||This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (November 2008)|
Logo of the Mumbai Police
|Motto||" सद्रक्षणाय खलनिग्रहणाय"
(Sanskrit:"To protect the good and to destroy the evil")
|Annual budget||₹ 700 crores (USD 427 million)|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Operations jurisdiction*||City of Mumbai, [[Maharashtra, India]]|
|Mumbai Police jurisdictional area|
|Size||603.4 km² (233 sq mi)|
|Overviewed by||Maharashtra State Government|
|Headquarters||The Office of Commissioner of Police|
|Elected officer responsible||Devendra Fadnavis (Home Minister)|
|Agency executive||Rakesh Maria, Acting Commissioner|
|Parent agency||Maharashtra Police|
|Stations||94 ( Colonial Police Stations ) , 102 ( Traffic Police outlets )|
|Boats||32 of Mumbai Police and 60 of Mumbai coast guard|
|* Divisional agency: Division of the country, over which the agency has usual operational jurisdiction.|
The Mumbai Police (also known as Brihanmumbai Police) is the police force of the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is a part of Maharashtra Police and has the primary responsibilities of law enforcement and investigation within the limits of Mumbai. The department's motto is "Sadrakṣaṇāya Khalanigrahaṇāya" (Sanskrit: सद्रक्षणाय खलनिग्रहणाय, "To protect the good and to destroy the evil").
It is headed by the Commissioner of Mumbai Police, who is generally an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer.
- 1 History
- 2 Jurisdiction and duties
- 3 Organisation
- 4 Recruitment
- 5 High-profile cases
- 6 Equipment
- 7 Mumbai police in popular culture
- 8 Appreciation & Honours
- 9 See also
- 10 Literature
- 11 References
- 12 External links
During the 17th century (until 1655), the area of present-day Mumbai was under Portuguese control. The Portuguese formed a basic law enforcement structure in this area with the establishment of a Police out-post in 1661.
The origins of the present day Mumbai police can be traced back to a militia organised by Gerald Aungier, the then Governor of Mumbai in 1669. This Bhandari Militia was composed of around 500 men and was headquartered at Mahim, Sewree and Sion. In 1672, the judicial overview of police decisions by courts was introduced, although none of the judges had any actual legal training. The situation remained unchanged through the Maratha wars. However, by 1682, policing remained stagnant. There was only one ensign for the whole Bhandari militia, and there were only three sergeants and two corporals.
Creation and early days
On 29 March 1780, the office of the Lieutenant of Police was dissolved and the office of Deputy of Police was created. James Tod, the then Lieutenant of Police was appointed as the first Deputy of Police on 5 April 1780. He was tried and dismissed for corruption in 1790. Subsequently, the designation was changed to "Deputy of Police and High Constable".
In 1793, Act XXXIII, Geo. III was promulgated. The post of Deputy of Police was abolished and a post of Superintendent of Police was created in its place, with a Deputy of Superintendent of Police assisting him. Mr. Simon Halliday was the first Superintendent of Police, and governed till 1808. During this time, a thorough revision and re-arrangement of policing in the area outside the Fort was carried out. The troublesome area known as "Dungree and the Woods" was split up into 14 Police divisions, each division being staffed by two English constables and a varying number of Peons (not exceeding 130 for the whole area), who were to be stationary in their respective charges and responsible for dealing with all illegal acts committed within their limits.
After the cementing of English Rule in India after the 1857 Mutiny, in 1864, the three Presidency towns of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were given Commissioners of Police. On 14 December 1864, Sir Frank Souter was appointed the first Police Commissioner of Bombay. He remained in office for 24 years, till July 3, 1888. During that year (1864), Khan Bahadur Sheikh Ibrahim Sheikh Imam became the first Indian appointed to a police officer's post.
In 1896 the Commissioner's office moved to an Anglo-Gothic revival building, which it still occupies to this day. The Police Headquarters building is a protected heritage site. The Maharashtra Police Headquarters moved into what was known as the Royal Alfred Sailors' Home, in 1896. Construction began on the building in early 1872 and was finished four years later, in 1876. As its name suggests, it was made to accommodate 20 officers and 100 seamen. However, the building was actually conceived to commemorate the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh in 1870. The Duke laid the Foundation stone during his visit.
The Maharastra government acquired the building in 1928 to house the Bombay Legislative Council. The Police department subsequently moved in after it was vacated.
After independence, many changes to the Mumbai Police were instituted. On 15 August 1947, J.S. Bharucha became the first Indian head of the Mumbai Police, taking over from the last British Commissioner, Mr. A.E. Caffin.
A dog squad was set up in 1965. Computers were first used by the Mumbai police in 1976. A Narcotics Cell and an anti-terrorist special operations squad were created in 1989. In 1995, the control room was computerised, and finally, in 1997, the Mumbai Police went online.
Modernisation and present day
A massive modernisation of the Mumbai Police took place in 2005. New vehicles, guns and electronic equipment were procured for police use. The Tourist Squad was also created to patrol the beaches of Mumbai. On 30 May 2009 the Maharashtra government in Mumbai set up a police station dedicated to tackling cyber crime. It is the third such facility in India after Bangalore and Hyderabad. The dedicated police station will now register first information reports (FIRs) on its own and investigate offences pertaining to cyberspace. It is not clear how people abroad may report to Mumbai Cybercell. The police station will take care of all cyber cases in the city including that of terror e-mails. The existing Cyber Crime Investigation Cell of the city police probes cyber offences, but the FIRs are registered in local police stations depending on the site of the offence. A specially trained team of over 25 policemen, headed by an Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP), were selected for the new job. The facility will function under the supervision of Deputy Commissioner of Police (Preventive) and Joint Commissioner of Police (Crime).
Jurisdiction and duties
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The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an IPS officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into Twelve police zones and Twenty Five traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police.
Mumbai police is broadly divided into five regions namely Central, North, South, East and West. For administrative purposes, each region is subdivided into 3 to 4 zones. Each zone contains 3 to 4 police stations. Each zone is commanded by a Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP). Apart from the 12 zones, there is also an additional Port zone. Police stations under the Port zone keep vigil on the Mumbai Port and container terminals in Mumbai. There are a total of 91 police stations in the jurisdiction of Mumbai Police. Every police station has a Police Inspector who is the in-charge officer of the station.
|Rank structure of the Mumbai Police|
|Commissioner of Police||C.P||1|
|Joint Commissioner of Police||Jt.CP||5|
|Additional Commissioner of Police||Addl.CP||12|
|Deputy Commissioner of Police||DCP||38|
|Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police||Addl.DCP|
|Assistant Commissioner of Police||ACP||124|
|Assistant Police Inspector||API||756|
|Police Sub Inspector||PSI||2850|
|Assistant Sub Inspector||ASI||3329|
Those who join the police force through the constabulary exam enter the force at the lowest ranks of the force. Their starting rank is that of a Police constable. Those who join the Police force through the state examination (Maharashtra state Public Service Commission) holds a starting rank of Sub Inspector of Police. Those who join the police force through the civil service examination (UPSC) also known as the IPS exam holds a starting rank of Deputy Commissioner of Police. Generally the IPS officers make it to the highest rank of Director General. The Commissioner of Police for Mumbai also holds the rank of Additional Director General of Police Maharashtra.
Mumbai Police is divided into the following units:
- Crime Branch
- Cyber Cell
- Commando Force
- Detection Unit (Wrongly known as Mumbai Encounter Squad)
- Anti Terrorist Squad
- Law and Order
- Traffic Police
- Social Service Cell
- Narcotics Cell
- Wireless Cell
- Local Armed Police
- Anti-Extortion Cell
- Modus Operandi Bureau
- Missing Persons Bureau
- Special Branch
- Intelligence Unit
- Protection & Security
- Riot Control Police
- Economic Offenses Wing
- Juvenile AID Protection Unit
- Quick Response Team
- Force One
Each of these units have a commander of the rank of Joint Commissioner of Police.
26 November 2008 Mumbai attacks
Anti-Terrorism Squad Chief Hemant Karkare, Additional Commissioner of Police Ashok Kamte and Encounter specialist Vijay Salaskar were among the policemen who fell to the bullets of the Pakistan-sponsored terrorists. Then Joint Commissioner of Mumbai Crime Branch Mr. Rakesh Maria under the leadership of Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor tackled the abrupt attack by his superb skills. Mr. Ramesh Mahale; then an officer with crime branch investigated the case and brought the lone arrested militant Ajmal Kasab to justice. Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor was shunted out of his office. Mahale resigned recently over a murder case investigation which he was leading. In the following year, as a response to these attacks, a specialized counter-terrorism unit, Force One was formed and commissioned on November 24, 2009, two days before the anniversary of the 26/11 terror attacks. A Committee was appointed to look into the failures of cops pertaining to the terror attack. The Ram Pradhan Committee as it came to be known' furnished a report recommending a series of improvements & reforms. The State Government of Maharashtra however never had this report tabled in the legislature fearing a fallout over strictures passed in the report. A Public Interest Litigation has been filed by social activist Ketan Tirodkar to demand equal justice for all the police who were killed in the terror attack; especially for the members of the Bomb Disposal Squad of Mumbai Police. During the hearing of the petition; the Government informed the High Court that the Federal Government of India has rejected the proposal to award the Bomba Disposal Squad of the city poplice for their contribution in defusing granades in the terror attack.
All the equipment for the Mumbai Police are manufactured indigenously by the Indian Ordnance Factories controlled by the Ordnance Factories Board, Ministry of Defence, Government of India. Also, weapons such as Glock Pistols are imported from Austria. These pistols were first imported for the Anti-terrorist Squad in Mumbai when the same was formed in year 2004.
Detail List of Mumbai police's Vehicles
|C.P.Pool Mumbai Vehicle Fleet|
|Vehicle Category||Total Vehicle Fleet|
|Special Purpose Vehicle||50|
|Transportation Vehicles ( Squad cars )||210|
36 speed boats have been ordered.
Mumbai police in popular culture
Because Bollywood, India's Hindi language film industry, is primarily based in Mumbai, the Mumbai police has been frequently portrayed in films. Some of the prominent ones are listed below:
- Talaash (2012)
- Department (2012)
- A Wednesday (2008)
- Ab Tak Chhappan
- Aan: Men at Work (2004): Directed by Madhur Bhandarkar.
- Black Friday (2004): The movie dealt with the conspiracy and the police investigation of the 1993 Mumbai Bombings.
- Shootout at Lokhandwala (2007): Based on a shootout between the Mumbai Police and gangsters of the Maya Dolas gang of the Mumbai Underworld at Lokhandwala Complex on November 16, 1991.
- Mumbai Meri Jaan (2008): The film dealt with the aftermath of the 2006 Mumbai train bombings. One of the main stories is about the trials and tribulations of two constables of the Mumbai police.
Most of these films are based on the operational groups most commonly known as Encounter Squads. Officers like Pradeep Sharma, Vijay Salaskar, Praful Bhosale, Ravindra Angre have headed these squads. They are also known as demolition men. Junior officers Hemant Desai, Ashok Khot, Sachin Waze, ||Daya Nayak, Uttam Bhosale & likes have assisted them.
Appreciation & Honours
Ashok Chakra; the highest civilian honour during peace time was conferred posthumously upon two officers of Indian Police Service Hemant Karkare & Ashok Kamte; who laid their lives in the service of the nation during the deadly militant attack of 2008 in Mumbai. Also, a junior officer Vijay Salaskar was posthumously awarded Ashok Chakra. Other martyr officers Shashank Shinde, Prakash More & around a dozen constables also were posthumously honoured with Kirti Chakra for the bravery exhibited during the 2008 terror attack.
- Kadam, B. S. Sri; Socio-Historical Study Of Police Administration in Bombay Presidency (1861 to 1947); Kolhapur 1993 (Diss. Shivaji University)
- Kennedy, M. Notes On Criminal Classes in the Bombay Presidency Appendices regarding some Foreign Criminals who occasionally visit the Presidency: Including Hints on the Detection of Counterfeit Coin; Bombay 1908
- Edwardes, Stephen M. (Commissioner of Police); The Bombay City Police: A Historical Sketch, 1672–1916; Bombay u.a. 1923
- Edwardes, Stephen M.; Crime in India: Brief Review of the more Important Offences included in the Annual Criminal Returns with Chapters on Prostitution & Miscellaneous Matters; Oxford u.a. 1924
- Statistiken: gedruckt im: Annual Report of Police for the Town and Island of Bombay, laufende Monatsstatistiken auf Mumbai Police
- "Say hello to the crorepati police constable from Thane" (Mid-day.com). Mid Day. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Mumbai Police - History at the Mumbai Police Website
- "Maharashtra State Gazetteers - Greater Bombay District". Maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- Edwardes (1923), p 19
- Mumbai Police Force History on TIFR website.
- "Cyber crime police station in Mumbai". Ndtv.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "MUMBAI POLICE: CUSTODIANS OF YOUR TRUST". Mumbai Police. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- "About Us". Mumbai Police. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "About Us". Mumbai Police. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- Gaikwad, Shailesh (9 February 2014). "26/11 probe fallout: Top cop Gafoor transferred". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Ali, Ahmed S (9 February 2014). "26/11 terror attack case: Chief investigating officer Ramesh Mahale resigns". Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- See Pradhan Inquiry Commission
- Rosy, Sequeira (10 December 2013). "Centre says no to medals for 26/11 bomb neutralizers". Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- PTI, PTI (9 February 2014). "26/11 case: HC seeks information on steps to award bomb squad men". Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- "On 26/11, cops had 247 AK-47s, but they stayed under lock & key - Mumbai - DNA". Dnaindia.com. 2009-12-24. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "No consensus on security plan even a month after Mumbai attacks". Business-standard.com. 2008-12-27. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "Official website". Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "Robber who stabbed constable, husband in Navi Mumbai arrested" (Mid.day.com). Mid Day. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
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