Multiple integrated laser engagement system
The multiple integrated laser engagement system, or MILES, is used by the U.S. military and other armed forces around the world for training purposes. It uses lasers and blank cartridges to simulate actual battle.
Individual soldiers carry small laser receivers scattered over their bodies, which detect when the soldier has been illuminated by a firearm's laser. Each laser transmitter is set to mimic the effective range of the weapon on which it is used. When a person is "hit", a medic can use the digital readout to determine which first aid method to practice.
Different versions of MILES systems are available to both US and international militaries. The capabilities of the individual systems can vary significantly but in general all modern systems carry information about the shooter, weapon and ammunition in the laser. When this information is received by the target, the target's MILES system uses a random number roll and a casualty probability lookup table to determine the outcome. For example, a MILES transmitter emulating an M16 rifle cannot harm an armored personnel carrier (APC), but could still "kill" a commander visible in the hatch of the vehicle.
Vehicles are typically outfitted with a belt of laser sensors or individual wireless detectors. Dismounted soldiers often wear a vest or harness with sensors as well as a 'halo' of sensors on their helmets. MILES systems can be coupled with a real-time data link allowing position and event data to be transmitted back to a central site for data collection and display. More sophisticated systems for tanks and APCs exist that use various techniques (including scanning lasers and coupled radio systems) to allow more precise targeting of armored vehicles.
Circa 1980, MILES was introduced to the U.S. Army for direct-fire, force-on-force training capability at home stations and combat training centers. It used a laser module which was mounted to the barrel of a real weapon, a blank-firing adaptor for the weapon, and an integrated receiver consisting of sensors on the helmet and load-bearing vests of the soldiers. When a blank shot was fired by a weapon, it caused the laser to fire a coded burst in the direction that the weapon was aimed. If that burst was sensed by the receiver of another soldier, the "hit" soldier's gear beacon made a beeping noise to let them know they were "dead." MILES had serious problems—when hit, the receiver did not prevent the further firing of the weapon, and it was tempting and easy for soldiers to "cheat" by turning the receivers off and back on again, resetting the system and therefore "respawning" or "resurrecting" themselves. In addition, no data about the engagement was kept so it was impossible to positively identify who shot whom on the battlefield, a critical piece of information when attempting to develop new tactics. MILES was also very encumbering and soldiers sometimes experienced neck pain when using it.
Versions made after 1986 used a loud tone to signal when a soldier was "killed". In order to turn off the noise, the soldier had to remove a yellow key from the laser module on his rifle and insert it into the box on his harness. By removing the key from the laser, the weapon could no longer score hits using the MILES system. With some systems the hit soldier is required to lie on his back to stop the noise and signal others that he is "dead".
MILES 2 was released in 1991–92, and the SAWE (simulated area weapons effects) add-on was first fielded in 1992 using GPS and RF messages so that vehicles and individual soldiers can be killed from a central location due to artillery strikes, or nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons strikes. Implementation in the Summer and Fall of 1992 was at Hohenfels, Germany at the Combat Maneuver Training Center. In 1993, the range at Fort Polk was installed and tested. At the time, there were plans to add SAWE at the NTC at Fort Irwin, although instead this was implemented by using SAWE-like features via the DCI radio network. This was superseded in aircraft by the implementation of the SMODIM or the smart onboard data interface module instrumented in 1998 at all three Combat Training Centers (NTC, JRTC, JMRC).
As of 2012 the most current version of fully fielded vehicle platform MILES was the Instrumentable multiple integrated laser engagement system combat vehicle tactical engagement simulation system I-MILES CVTESS). This is provided to the US Army by Saab Defense and Security Training and Simulations. It is manufactured at Saab Training in the company's office in Husqvarna, Sweden. Saab's Main Battle Tank (MBT) Crew Trainer enables the warfighter to perform live precision gunnery and combat training. The MBT Crew Trainer strengthens the entire crew's accuracy and precision. The realism and experience with the tank trainer provides the confidence needed to win the engagement.
I-MILES CVTESS is a laser-based training device to be used on Abrams, Bradley, and opposing forces (OPFOR) tanks and fighting vehicles to provide real-time casualty effects. It is an evolutionary approach for replacing older I-MILES CVTESS equipment currently used in force-on-force training exercises with devices that provide better training fidelity for combat vehicle systems. It reinforces crew duties, reward proper engagement techniques and develop tactical maneuver skills of armor and mechanized infantry combined arms teams up to brigade level. It provides unit commanders an integrated training system in force-on-force and force-on-target training events at homestation training area through instrumented training. The system interfaces with instrumentation systems at maneuver combat training centers (MCTC).
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One Shepherd, Technical Institute of Leadership
One Shepherd, a division of TacComp Media, LLC, procured MILES 2000 (Cubic Defense Applications) in early 2007 as a force on force simulation platform for their vocational leadership education program. One Shepherd employs the system to teach leadership through the military decision-making process (MDMP) inherent in tactical patrolling operations and small arms gun fighting. MILES provides immediate feedback to students in a safe-to-fail environment, and affords an experiential exploration of leadership.
- In late 2013 One Shepherd purchased MILES IWS (Universal Systems and Technology Inc.) and now employ both variants in their educational program.
- Numerous private training companies have purchased MILES through Homeland Security grant. The terms of the grant significantly restrict the use of MILES by civilian citizens. Nuclear security police contracted under the US Department of Energy represent the largest non-defense market for MILES.
- To date, One Shepherd is the only known private institution to make MILES technology available to American citizens.
- Czech Republic
- Germany (uses own system called AGDUS (in German Ausbildungsgerät Duellsimulator))
- India (uses a System similar to MILES, although not from the same manufacturer)
- Ireland
- Israel (for urban warfare training)
- Mexico (uses own system called SAVLE (in Spanish Sistema de Adiestramiento Laser Virtual Electromecánico))
- Norway (uses a similar system manufactured by Saab AB)
- South Korea
- Spain (uses a similar system, Simulador de Combate Individual by Tecnobit)
- Thailand (uses a similar system; the civilian edition of the system has become a game in Thailand)
- Ukraine (provided by the United States)
- United States
- Laser tag
- Military exercise
- Opposing force
- Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System information
- Lockheed Martin MILES XXI web site
- Inter-Coastal Electronics (ICE) - Developer of SMODIM and military training solutions
- Cubic Defense Applications (CDA) developer of Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) Tactical Engagement Simulation Systems (TESS)
- Prob-Test, Inc. (PTI) Developer of MILES Laser Tube Assemblies (Single & Dual types)
- One Shepherd Technical Institute of Leadership, a division of TacComp Media, LLC
- PEOSTRI Products, IMILES CVTESS
- Saabgroup CVTESS System
- "Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) Communication Code (MCC) Standard". United States Army. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Lockheed Martin Simulation, Training & Support (LM STS) - Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) (United States), Land systems - Tactical engagement simulation". Jane's Information Group. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- "One Shepherd". One Shepherd. Retrieved 2014-02-24.
- National Training Centre "Krtsanisi". Ministry of Defense of Georgia. Retrieved 2011-03-01
- "Press commentary: The Army Battle Simulation Centre (GÜZ): the German Army's main simulation training facility". Retrieved 2015-08-08.
- "FX-05 SAVLE" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- "U.S. laser system donation presented to military". B92. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "El Ejército compra simuladores de combate láser a Tecnobit". onemagazine. 19 October 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Mega Force Gun Simulator" (in Thai). Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- U.S. supplies maximum arms to Ukraine: Media, UNIAN (3 August 2016)
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