Logo of the Mumbai Police
|Motto||To protect the Good and to destroy the Evil|
|Operations jurisdiction||Mumbai, IN|
|Mumbai Police jurisdictional area|
|Size||603.4 km2 (233.0 sq mi)|
|Governing body||Department of Home, Government of Maharashtra|
|Headquarters||The Office of Commissioner of Police|
|Elected officer responsible|
|Parent agency||Maharashtra Police|
|Stations||94 (Police Stations) |
102 (Traffic Police outlets)
|Hatch-backs, SUV, Motorcycles||3,500|
|Speed Gunboats||32 of Mumbai Police and 60 of Mumbai coast guard|
The Mumbai Police (Marathi: मुंबई पोलीस, IAST: Mumbaī Pulīs, formerly Bombay Police) is the police department of the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is a part of Maharashtra Police and has the primary responsibilities of law enforcement and investigation within the limits of Mumbai. The force's motto is "Sadrakṣaṇāya Khalanigrahaṇāya" (Sanskrit: सद्रक्षणाय खलनिग्रहणाय, English: "To protect Good and to destroy Evil").
It is headed by the Commissioner of the Mumbai Police assisted by an IPS officer in the rank of Additional Director General, and each district headed is headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police in the rank of Superintendent of Police (excluding jails headed by Inspector Generals). Each police station is headed by a Senior Inspector called the Station House Officer (SHO).
During the 17th century (until 1655), the area of present-day Mumbai was under Portuguese control. The Portuguese formed a basic law enforcement structure in this area with the establishment of a Police out-post in 1661.
The origins of the present day Mumbai police can be traced back to a militia organised by Gerald Aungier, the then Governor of Bombay in 1669. This Bhandari Militia was composed of around 500 men and was headquartered at Mahim, Sevree and Sion. In 1672, the judicial overview of police decisions by courts was introduced, although none of the judges had any actual legal training. The situation remained unchanged through the Maratha wars. However, by 1682, policing remained stagnant. There was only one ensign for the whole Bhandari militia, and there were only three sergeants and two corporals.
Creation and early days
On 29 March 1780, the office of the Lieutenant of Police was dissolved and the office of Deputy of Police was created. James Tod, the then Lieutenant of Police was appointed as the first Deputy of Police on 5 April 1780. He was tried and dismissed for corruption in 1790. Subsequently, the designation was changed to "Deputy of Police and High Constable".
In 1793, Act XXXIII, Geo. III was promulgated. The post of Deputy of Police was abolished and a post of Superintendent of Police was created in its place, with a Deputy of Superintendent of Police assisting him. Mr. Simon Halliday was the first Superintendent of Police, and governed till 1808. During this time, a thorough revision and re-arrangement of policing in the area outside the Fort was carried out. The troublesome area known as "Dungree and the Woods" was split up into 14 Police divisions, each division being staffed by two English constables and a varying number of Peons (not exceeding 130 for the whole area), who were to be stationary in their respective charges and responsible for dealing with all illegal acts committed within their limits.
After the cementing of British Rule in India after the 1857 war of Indian Independence, in 1864, the three Presidency towns of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were given Commissioners of Police. On 14 December 1864, Sir Frank Souter was appointed the first Police Commissioner of Bombay. He remained in office for 24 years, till 3 July 1888. During that year (1864), Khan Bahadur Sheikh Ibrahim Sheikh Imam became the first Indian appointed to a police officer's post.
In 1896 the Commissioner's office moved to an Anglo-Gothic revival building, which it still occupies to this day. The Police Headquarters building is a protected heritage site.
After independence, many changes to the Bombay Police were instituted. On 15 August 1947, J.S. Bharucha became the first Indian head of the Bombay Police, taking over from the last British Commissioner, Mr. A.E. Caffin. A dog squad was set up in 1965. Computers were first used by the Bombay police in 1976. A Narcotics Cell and an anti-terrorist special operations squad were created in 1989.
Modernisation and present day
A massive modernization of the Mumbai Police took place in 2005. New vehicles, guns and electronic equipment were procured for police use. The Tourist Squad was also created to patrol the beaches of Mumbai. On 30 May 2009 the Maharashtra government in Mumbai set up a police station dedicated to tackling cyber crime. It is the third such facility in India after Bangalore and Hyderabad. The dedicated police station will now register first information reports (FIRs) on its own and investigate offences pertaining to cyberspace. It is not clear how people abroad may report to Mumbai Cybercell. The police station will take care of all cyber cases in the city including that of terror e-mails. The existing Cyber Crime Investigation Cell of the city police probes cyber offences, but the FIRs are registered in local police stations depending on the site of the offence. A specially trained team of over 25 policemen, headed by an Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP), were selected for the new job. The facility will function under the supervision of Deputy Commissioner of Police (Preventive) and Joint Commissioner of Police (Crime).
The Mumbai Police Headquarters are in a Grade II-A listed heritage building that was built in 1894 and designed by John Adams, who also designed the Royal Bombay Yacht Club. It is located opposite Crawford Market in South Mumbai, a mile away from the Victoria Terminus. The construction work started on 17 November 1894 and finished two years later on 24 December 1896. The building was formally opened on 1 January 1897.
The architectural style of the building is Gothic Revival. In contrast to the Maharashtra Police Headquarters in Fort, which uses blue basalt and was built some two decades earlier, this building uses yellow basalt. The building underwent a major restoration in 2017 for the first time in its 120-year history. In 2018, it was announced that a police museum funded by Tata Trusts would open in the building. Since then, there have been no further developments.
The Mumbai Police Department is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an IPS officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state home department through Maharashtra Police. The City is divided into Twelve police zones and Twenty Five traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police.
The department holds several programs for the welfare of its officials including Retirement Planning Workshop.
Mumbai police is broadly divided into five regions namely Central, North, South, East and West. For administrative purposes, each region is subdivided into 3 to 4 zones. Each zone contains 3 to 4 police stations. Each zone is commanded by a Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP). Apart from the 12 zones, there is also an additional Port zone. Police stations under the Port zone keep vigil on the Mumbai Port and container terminals in Mumbai. There are a total of 91 police stations in the jurisdiction of Mumbai Police. Every police station has a Police Inspector who is the in-charge officer of the station.
|Hierarchy structure of the Mumbai Police|
|Commissioner of Police (DG rank/ADG rank)||CP||1|
|Joint Commissioner of Police (IGP rank)||Jt.CP||5|
|Additional Commissioner of Police (DIG rank)||Addl. CP||11|
|Deputy Commissioner of Police (SP rank)||DCP||41|
|Assistant Commissioner of Police (Deputy SP rank/Assistant SP rank)||ACP||124|
|Assistant Police Inspector||API||756|
|Police Sub Inspector||PSI||2850|
|Assistant Sub Inspector||ASI||3329|
Those who join the police department through the constabulary exam enter the force at the lowest ranks of the force. Their starting rank is that of a Police constable. Those who join the Police force through the state examination (Maharashtra State Public Service Commission) holds a starting rank of Sub Inspector . Officers who join the police force through the civil service examination conducted by UPSC also known as the IPS exam holds a starting rank of Assistant Superintendent of Police. Generally the IPS officers make it to the highest rank of Director General. The Commissioner of Police of Mumbai, an IPS officer is one of the rank of Additional Director General of Police.
Mumbai Police is divided into the following units:
- Local Police
- Special Unit Service
- Crime Branch
- Cyber Cell
- Commando Force
- Detection Unit (Mumbai Encounter Squad)
- Anti Terrorist Squad
- Traffic Police
- Social Service Cell
- Narcotics Cell
- Wireless Cell
- Local Armed Police
- Anti-Extortion Cell
- Modus Operandi Bureau
- Missing Persons Bureau
- Special Branch
- Intelligence Unit
- Protection & Security
- Riot Control Police
- Economic Offenses Wing
- Juvenile AID Protection Unit
- Quick Response Team
- Force One
Each of these units have a Chief of the rank of Joint Commissioner of Police.
26 November 2008 Mumbai attacks
Anti-Terrorism Squad Chief Hemant Karkare, Additional Commissioner of Police Ashok Kamte and Encounter specialist Vijay Salaskar were among the policemen who fell to the bullets of the terrorists. Then Joint Commissioner of Mumbai Crime Branch Mr. Rakesh Maria under the leadership of Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor tackled the abrupt attack by his superb skills. Mr. Ramesh Mahale, then an officer with crime branch investigated the case and brought the lone arrested militant Ajmal Kasab to justice. Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor was shunted out of his office. Mahale resigned recently over a murder case investigation which he was leading. In the following year, as a response to these attacks, a specialised counter-terrorism unit, Force One was formed and commissioned on 24 November 2009, two days before the anniversary of the 26/11 terror attacks. A Committee was appointed to look into the failures of cops pertaining to the terror attack. The Ram Pradhan Committee, as it came to be known, furnished a report recommending a series of improvements & reforms. The State Government of Maharashtra however never had this report tabled in the legislature fearing a fallout over strictures passed in the report. A Public Interest Litigation has been filed by social activist Ketan Tirodkar to demand equal justice for all the police who were killed in the terror attack; especially for the members of the Bomb Disposal Squad of Mumbai Police. During the hearing of the petition, the Government informed the High Court that the Federal Government of India has rejected the proposal to award the Bomb Disposal Squad of the city police for their contribution in defusing granades in the terror attack.
Sheena Bora murder case
Sheena Bora, an executive working for Metro One based in Mumbai, went missing on 24 April 2012. In August 2015, the Mumbai Police had received a tip-off from an unknown man claiming that Sheena Bora had been murdered. After they got in touch with their Counterparts in Pune, they arrested her mother, Indrani Mukerjea, her stepfather Sanjeev Khanna, and her mother's chauffeur, Shyamvar Pinturam Rai, for allegedly abducting and killing her and subsequently burning her corpse. They also arrested Indrani's husband, Peter Mukerjea in connection with the case. Rai has now been allowed to turn approver in the case after he was pardoned by the Bandra Magistrate Court in Mumbai. As of May 2017, Indrani, Peter, and Sanjeev have been lodged in Byculla Women's Prison and Arthur Road Jail in Mumbai, respectively.
Much of the equipment for the Mumbai Police are manufactured indigenously by the Indian Ordnance Factories controlled by the Ordnance Factories Board, Ministry of Defence, Government of India. Weapons such as Glock Pistols are imported from Austria. These pistols were first imported for the Anti-terrorist Squad in Mumbai when the same was formed in 2004.
Detail List of Mumbai police's Vehicles
|C.P.Pool Mumbai Vehicle Fleet|
|Vehicle Category||Total Vehicle Fleet|
|Special Purpose Vehicle||50|
|Transportation Vehicles ( Squad cars )||210|
72 speed boats have been also ordered.
Peaked caps are worn with an orange band and crown that is less stiff such it drops downwards. Khaki short sleeve shirt and long pants are worn by most members. Some women might wear sarees if they prefer. The patch of the police force is visible too.
Mumbai police in popular culture
Because Bollywood, India's Hindi language film industry, is primarily based in Mumbai, the Mumbai police has been frequently portrayed in films. Some of the prominent ones are listed below:
- Company (2002)
- Dum (2003)
- Aan: Men at Work (2004)
- Ab Tak Chhappan (2004)
- Black Friday (2004)
- Khakee (2004)
- Shootout at Lokhandwala (2007)
- A Wednesday (2008)
- Mumbai Meri Jaan (2008)
- Department (2012)
- Talaash (2012)
- Shootout at Wadala (2013)
- Ab Tak Chhappan 2 (2015)
- Simmba (2018)
- Slumdog Millionaire (2008)
- Darbar (2020)
Most of these films are based on the operational groups most commonly known as Encounter Squads. Officers like Pradeep Sharma, Vijay Salaskar, Praful Bhosale, Ravindra Angre etc. have previously headed these squads. Junior officers Hemant Desai, Ashok Khot, Sachin Waze, Daya Nayak, Uttam Bhosale etc. assisted them.
The Ashok Chakra, India's highest civilian honour during peace time, was conferred posthumously upon two Mumbai Police officers – Hemant Karkare and Ashok Kamte who laid their lives in the service of the nation during the 2008 Mumbai attacks. Junior officer Vijay Salaskar was also posthumously awarded the Ashok Chakra.
- Kadam, B. S. Sri; Socio-Historical Study Of Police Administration in Bombay Presidency (1861 to 1947); Kolhapur 1993 (Diss. Shivaji University)
- Kennedy, M. Notes On Criminal Classes in the Bombay Presidency Appendices regarding some Foreign Criminals who occasionally visit the Presidency: Including Hints on the Detection of Counterfeit Coin; Bombay 1908
- Edwardes, Stephen M. (Commissioner of Police); The Bombay City Police: A Historical Sketch, 1672–1916; Bombay u.a. 1923
- Edwardes, Stephen M.; Crime in India: Brief Review of the more Important Offences included in the Annual Criminal Returns with Chapters on Prostitution & Miscellaneous Matters; Oxford u.a. 1924
- Statistiken: gedruckt im: Annual Report of Police for the Town and Island of Bombay, laufende Monatsstatistiken auf Mumbai Police
- "Say hello to the crorepati police constable from Thane" (Mid-day.com). Mid Day. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Mumbai Police – History at the Mumbai Police Website
- "Maharashtra State Gazetteers – Greater Bombay District". Maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- Edwardes (1923), p 19
- Mumbai Police Force History on TIFR website.
- "Cyber crime police station in Mumbai". Ndtv.com. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- "HT Exclusive: Iconic Mumbai police commissioner's building to undergo major repairs". Hindustan Times. 6 February 2017.
- "Mumbai Police's over 100-yr-old office set for a facelift". 1 November 2017 – via The Economic Times.
- "Tata Trusts to set up Maharashtra's 1st police museum in Mumbai | Mumbai News - Times of India". The Times of India.
- "MUMBAI POLICE: CUSTODIANS OF YOUR TRUST". Mumbai Police. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
- "About Us". Mumbai Police. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- "Senior Officers List" (PDF). Mumbai Police. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- Gaikwad, Shailesh (9 February 2014). "26/11 probe fallout: Top cop Gafoor transferred". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Ali, Ahmed S (9 February 2014). "26/11 terror attack case: Chief investigating officer Ramesh Mahale resigns". Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- "On 26/11, cops had 247 AK-47s, but they stayed under lock & key – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 24 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- "No consensus on security plan even a month after Mumbai attacks". Business-standard.com. 27 December 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- "Official website". Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- "72 speedboats bought after 26/11 attacks lie unused in coastal police stations". Mumbai Mirror.
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