Mumbai Metropolitan Region
|Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR)
मुंबई महानगर क्षेत्र
Dark Blue: Mumbai City (Bombay)
Light Blue: Rest of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region
|• Metro||4,355 km2 (1,681 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 Census)|
|• Urban density||20,694/km2 (53,600/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||4,764/km2 (12,340/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5.30)|
Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) is a metropolitan area in Maharashtra state, consisting of the state capital Mumbai and its satellite towns. Developing over a period of about 20 years, it consists of seven municipal corporations and fifteen smaller municipal councils. The entire area is overseen by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), a Maharashtra State Government organisation in charge of town planning, development, transportation and housing in the region. The MMRDA was formed to address the challenges in planning and development of integrated infrastructure for the metropolitan region. The areas outside of Brihan Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) and Navi Mumbai have lacked organised development. Navi Mumbai, developed as one of the largest planned cities in the world, was promoted by a Maharashtra Government-owned company, City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). The region has had problems related to haphazard and illegal development as a result of rapid urbanisation. Villages along the NH3 in Bhiwandi Taluka are examples of haphazard developments in the MMR, with some of the largest warehousing areas in India. Government agencies such as the Town Planner and Collector of Thane have had challenges in addressing unorganised development.
The region has an area of 4,355 km² and with a population of 20,748,395, it is among the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. It is linked with Mumbai through the Mumbai Suburban Railway system and a large network of roads.
- Mumbai City (complete)
- Mumbai Suburban (complete)
- Thane (complete)
- Palghar (partial)
- Raigad (partial)
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The Mumbai Conurbation is a conurbation that comprises the metropolitan city of Mumbai (City& Suburban), and seven urban areas - Navi Mumbai, Thane, Mira-Bhayandar, Kalyan-Dombivli, Ulhasnagar, Vasai-Virar and Bhiwandi-Nizampur as well as several other towns and villages. Several public authorities are responsible for development and maintenance of the Mumbai Conurbation. While each urban area or township has its own local self government the MMRDA undertakes projects that cross over the local governments. Mumbai city - especially the Greater Mumbai area - is plagued with troubles due to concentration of businesses and lack of supporting infrastructure. Some of the projects MMRDA undertook were to move some of these business to other areas in the Mumbai Conurbation. For example, some of the wholesale markets were moved out of Greater Mumbai to other areas in the Conurbation. The entire island of Salsette is included within the Mumbai Metropolitan Area.
- Nala Sopara
- Vasai Virar Industrial Area
- Bhiwandi-Kalyan Complex Notified Area
- Dombivli MIDC Industrial Complex
- Trans Thane Creek Industrial Area TTC MIDC (Navi Mumbai)
- Taloja Industrial Area
- Patalganga-Rasayani Industrial Area
Public transport systems in MMR include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Monorail, Metro, buses, black-and-yellow meter taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries. Suburban railway and bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008. Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai. Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG), and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport.
The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. It handled 36.6 million passengers and 694,300 tonnes of cargo during FY 2014–2015. An upgrade plan was initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually and the new terminal T2 was opened in February 2014.
The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.
Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the creek in Navi Mumbai. Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities. Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India. It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerised cargo. Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.
Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercrafts and catamarans. Services are provided by both government agencies as well as private partners. Hovercraft services plied briefly in the late 1990s between the Gateway of India and CBD Belapur in Navi Mumbai. They were subsequently scrapped due to lack of adequate infrastructure.
Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4, National Highway 8, National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 of India's National Highways system. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India. The Eastern Freeway was opened in 2013. The Mumbai Nashik Expressway, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway are under construction. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs. The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. Mumbai has approximately 1,900 km (1,181 mi) of roads. There are five tolled entry points to the city by road.
Mumbai had about 721,000 private vehicles as of March 2014, 56,459 black and yellow taxis as of 2005, and 106,000 auto rickshaws, as of May 2013.
Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008, which dropped to 2.8 million in 2015. Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane. The BEST operates a total of 4,608 buses with CCTV cameras installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 390 routes. Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant diesel and compressed natural gas powered buses. BEST introduced air-conditioned buses in 1998. BEST buses are red in colour, based originally on the Routemaster buses of London. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC, also known as ST) buses provide intercity transport connecting Mumbai with other towns and cities of Maharashtra and nearby states. The Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) and Thane Municipal Transport (TMT) also operate their buses in Mumbai, connecting various nodes of Navi Mumbai and Thane to parts of Mumbai.
Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.
The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai. Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion. Mumbai's transport system has been categorised as one of the most congested in the world.
Mumbai Suburban Railway consists of exclusive inner suburban railway lines augmented by commuter rail on main lines serving outlying suburbs to serve the Mumbai Metropolitan Region. Spread over 465 kilometres (289 mi), the suburban railway operates 2,342 train services and carries more than 7.5 million commuters daily. By annual ridership (2.64 billion), the Mumbai Suburban Railway is one of the busiest commuter rail systems in the world and it has some of the most severe overcrowding in the world. Trains run from 4 AM until 1 AM, and some trains also run up to 2:30 AM.
The most important suburban stations are CST, Dadar, Mumbai Central, Thane, Kalyan. The stations are planned as major railway junctions. Mumbai Central and CST are the only mainline station and also the busiest railway stations of Mumbai. All outstation trains halt here for time periods varying from 5 to 20 minutes. These are important junctions, railway lines originate or come and meet here and are connected to almost all parts of India. A new broad gauge line is functional between Karjat & Panvel and currently plies three express trains.
The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network.The first Metro is from Ghatkopar to Versova. The first Monorail is from Chembur to Wadala.The Navi Mumbai Metro is an under construction rapid transit system in Navi Mumbai. A network of as many as six lines have been planned of which four lines will be constructed by CIDCO in the Navi Mumbai south region, the second and third line of the metro system will be constructed by NMMC and MMRDA respectively.
Mumbai is the headquarters of two zones of the Indian Railways: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate. Mumbai is also well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways. Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Dadar, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai Central, Bandra Terminus, Andheri and Borivali.
- Postal Codes : 400 xxx to 401 xxx, 410 xxx, 421 xxx, 402 ×××,
- Telephone Code : +91 (022),+91 (250),+91 (0251),+91 (02522)
- Vehicle : MH-01, MH-02, MH-03, MH-04, MH-05, MH-06, MH-43, MH-46, MH-47, MH-48
- "INDIA STATS : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". Press Information Bureau, Mumbai. National Informatics Centre (NIC). Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "Mumbai metropolitan area" (in Italian). Projectsecoa.eu. Retrieved 2013-03-14.