Multiple of the median
A multiple of the median (MoM) is a measure of how far an individual test result deviates from the median. MoM is commonly used to report the results of medical screening tests, particularly where the results of the individual tests are highly variable.
MoM was originally used as a method to normalize data from participating laboratories of Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) so that individual test results could be compared. 35 years later, it is the established standard for reporting maternal serum screening results.
An MoM for a test result for a patient can be determined by the following:
As an example, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) testing is used to screen for a neural tube defect (NTD) during the second trimester of pregnancy. If the median AFP result at 16 weeks of gestation is 30 ng/mL and a pregnant woman's AFP result at that same gestational age is 60 ng/mL, then her MoM is equal to 60/30 = 2.0. In other words, her AFP result is 2 times higher than "normal."
- Wald, Nicholas (1976). "The detection of neural tube defects by screening maternal blood.". Prenatal Diagnosis. Les Colloques d'inserm (61).
- Wald, Nicholas (1977). "Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein measurement in antenatal screening for anencephaly and spina bifida in early pregnancy". Lancet (1). doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(77)92549-1.
- Bishop JC, Dunstan FD, Nix BJ, Reynolds TM, Swift A. "All MoMs are not equal: some statistical properties associated with reporting results in the form of multiples of median". Am J Hum Genet. 52 (2): 425–30. PMC . PMID 7679245.
- Berberich, Stanton L. "Using Multiples of the Median (MoM) for Normalization of TREC Results Meets the Need for Standardized SCID Reporting" (PDF).
- Grenache, David. "Multiple of the Median".
- Parvin, CA; DL Gray; G Kessler (1991). "Influence of assay method differences on multiple of the median distributions: maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein as an example". Clinical Chemistry Vol 37, 637-642. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Retrieved 2008-02-16.