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for all φ in the function space and all x in the domain of φ (which is the same as the domain of f).
This type of operators is often contrasted with composition operators. Multiplication operators generalize the notion of operator given by a diagonal matrix. More precisely, one of the results of operator theory is a spectral theorem, which states that every self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space is unitarily equivalent to a multiplication operator on an L2 space.
for any function φ in X. This will be a self-adjoint bounded linear operator with norm 9. Its spectrum will be the interval [0, 9] (the range of the function x→ x2 defined on [−1, 3]). Indeed, for any complex number λ, the operator T-λ is given by
which is another multiplication operator.
This can be easily generalized to characterizing the norm and spectrum of a multiplication operator on any Lp space.