|Major figures||Andrew Bujalski, Lynn Shelton, Aaron Katz, Mark Duplass, Jay Duplass, Joe Swanberg, Ry Russo-Young, Greta Gerwig|
|Influences||French New Wave, DIY culture, Dogme 95, American independent film, digital filmmaking|
Mumblecore is a subgenre of independent film characterized by naturalistic acting and dialogue (often improvised), low-budget film production, an emphasis on dialogue over plot, and a focus on the personal relationships of people in their 20s and 30s. Filmmakers associated with the genre include Andrew Bujalski, Lynn Shelton, Mark Duplass, Jay Duplass, Aaron Katz, Joe Swanberg, and Ry Russo-Young; in many cases, though, these directors reject the term.
The term mumblegore has been used for films mixing the mumblecore and horror genres.
Naturalism – both in performance and dialogue – is a key feature of almost all mumblecore films. Early mumblecore films tended to feature non-professional actors, although later films have had more professional actors, including major stars such as Anna Kendrick (Drinking Buddies and Happy Christmas) and Orlando Bloom (Digging for Fire). Some mumblecore films feature a prominent use of improvisation, with the cast sharing script credits, though some, like Bujalski's films, are mostly scripted.
Mumblecore films are generally produced with a low budget, which has ranged from several thousand to several million dollars as well as low production values. Filming is done in real places, as opposed to studio sets or soundstages. Many of these films are shot digitally, although Bujalski's films have all been shot on film. Soundtracks tend to be limited, or nonexistent.
Mumblecore films tend to revolve around characters in their twenties and early thirties who are usually single, and fairly aimless in both their professional and personal lives. Plots are often concerned with difficulties in romantic relationships, exacerbated by the characters' inability to articulate their own desires.
Influences on mumblecore
The genre can trace its roots back to the French New Wave of the 1960s—especially the films of Eric Rohmer—whose films focused on the romantic intrigues of characters, and depicted lengthy conversations.
Other films that have been described as influencing, or at least anticipating, the conventions of mumblecore include Girlfriends (1978), Manhattan (1979), Stranger Than Paradise (1984), Slacker (1991), Clerks (1994), Go Fish (1994) and Before Sunrise (1995).
Another often-cited influence on mumblecore is the profusion of cheaper filmmaking technology starting in the early 2000s, such as the Panasonic AG-DVX100 video camera, and desktop video editing software such as Final Cut Pro.
The 2005 South by Southwest Film Festival screened a number of other films that came to be considered part of the mumblecore movement, including Bujalski's second film, Mutual Appreciation; The Puffy Chair, by Mark Duplass & Jay Duplass; and Kissing on the Mouth, by Joe Swanberg. That festival was also the origin of the term "mumblecore": Eric Masunaga, a sound editor who has worked with Bujalski, coined the term one night at a bar during the festival, when asked to describe the similarities between those three films. The term was first used publicly by Bujalski in an interview with indieWIRE. Bujalski has downplayed the existence of an organized "movement", however, and stated that he does not intentionally make "mumblecore" films.
Film journalists have also referred to the genre collectively with the terms "bedhead cinema" and "Slackavetes" (a portmanteau derived from the title of Richard Linklater's dialogue-heavy, lo-fi 1990s film Slacker, and the name of independent film director John Cassavetes).
Some critics have stated that mumblecore ended around 2010, as the original crop of directors began making films with larger budgets, more diverse storylines, and a more conventional cinematic approach. For this reason, films made since 2010 or so that retain an emphasis on naturalistic dialogue and plot are sometimes referred to as "post-mumblecore". Filmmakers who have been labelled as "post-mumblecore" include Kentucker Audley, Amy Seimetz, Sean Price Williams, Alex Karpovsky and Kate Lyn Sheil.
Influences on other genres
The term "mumblegore" has been used for films mixing mumblecore and the horror genre. One of the first such films was Baghead (2008). Other horror films that have been labelled as "mumblegore" include The House of the Devil (2009), Entrance (2011), You're Next (2011), V/H/S (2012),The Sacrament (2013), and Creep (2014).
Outside the United States
Indian cinema has been producing independent films of the genre for decades. Directors like Sai Paranjpye have made films like Chashme Buddoor (1981) and Kathā (1982). One of the more recent ones to come out from the Hindi scene is Sulemani Keeda.
Alvaro Robles (Chile) made the films "El Sueño del Caracol" (2000) and "Huevo Negro" (2001), both of which suggest similar principles as mumblecore. In that same time, in 2001, he wrote an essay on "post-cinema" (2001), in which he openly describes the essential characteristics of mumblecore, being a precedent of the movement outside the United States.
Mumblecore has not been a strictly American phenomenon. Since about 2009, the Berlin Mumblecore movement has had its own manifesto, Sehr gutes Manifest. Berlin Mumblecore is not a reaction to the American hype so much as it is a reaction to the lack of reform in the German public financial support system for the film industry (Filmfoerderung). Crowdfunding is a new possibility to finance movie productions with small and very small budgets independently from restrictions of the German Filmfoerderung.
In 2009, Jette Miller's Austern ohne Schale was screened in Berlin. In 2011, the movies Frontalwatte by Jakob Lass and Papa Gold by Tom Lass were released. The latter won several German film awards. 2012 saw the release of Klappe Cowboy by Timo Jacobs and Ulf Behrens, as well as the award-winning Dicke Mädchen by Axel Ranisch. In 2015, Malte Wirtz Voll Paula! had its theatrical release, having also been produced without film funding. 
List of mumblecore films
- Waiting for Violette
List of mumblegore films
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This section's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- indieWIRE Interview: The Mumblecore Movement? Andrew Bujalski On His "Funny Ha Ha"
- indieWIRE: Mumblecore Movie? Swanberg, Bujalski, Duplass and Others Unveil "Hannah Takes The Stairs"
- The Austin Chronicle: Mumblecore And Murder
- Free Times: Features – Don't Call it "Mumblecore"
- "Digital Socialism: How Mumblecore Filmmaking is Defying Capitalism by Stephen Lee Naish
- "Mumblecore in Obama’s America by Stephen Lee Naish"