Gendarmes
- 9/11 Parachute Squadron of Mobile Gendarmerie
Joint Security Evacuation Operations
The French Armed Forces landed in Beirut on August 21, with the U.S. Marines 2nd Battalion 8th Marines, the 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit known back then as the 32 Marine Amphibious Unit arriving on August 25 and the Italian Armed Forces Bersaglieri (2nd Bersaglieri "Governolo") on August 26. This initial force consisted of 850 Americans, 860 French, and 575 Italian troops. The PLO withdrew from Beirut to Tunisia on August 30; consequently, the Multinational Force troop contingent later withdrew to their respective ships in the Mediterranean Sea.
Operation DIODON : Lebanon 1982 - 1984
On August 19, 1982; the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment succeeds following a request from the Lebanese Government to allow the departure of the Palestinian contingent from Beyrouth. Following the massacres of Sabra and Chatila; international consciences decided to put in motion a reinforced security force. Subsequently, the regiments and units of the French Armed Forces and French paratroopers relayed each other at Beyrouth to fulfill a mission of mediation and preservation of peace. Operating within the contingent of the multinational force at Beirut which counted already American troops stationed at the aerodrome; Italian troops centered in the center of the aerodrome, and British troops implanted near the tobacco manufacturing facility; the 31st Brigade (France) reinforced by the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment and a detachment of the 17th Parachute Engineer Regiment assures security and confidence of trust in the greater Lebanon and Beyrouth.
On May 19, 1983; the first elements of the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment disembarked within the cadre of the operation. On September 26, 1983; the last participating contingents forming operation DIODON leave Lebanon. Caporal-Chef Vuillermet died of his wounds.
Mission Italcon 1982-1984
2,300 Italian troops landed in Beirut with the "mission Italcon" on September 24: paratroopers from the Folgore Brigade, infantry units from the Bersaglieri regiments, Marines of the San Marco, and a military medical corp with a field hospital. Italian troops centered in the center of the Beirut aerodrome and near the refugee camps. The commander was the General Franco Angioni.
History since 1958
Americans had previously been involved in Lebanese affairs, during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. In that intervention, 14,000 American Marines and paratroopers were sent to Lebanon by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to quell the opposition to President Camille Chamoun and neighboring countries. The operation was considered a success.
As the capital of Beirut was besieged by the Israelis, U.S. Ambassador Philip Habib negotiated with the warring parties for an end to the fighting and for the establishment of a peacekeeping force in Beirut. In August 1982, he was successful in bringing about an agreement for the evacuation of Syrian troops and PLO fighters from Beirut. The agreement also provided for the deployment of a three-nation Multinational Force (MNF) during the period of the evacuation.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
On September 14, Lebanese President Bachir Gemayel was assassinated. Then, from September 16–18, hundreds of Palestinian refugees were murdered by the Phalangist-led Lebanese Forces (LF) militia (who were allied with the Israeli Army and had the presidency in Lebanon), backed by some elements of the also pro-Israeli South Lebanon Army (SLA) in the Sabra and Shatila massacres. This incident prompted U.S. President Ronald Reagan to organize a new MNF "Multinational Force" with France and Italy. On September 29, this new force entered Beirut, with about 1,200 troops. Their stated mission was to help the new Lebanese government and army with stability.
This new force consisted of the 2nd Battalion 8th Marine Regiment & US Army Soldiers. They were followed by the 3rd Battalion 8th Marines in October 1982. The Battalion Landing Team's headquarters was based at Beirut International Airport. France's contingent of 1,500 paratroopers were based in West Beirut, and 1,400 Italian troops (paratroopers of the Folgore Brigade, Bersaglieri regiments and the San Marco Regiment were based in the area between West Beirut and the airport. In February 1983, United Kingdom armored cars from 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards joined the MNF.
During the winter of 1982-1983, the MNF was successful in its mission. Though officially neutral, the force was responsible for preventing attacks from various Lebanese factions and the Israeli Army. The MNF increasingly came under fire from factions of the Lebanese Civil War. Foot and vehicle patrols were conducted routinely throughout Beirut in an effort to gather information and provide a visible presence demonstrating multinational force commitment to the people of Lebanon.
On February 14, 1983, the 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines relieved the 3rd Battalion, 8th Marines in the American sector. When harsh winter weather with low temperatures, high winds, and deep snows threatened Lebanese villages high in the mountains northeast of Beirut, the Marines were asked by the Lebanese Government on February 21 to provide a relief column to rescue Lebanese civilians stranded in Qatarba. The rescue mission was conducted February 22–24. Lt.Col Don Anderson, the commander of Battalion Landing Team 2/6 led a column of nine thirty ton amphibious tractors (amtracs) and several wheeled vehicles across rugged mountain terrain, reaching Qatarba 16 hours after leaving the Beirut International Airport. The amtracs created a landing zone by packing down deep snows so that additional food and heating fuel could be delivered to the village by helicopters. Civilian casualties who could not be treated on-scene by the battalion medical team were airlifted out, while those needing less serious medical attention were evacuated to Beirut by amtrac on February 24, 1983.
On April 18, 1983, the U.S. embassy in West Beirut was bombed, killing 63 people. A suicide terrorist driving a van packed with 2000 pounds of high explosives (PETN) crashed into the embassy lobby detonating the payload. This blast was a clear sign of opposition to the MNF. The embassy was located in the French sector, and French Marines immediately responded to provide security and begin rescue operations. The French commander, Brigadier General Michel Datin placed his responding forces under the operational control of Colonel Jim Mead, the MAU Commander. Lt.Col Don Anderson provided a reinforced rifle company (Company F) to take over security the embassy compound to enable rescue and recovery operations. Once recovery operations were concluded, a heavily reinforced rifle platoon from Company F was stationed at the embassy through the end of May 1983, when 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines was relieved by 1st Battalion, 8th Marines.
The Israeli Army agreed on May 17, 1983 to withdraw from Beirut. In the summer of 1983 U.S. troops at the airport were repeatedly shelled by members of Shiite Muslim and Druze militias. Several Marines were killed and others wounded. In response, the U.S. warships USS Bowen (FF-1079), USS Pharris (FF-1094), USS Virginia (CGN-38), USS John Rodgers (DD-983), and USS Arthur W. Radford (DD-968) shelled Shiite and Druze positions near Beirut.
The MNF was given a devastating blow on October 23 in an act of terrorism, when truck bombs driven by suicide bombers destroyed the U.S. & French barracks in Beirut, killing 241 American servicemen and 58 French paratroopers. With this incident, the MNF suffered its greatest number of casualties and drew calls to withdraw from Lebanon. Still, President Reagan said the troops would stay.
Later confrontations and withdrawal
French Navy warplanes retaliated in November to the bombings by striking Iranian Revolutionary Guard's barracks in Baalbek, in the Beqaa Valley, though it did minor damage. At this time, tensions rose between Syria and the United States as Syrian anti-aircraft batteries fired on U.S. aircraft as they patrolled Lebanese airspace. This culminated in the first direct U.S. military involvement in Lebanon on December 4. After being fired upon by Syrian missiles, U.S. aircraft targeted Syrian missile batteries in the mountains east of Beirut. In the process, Syrian 9K31 Strela-1 or man-portable Strela 2 surface-to-air missiles shot down two American planes, an A-6 Intruder and an A-7 Corsair. The pilot of the A-6, Lieutenant Mark Lange (flying from USS John F. Kennedy), was killed; his Bombardier/Navigator, Lieutenant Bobby Goodman, ejected and was captured by Syrian soldiers. Lt. Goodman was held for 30 days before his released was facilitated by Jesse Jackson. Lt. Lange's body was returned. From the A-7, the pilot ejected and was rescued, although he suffered severe injuries.
On the same day, eight U.S. Servicemen were killed when Syrian-backed militias shelled the airport observation post.
In response to more fire, the battleship USS New Jersey fired on Lebanon on December 14 and 15. Meanwhile, Yasser Arafat and his PLO left Tripoli on December 20 on five Greek ships bound for Tunisia. The MNF was targeted again by bombs on December 21, with a truck bomb killing a French soldier and 14 Lebanese outside a French military base, and a bomb killing four at a Western-owned bar.
The captured American crewman, Lt. Bobby Goodman, was released January 3, 1984, after negotiations with Reverend Jesse Jackson. At the same time, U.S. President Ronald Reagan was pressured for a troop withdrawal from Lebanon by Congress. These calls were increased after the Lebanese PM and his cabinet resigned February 5. Shiite and Druze militiamen began fighting outside Beirut on February 6 and threw the capital into chaos. Reagan ordered the 1,700 Marines to begin withdrawing on February 7. The following day, February 8, the USS New Jersey was again called upon to fire its main battery, this time against Syrian and Druze positions in the Beqaa Valley. During this Naval Gunfire Support (NGFS) mission, the "Big J" fired 288 rounds of its 16" projectiles. Thirty rounds hit a Syrian command post, killing the general commanding Syrian forces in Lebanon, and several of his senior officers. The Italians pulled out on February 20; the Marines followed on February 26. However, a contingient of Marines from BLT 3/8, the ground combat element of the 24th Marine Amphibious Unit, remained in Beirut and provide the External Security Force at the American Embassy until their withdrawal on July 31. The last French troops left on March 31.
The United States lost 265 servicemen in Lebanon, all but nine in hostile incidents, and all but 24 in the barracks bombing. 159 were wounded.
France lost more than 89 soldiers out of which 58 French Paratroopers in the barracks bombing and many other soldiers from French regular and Foreign Legion regiments, mainly conducting combat operations, demining and training the Lebanese Armed Forces along with the 17th Parachute Engineer Regiment.
The Italians lost two soldiers, both to hostile actions.
- History of the French Navy
- Lebanese Armed Forces
- 1958 Lebanon crisis
- Islamic Jihad Organization
- Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990)
- Lebanese Forces
- South Lebanon Army
- United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
- Irish Army
- Frédéric Pons, Les Paras sacrifiés, Beyrouth, 1983-1984 (The Sacrificed Paras, Beyrouth, 1983-1984), Presses de la Cité, Paris 1994.
- ,Irish UNIFIL commander, Lieutenant General William O'Callaghan (1921-2015)
-  National Support Association for French and Foreign Soldiers in Operations
- Jordan, David (2005). The History of the French Foreign Legion: From 1831 to the Present Day. Globe Pequot. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-59228-768-0.
- , Lieutenant General William O'Callaghan (1921-2015)
- L'ONU et le Liban sur UN.org
- Cimbala, Stephen J.; Forster, Peter K. (2010-04-10). Multinational Military Intervention: NATO Policy, Strategy and Burden Sharing. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4094-0228-2. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Hammel, Eric (1985), The Root, San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
- U.S. Marine Corps (1983), Command Chronology of 2d Battalion, 6th Marines January-June 1983, Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University Archives
- Geraghty, Timothy (2009), Peacekeepers at War, Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, Inc., p. 19
- Geraghty, Timothy (2009), Peacekeepers at War, Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, Inc., p. 20
- At the U.S. Naval Academy, in Alumni Hall, a music room was named for Lt. Lange, Class of 1979.
- Khoury, Hala. "Last French peacekeepers ready to leave Beirut." UPI, March 31, 1984.
- Butturni, Paula. "Italians begin final pull-out from Beirut." UPI, February 19, 1984.
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