|Major figures||Andrew Bujalski, Lynn Shelton, Aaron Katz, Mark Duplass, Jay Duplass, Joe Swanberg, Ry Russo-Young|
|Influences||French New Wave, DIY culture, Dogme 95, American independent film, digital filmmaking|
Mumblecore is a subgenre of independent film characterized by naturalistic acting and dialogue (often improvised), low-budget film production, an emphasis on dialogue over plot, and a focus on the personal relationships of people in their 20s and 30s. Filmmakers associated with the genre include Andrew Bujalski, Lynn Shelton, Mark Duplass, Jay Duplass, Aaron Katz, Joe Swanberg, and Ry Russo-Young; in many cases, though, these directors reject the term.
The term mumblegore has been used for films mixing the mumblecore and horror genres.
Naturalism – both in performance and dialogue – is a key feature of almost all mumblecore films. Early mumblecore films tended to feature non-professional actors, although later films have had more professional actors, including major stars such as Anna Kendrick (Drinking Buddies and Happy Christmas) and Orlando Bloom (Digging for Fire). Some mumblecore films feature a prominent use of improvisation, with the cast sharing script credits, though some, like Bujalski's films, are mostly scripted.
Mumblecore films are generally produced with a low budget, which has ranged from several thousand to several million dollars; and low production values. Filming is done in real places, as opposed to studio sets or soundstages. Many of these films are shot digitally, although Bujalski's films have all been shot on film. Soundtracks tend to be limited, or nonexistent.
Mumblecore films tend to revolve around characters in their twenties and early thirties who are usually single, and fairly aimless in both their professional and personal lives. Plots are often concerned with difficulties in romantic relationships, exacerbated by the characters' inability to articulate their own desires.
Influences on mumblecore
The genre can trace its roots back to the French New Wave of the 1960s—especially the films of Eric Rohmer—whose films focused on the romantic intrigues of characters, and depicted lengthy conversations.
Other films that have been described as influencing, or at least anticipating, the conventions of mumblecore include Girlfriends (1978), Manhattan (1979), Stranger Than Paradise (1984), Slacker (1991), Clerks (1994), Go Fish (1994) and Before Sunrise (1995).
Another often-cited influence on mumblecore is the profusion of cheaper filmmaking technology starting in the early 2000s, such as the Panasonic AG-DVX100 video camera, and desktop video editing software such as Final Cut Pro.
The 2005 South by Southwest Film Festival screened a number of other films that came to be considered part of the mumblecore movement, including Bujalski's second film, Mutual Appreciation; The Puffy Chair, by Mark Duplass & Jay Duplass; and Kissing on the Mouth, by Joe Swanberg. That festival was also the origin of the term "mumblecore": Eric Masunaga, a sound editor who has worked with Bujalski, coined the term one night at a bar during the festival, when asked to describe the similarities between those three films. The term was first used publicly by Bujalski in an interview with indieWIRE. Bujalski has downplayed the existence of an organized "movement", however, and stated that he does not intentionally make "mumblecore" films.
Film journalists have also referred to the genre collectively with the terms "bedhead cinema" and "Slackavetes" (a portmanteau derived from the title of Richard Linklater's dialogue-heavy, lo-fi 1990s film Slacker, and the name of independent film director John Cassavetes).
Some critics have stated that mumblecore ended around 2010, as the original crop of directors began making films with larger budgets, more diverse storylines, and a more conventional cinematic approach. For this reason, films made since 2010 or so that retain an emphasis on naturalistic dialogue and plot are sometimes referred to as "post-mumblecore". Filmmakers who have been labelled as "post-mumblecore" include Kentucker Audley, Amy Seimetz, Sean Price Williams, Alex Karpovsky and Kate Lyn Sheil.
Influences on other genres
The term "mumblegore" has been used for films mixing mumblecore and the horror genre. One of the first such films was 2008's Baghead. A more recent example is 2011's Entrance. Directors associated with mumblecore have made the horror films V/H/S, The House of the Devil, You're Next, and The Sacrament.
Outside the United States
Indian cinemas have been producing independent films of the genre for decades. Directors like Sai Paranjpye have made films like Chashme Buddoor (1981) and Kathā (1982) One of the more recent ones to come out from the Hindi scene is Sulemani Keeda.
In 2000 Alvaro Robles (Chile) made the film "El Sueño del Caracol" and in 2001 "Huevo Negro", movies that suggest the same principles as the mumblecore develops, even that same year he wrote the essay " post-cinema " (2001) in which he openly describes the essential characteristics of mumblecore, being a precedent of the movement outside the US.
Mumblecore is not a strictly American phenomenon. Since about 2009, there is the Berlin Mumblecore movement, with its own manifesto Sehr gutes Manifest. Berlin Mumblecore is not a reaction to the American hype as it is a reaction to the lack of reform in the German public financial support system for the film industry (Filmfoerderung). Crowdfunding is a new possibility to finance movie productions with small and very small budgets independently from restrictions of the German Filmfoerderung.
In 2009, Jette Miller's Austern ohne Schale was screened in Berlin. In 2011, the movies Frontalwatte by Jakob Lass and Papa Gold by Tom Lass were released. The latter won several German film awards. 2012 saw the release of Klappe Cowboy by Timo Jacobs and Ulf Behrens, as well as the award-winning Dicke Mädchen by Axel Ranisch.
|This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: The table provided is difficult to understand and can actually be misleading. (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Mumblecore fims in the 2000s featured many of the same collaborators usually working on more than one job.
|Movie||Adam Wingard||Andrew Bujalski||Greta Gerwig||Lena Dunham||Anna Kendrick||Jake Johnson||Joe Swanberg||Kris Swanberg||Kate Lyn Sheil||Kentucker Audley||Timothy Morton||Jimmy Kustes||David Maloney||Zachery Treitz||Ben Zoeller||Mark Duplass||Carrie Krouse||Aaron Katz||Martha Stephens||A. J. Bowen||Ti West||David Bruckner||Matthias Grunsky|
|Funny Ha Ha
|Director, writer, editor||Cinematographer|
|Kissing on the Mouth
|actor, writer, director||actor, assistant director|
|actor||actor, writer, director|
|actor||actor, writer, director||director, writer, editor|
|actor, editor||actor||promotional material|
|Hannah Takes the Stairs
|actor||director, writer, producer, editor, actor||writer, actor||actor|
|The Mean Time
|actor||director, writer, producer|
|Nights and Weekends
|director, writer, actor, producer||director, writer, actor, producer||Cinematographer|
|cinematography||director, writer, editor, actor||actor|
|You Won’t Miss Me
|Director, writer, editor||Cinematographer|
|The House of the Devil
|actor||actor||creator, director, writer||creator, writer, actor||promotional material|
|Audrey the Trainwreck
|A Horrible Way to Die
|Director, writer, actor|
|director, writer, producer, actor, editor||editor, actor, cinematography||editor, promotional material||actor|
|actor||actor||actor||director, writer, editor|
|cinematography||director, writer, actor|
|director, writer, editor, producer, actor||actor||actor|
|director, writer, actor||director, writer, actor||actor||actor|
|distributor||director, producer, editor, himself||producer, editor||himself|
|actor, cinematography||director, writer, editor, producer, actor, cinematography||actor|
|actor, cinematography||director, writer, editor, producer, actor, cinematography||actor||actor||actor|
|Caitlyn Plays Herself
|actor, cinematography||director, writer, editor, producer, actor, cinematography|
|What Fun We Were Having
|All the Light in the Sky
|director, writer, editor, producer, cinematography||actor|
|actor||writer, producer, actor||special thanks||director, writer, producer|
|actor, cinematography||director, producer, actor||actor||writer, actor|
|Open Five 2
|actor||director, writer, actor|
|director, editor, producer, actor, sound producer, cinematography||director, editor, producer, actor, sound producer||actor||actor||director, editor, producer, writer||director, writer|
|Sun Don’t Shine
|Safety Not Guaranteed
|actor||actor||director, editor, producer, actor||actor|
|actor||director, writer, editor, actor|
|actor||director, writer, editor||director, writer|
|As It Is In Heaven
|Happy Christmas (film)
|actor||actor||director, writer, editor, producer, actor||actor|
|Men Go to Battle
|writer, producer, actor||actor||actor||director, writer, editor|
|Digging for Fire
|actor||actor||director, writer, editor, producer, actor||actor|
|creator, actor, editor, promotional material||creator, actor, editor, promotional material||creator, actor||composer|
List of mumblecore films
- Waiting for Violette / En attendant Violette (French title)
List of mumblegore films
- Hoberman, J. (August 14, 2007). "It's Mumblecore!". The Village Voice. Retrieved on July 27, 2008.
- Lim, Dennis (August 19, 2007). Mumblecore – The New Talkies: Generation DIY. The New York Times. Retrieved on July 27, 2008.
- Hubert, Andrea (May 19, 2007). "Andrea Hubert on the latest fad to hit the US indie film scene". The Guardian. Retrieved on July 27, 2008.
- Harring, Michael (Sep 29, 2009). "Local Sightings Film Festival: An I-5 Road Trip and Other New Movies Debut". The Seattle Weekly. Retrieved on Oct 7, 2009.
- Gilbey, Ryan (2013-11-07). "Mumblecore: 'It was never a unified movement. There was no manifesto'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- A Genre Worth Shouting About, The Independent. Retrieved June 2011.
- Mumblecore meets the mainstream in Cyrus at Sundance, Guardian. Retrieved June 2011.
- Bujalski's Beeswax Makes People Say Mumblecore, indieWire. Retrieved June 2011.
- Youth Quake: Mumblecore Movies, New Yorker. Retrieved June 2011.
- Coldiron, Phil. "Middlegame: An Interview with Andrew Bujalski". Cinema Scope (54). Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Yoshida, Emily (January 12, 2015). "Shows about nothing: Togetherness and HBO's Sunday night mumblecore block". The Verge.
- "Movie movements that defined cinema: Mumblecore". Empire Online. August 8, 2016.
- Taubin, Amy (November–December 2007). "Mumblecore: All Talk?". Film Comment.
- Dollar, Steve (August 17, 2007). "Reality Never Looked So ... Real". The New York Sun.
- Wagner, Brigitta (June 2011). "Accidental Cinema and the YouTube Sublime: An Interview with Joe Swanberg". Senses of Cinema.
- Mumblecore Goes Mainstream, Variety. Retrieved June 2011.
- Benten Films website
- Rizov, Vadim (July 25, 2013). "Everything You Need To Know About Mumblecore Filmmakers Today". Indiewire.
- Daily Film Dose: Alexander The Last, The Movie That Killed Mumblecore, Reece Crothers, August 26, 2010
- Dawson, Nick (July 23, 2012). "92YTRIBECA'S POST-MUMBLECORE LA DI DA FILM FESTIVAL ANNOUNCED". Filmmaker Magazine.
- Nicholson, Amy. "Mumblegore". Los Angeles Weekly. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
- Collis, Clark (2013-09-17). "'You're Next': How a group of indie filmmakers produced one of 2013's most terrifying movies". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- Davies, Laura (July 17, 2012). "ELLE Film Club: Magic Mike". ElleUK.com.
- Reed, Rex (July 8, 2015). "Channing Tatum Slips Into His Sweaty Thong Once More, But the Thrill Is Gone". Observer.
- "Acthung Berlin 2012 wrapup: The talks. Berlin Film Central. Berlin News and Indie Film Making in Berlin. 2012-04-24, retrieved in December 2012". Berlin Film Central. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- Denis Demmerle: Eine neue Schule. In: Berliner Filmfestivals. 2012-04-28, retrieved in December 2012
- Armstrong, Olivia. "Decider Essentials: Top 10 Mumblecore Films to Stream". Decider.com. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
- "11 Mumblegore Movies You Need To See". Westword.com. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
- O'Malley, Sheila. "All the Light in the Sky Movie Review". rogerebert.com.
- Herrington, Chris (March 6, 2008). "Mumblecore": A new new-wave showcase at the Brooks. Memphis Flyer. Retrieved on August 20, 2008.
- Dollar, Steve (July 25, 2008). "Mumblecore Meets Grindhouse in 'Baghead'". The New York Sun. Retrieved on July 27, 2008.
- Pais, Matt (July 31, 2008). Search of a Midnight Kiss' review. Metromix. Retrieved on August 20, 2008.
- Burr, Ty (May 23, 2008). "It's their scene at Cannes – The Boston Globe". Boston.com. Retrieved on August 21, 2008.
- "What I Meant To Say". Filmmaker Magazine. Summer 2008. Retrieved on August 20, 2008.
- Kohn, Eric (April 8, 2011). "REVIEW: Greta Gerwig Is a Mumblecore Prop in "Arthur"". Indiewire. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Momma's Man Review - Film4.com". Retrieved on July 25, 2012.
- Muñoz, Marc (October 30, 2012). "Bocados de realidad en primera instancia". El Destilador Cultural. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- A Short-Term Affair Leads to Big Questions, New York Times. Retrieved June 2011.
- Jones, Michael (January 19, 2009). "Magnolia gets Shelton's 'Humpday'". Variety. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- "Beeswax Movie Reviews, Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes". Rottentomatoes.com. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- Cabin, Chris (May 13, 2010). "Daddy Longlegs". Filmcritic.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Harvey, Dennis (2009-10-19). "Review: 'Sorry, Thanks'". Variety. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- Lucas, Matthew (March 18, 2010). "Review: "The Exploding Girl"". From the Front Row. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- Sharkey, Betsy (April 9, 2010). "'Breaking Upwards'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- Piotrowski, Angeline (July 29, 2010). "Traverse City Film Festival: Tiny Furniture Sweet Talks Traverse City". MyNorth. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
- ".: FESTIVALES de Buenos Aires :.". Bafici.gov.ar. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- "Overlook (2010)". YouTube. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- "SXSW 2010 Postscript: On Cold Weather and Original Live Scoring | The House Next Door". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- "Too Cool". The New Yorker. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- Dickson, Evan (2012-05-17). "[Interview] 'Entrance' Directors Dallas Richard Hallam And Patrick Horvath On Budget, Slashers And Shooting Los Angeles". DreadCentral. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
- Jones, Tamika (September 21, 2014). "Indie Spotlight". Daily Dead. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- Linden, Sheri (November 5, 2011). "The Color Wheel: Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- Rabin, Nathan (October 18, 2012). "Nobody Walks". The A.V. Club. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- Stewart, Henry (2012-09-12). "Sun Don't Shine: Mumblecore With a Gun". L Magazine. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- Osenlund, R. Kurt (2012-07-28). "A GLANCE AT NEWFEST 2012". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- von Busack, Richard (2012-08-01). "Demon Slayer (Film Review of Ivy League Exorcist: The Bobby Jindal Story)". Metro Silicon Valley. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- Kelly, Stephen (2013-10-28). "Drinking Buddies". Total Film. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- Schmader, David (May 1, 2013). "Festive: Seattle True Independent Film Festival 2013". The Stranger. Retrieved on May 1, 2013.
- Reed, Rex (July 30, 2014). "High Holidays: 'Happy Christmas' Is a Mumblecore Mess That Tanks in Desperation". The New York Observer. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Sulemani Keeda (2014)".
- IMDB Page For Waiting for Violette: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt5072070/ Allociné page for "En attendant Violette" (French title): http://www.allocine.fr/film/fichefilm_gen_cfilm=251476.html
- Collis, Clark. "'You're Next': How a group of indie filmmakers produced one of 2013's most terrifying movies". EW.com. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Parsons, Spencer. "Mumblecore and Murder". Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Trujillo, Eduardo. "10 Great Mumblegore Movies That Horror Fans Will Enjoy Watching". Taste of Cinema. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Faraci, Devin. "Movie Review: ENTRANCE Is The Worst Kind Of Mumblegore Tedium". Birth.Movies.Death. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Jaime M., Christley. "Kill List". Slant. Slant Magazine.
- Roffman, Michael. "The State of Horror Films in 2014: A Roundtable Discussion". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Fonte, Bears. "HONEYMOON: Leigh Janiak's trip into Male-Dominated Cabin-In-The-Woods Territory". AM-FM. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
||This section's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- indieWIRE Interview: The Mumblecore Movement? Andrew Bujalski On His "Funny Ha Ha"
- indieWIRE: Mumblecore Movie? Swanberg, Bujalski, Duplass and Others Unveil "Hannah Takes The Stairs"
- The Austin Chronicle: Mumblecore And Murder
- Free Times: Features – Don't Call it "Mumblecore"
- "Digital Socialism: How Mumblecore Filmmaking is Defying Capitalism by Stephen Lee Naish
- "Mumblecore in Obama’s America by Stephen Lee Naish"