Munchkin cat

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An adolescent munchkin kitten
OriginUnited States
Breed standards
Domestic cat (Felis catus)

The Munchkin, also known as Sausage Cat, is a breed of cat characterized by its very short legs, which are caused by genetic mutation. Compared to many other cat breeds, it is a relatively new breed, documented since 1940s[1] and officially recognized in 1991.[2] The Munchkin is considered to be the original breed of dwarf cat.

Much controversy erupted over the breed when it was recognized by The International Cat Association (TICA) in 1997 with critics voicing concerns over potential health and mobility issues.[3] Many pedigree cat associations around the world have refused to recognize the Munchkin cat due to the welfare of the breed and severity of the health issues,[4] including the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF).[5] Breeding of Munchkin cats is prohibited by law in several countries due to these genetic health concerns.

The name "munchkin" derives from writer L. Frank Baum's diminutive inhabitants of Munchkin Country, originating in the 1900 novel, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[6][7][8]


Breed creation[edit]

Short-legged cats have been documented a number of times around the world since the 1940s. A British veterinary report in 1944 noted four generations of short-legged cats which were similar to normal cats except for the length of the legs. This line disappeared during the Second World War but other short-legged cats were spotted in Russia during 1956 and the United States in the 1970s.[1]

In 1983, Sandra Hochenedel, a music teacher in Rayville, Louisiana, found two pregnant cats who had been chased under a truck by a dog.[9] She kept one of the cats and named her Blackberry and half of her kittens were born short-legged. Hochenedel gave a short-legged male kitten from one of Blackberry's litters to a friend, Kay LaFrance of Monroe, Louisiana, and she named the kitten Toulouse.[9] It is from Blackberry and Toulouse's litter that today's Munchkin breed is descended.[9]

Registry history of Munchkin breed[edit]

The Munchkin cat was first introduced to the general public in 1991 via a national network televised cat show held by The International Cat Association (TICA) in Davis Oklahoma.[10] However, the breed would not be officially recognized at that time. Critics predicted that the breed would develop back, hip and leg problems similar to those that plague some Dachshunds.[11] For many years, the Munchkin breed was not accepted in feline competitions due to the controversial breeding.[9] Dr. Solveig Pflueger, a show judge, geneticist, and Chairperson of TICA's Genetics Committee was a strong advocate for the official recognition of the breed. Pflueger was also a breeder of Munchkin cats herself, having been initially sent two cats from Hochenedel.[11] Amidst much controversy, the Munchkin was proposed as a new breed by foundation breeders Laurie Bobskill and Robert Bobskill of Massachusetts and accepted by TICA into its New Breed development program in September 1994. One veteran show judge Katherine Crawford resigned in protest, calling the breed an affront to breeders with ethics.[9][12] The Munchkin breed achieved TICA Championship status in May 2003.[1]

Currently, the only registries that fully recognize the breed are TICA and the Southern Africa Cat Council. [13] There is controversy among breeders of pedigree cats as to what genetic mutations are abnormal and potentially disadvantageous to the cat.[14] Katie Lisnik, director of cat protection and policy at the Humane Society of the United States, has said "Breeding animals for exaggerated physical characteristics, particularly when it compromises overall health, is irresponsible".[15] Several cat registries do not recognize the Munchkin: Fédération Internationale Féline, which refuses to recognize what they consider a breed based on a "genetic disease", achondroplasia.[16] The Governing Council of the Cat Fancy likewise refuses to recognize the breed, considering this breed and others like it to be "unacceptable" because they are based on an "abnormal structure or development".[5] The breed is also not recognized by the Cat Fanciers' Association.[17]

Breeding ban[edit]

In order to protect the animal’s welfare, several countries and territories have prohibited breeding with Munchkins, including the Netherlands (2014),[18][19] Scotland,[20] and Victoria (Australia).[21] The Australian Capital Territory (a territory of Australia) government consider the munchkin breed to be "malformed animals" and the deliberate breeding of them "unacceptable" because of the "genetic health problems associated with such breeding".[22]


Munchkin kitten, 7 months old

TICA Standards describe the Munchkin as "outgoing, intelligent, and responds well to being handled".[23] Some sources state that the shortness of their legs does not interfere with their running and leaping abilities,[24] while others state their ability to jump is limited by their condition.[4]

The Munchkin has similar characteristics to normal domestic cats, due to their frequent use as outcrosses. It is a small to medium-sized cat with a moderate body type and medium-plush coat. Male Munchkins typically weigh between 6 and 9 pounds (2.7 and 4.1 kg) and are usually larger than female Munchkins, which typically weigh between 4 and 8 pounds (1.8 and 3.6 kg). The hind legs can be slightly longer than the front which creates a slight rise from the shoulder to the rump. The legs of the Munchkin may be slightly bowed, although excessive bowing is a disqualification in the show ring. Cow-hocked legs are also penalized.[1][10]

The Munchkin comes in all coat colors and patterns. It also comes in a long-haired variety, which is shown in a separate Munchkin Longhair category. The short-haired variety has a medium-plush coat while the long-haired has a semi-long silky coat.[1] TICA rules for outcrossing allows the use of any domestic cat that does not already belong to a recognized breed. Similarity to other breeds is grounds for disqualification. Non-standard Munchkins are not allowed to be shown.[23]

In 2014, Lilieput, a Munchkin cat from Napa, California, was named the shortest statured living cat in the world by Guinness World Records. She stands 5.25 inches (133 mm) tall.[25]


It is not fully known how the mutation impacts the health of the breed. Having only been officially introduced in 1991, the breed is still considered young.[2] There were early speculations that the Munchkin would develop spinal problems commonly seen in short-legged dog breeds; however, in 1995 several breeders had their oldest Munchkins X-rayed and examined for signs of joint or bone problems and found none.[26][27][28]

The genetic mutation causing the short-legged trait in Munchkins is referred to as achondroplasia,[16][29] the genetic disorder that results in dwarfism and is typically associated with an enlarged head as well as short legs but can also involve symptoms that include undersized jaw, thick-looking joints, curved spine, and a bow-legged or knock knee posture.[30] The condition has sometimes been referred to as hypochondroplasia or pseudoachondroplasia.[31][32]

However, there appear to be two conditions with increased incidence in the Munchkin breed: lordosis (excessive curvature of the spine)[33] and pectus excavatum (hollowed chest).[34][35] Both conditions are commonly seen in humans with pseudoachondroplasia.[31]

Munchkin cats are known to be at a higher risk (than other feline breeds) for severe osteoarthritis because the shorter limbs affect their activity levels and behavior.[4][36] Diagnosis of osteoarthritis and the assessment of its severity for a cat may require radiography.[4]

Many pedigree cat associations around the world have refused to recognize the Munchkin cat due to the welfare of the breed and severity of the health issues.[4]


The munchkin gene is autosomal dominant.[16] Homozygous embryos for the munchkin gene, with two copies of the gene, are not viable and do not develop in the womb. Only kittens that are heterozygous for the munchkin gene, with only one copy, develop into viable short legged munchkin kittens.[32] Because only heterozygous munchkin cats are able to pass on the gene, all litters with at least one standard (short legged) Munchkin parent have the possibility of containing kittens with the phenotypes: short-legged or normal-legged (referred to as non-standard munchkin), with the genotypes of Mm or mm, where M is the trait for short legs and m is the trait for long legs. The mating of two munchkin parents, Mm x Mm, have the chance of producing these offspring: 25% MM- a nonviable kitten, 50% Mm-short-legged, 25% mm- normal. The resulting litter will be 2/3 Mm-short-legged and 1/3 mm-normal.

Punnett squares, in which the M represents the dominant munchkin gene and the m represents the recessive normal gene, may be used to illustrate the chances of a particular mating resulting in a short-legged cat.

Kittens bearing two copies of the munchkin gene (MM) will not develop in the womb. Kittens bearing one munchkin gene and one normal gene (Mm) will be short-legged munchkins. Kittens bearing two normal genes (mm) will be normal. Mm munchkin kittens will be able to pass on the munchkin gene to their own offspring. Normal mm kittens will not, as they do not have a copy of the munchkin gene.

When two munchkin cats are crossed and small litter sizes occur, this indicates that embryos that are homozygous for the munchkin gene are non-viable.[32]

Mating two standard munchkins
M m
m Mm mm

For each kitten conceived from this mating, there is a 25% chance it will fail to gestate, a 25% chance it will be normal, and a 50% chance it will be short-legged.

Mating a standard or non-standard munchkin with a normal cat
M m
m Mm mm
m Mm mm

For each kitten conceived from this mating, there is a 0% chance it will be homozygous for the munchkin gene, a 50% chance it will be normal non-standard (long legged) Munchkin, and a 50% chance it will be a standard (short legged) munchkin.

Derived breeds[edit]

The Munchkin has been crossed with the curly-coated LaPerm to create the Skookum,[37] the hairless Sphynx to create the Minskin and Bambino,[38][39] another curly-coated Selkirk Rex to create the Lambkin,[40] the Persian breed group (which includes Himalayans and Exotic Shorthair) to create the Napoleon (renamed the Minuet), the curled-eared American Curl to create the Kinkalow, the folded-eared Scottish Fold to create the Scottish Kilts, and also with the Bengal to create the Genetta.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e "Munchkin Breed". The International Cat Association (TICA). The International Cat Association (TICA). 13 August 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Munchkin breed". Fitzroy Vet Hospital VIC. July 23, 2015. Archived from the original on December 4, 2020. however the breed is young, having only been introduced to the public as an official breed in 1991.
  3. ^ "Vets warn trend for sausage cats is cruel". Metro UK. 2017-01-31. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals, Munchkin - Limb Deformity". Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW). Retrieved 2020-07-15.
  5. ^ a b The Governing Council of the Cat Fancy, The GCCF says Health Comes First Archived 2015-05-04 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Munchkin & Midget Cat Breed Facts". petMD, LLC.
  7. ^ Nunn, Lyn. "Munchkin Cats - Origin and History". Cat Breeds Junction. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  8. ^ Fawcett, Kirstin (3 June 2016). "7 Short Facts About Munchkin Cats". Mental Floss. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d e Stall, Sam (2007). 100 Cats Who Changed Civilization: History's Most Influential Felines. Philadelphia, PA: Quirk Books. pp. 20–22. ISBN 9781594741630 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ a b Helgren, J. Anne (2006). "Iams Cat Breed Guide: Munchkin". Telemark Productions. Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  11. ^ a b "A Cat Fight Breaks Out Over a Breed". The New York Times. Associated Press. July 23, 1995. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  12. ^ Helgren, J. Anne (1998). "Encyclopedia of Cat Breeds: Munchkin Cat". Barron's Educational Series. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  13. ^ "Breed Comparisons - Munchkin | World Cat Congress".
  14. ^ Morris, Desmond S. (1988). Catwatching & Catlore. Arrow Books Ltd. pp. 183–186. ISBN 0-09-922901-3.
  15. ^ "People Are Breeding Cats To Have Too-Short Legs". The Dodo.
  16. ^ a b c Breeding and Registration Rules: 2.7.3 Genetic Diseases. Fédération Internationale Feline
  17. ^ Cat Fanciers' Association,CFA Breeds Archived 2007-06-29 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) (2022-10-31). "Fokken met katten - Honden en katten". (in Dutch). Retrieved 2023-04-01.
  19. ^ Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) (2022-10-31). "Fokken met katten met schadelijke kenmerken of erfelijke ziektes - Nieuwsbericht - NVWA". (in Dutch). Retrieved 2023-04-01.
  20. ^ The Scottish Parliament (2018). "Question reference: S5W-15391". Retrieved 2023-04-01.
  21. ^ Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions (2020-07-06). "Code of Practice for the Breeding of Animals with Heritable Defects that Cause Disease - Agriculture". Agriculture Victoria. Retrieved 2023-04-01.
  22. ^ Australian Capital Territory, Code of Practice for the Welfare of Cats in the ACT
  23. ^ a b "Munchkin Breed Group Standard" (PDF). The International Cat Association. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  24. ^ Stroud, Jon (2008). The DVD Book of Cats. Green Umbrella Pubg.
  25. ^ Yune, Howard. "Tiny Napa cat stands tall in new Guinness record book". Napa Valley Register. Napa Valley Register. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  26. ^ Munchkin PetStyle Lifestyle Network For Pet Lovers. by Twink McCabe Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "New cat breed, Munchkin, stands on its stubby legs". Baltimore Sun News. Houston Chronicle. 1995-07-29. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  28. ^ "Munchkin: Fur is flying over this rare cat breed". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 2020-03-06. She X-rayed their joints and bones and found no evidence of crippling. So she began breeding Munchkins
  29. ^ "Achondroplasia". Genetics Home Reference. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved 2019-09-14.
  30. ^ "Feline Dwarfism". Basepaws. 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-09-14.
  31. ^ a b Wedderburn, Pete (October 2008). "Cat breeds–Trophies with hidden problems". Journal of Small Animal Practice. BSAVA Companion. 49 (10): 7–9. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2008.00680.x. This selection for an albeit naturally occurring mutation, resulting in pseudoachondroplasia, has resulted in a breed which appears to have an increased incidence of pectus excavatum and spinal lordosis, both problems commonly seen in human patients with pseudoachondroplasia.
  32. ^ a b c Genetic Abnormalities of Cats. Cat Resource
  33. ^ "Munchkin Cat Health Problems". VetInfo. Retrieved 2019-03-24. The Munchkin cat is a very healthy breed with few specific health problems. Munchkin kittens, however, are vulnerable to lordosis, a rare spinal condition in which the spinal muscles grow short, allowing the spine to sink down into the body. Lordosis may be mild or severe, and if it's bad enough, the kitten won't live past three months of age. Many breeders feel that lordosis is a genetic disorder, but it's not specific to the Munchkin cat; many other breeds of cat suffer from lordosis.
  34. ^ "All You Need to Know About Munchkin Cats". Cats Are On Top. 2018-01-21. Retrieved 2019-03-24.
  35. ^ Hubler, M.; Langley-Hobbs, S.J. (2009). "Hereditary and congenital musculoskeletal diseases". In Montavon, P.M.; Voss, K.; Langley-Hobbs, S.J. (eds.). Feline Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Disease. Saunders Ltd. pp. 41–53. doi:10.1016/B978-0-7020-2986-8.00010-0. ISBN 978-0-7020-2986-8. There may be a familial tendency to thoracic wall deformities (pectus excavatum, unilateral thoracic wall concavity) in Bengal kittens, and chondrodystrophic Munchkin cats may also have an increased incidence of pectus excavatum and spinal lordosis.
  36. ^ Ettinger, Stephen J.; Feldman, Edward C.; Bennett, D.; May, C. (1995). "Joint diseases of Dogs and Cats". Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine (4 ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. p. 2053. ISBN 978-0721667959.
  37. ^ "Skookum Cat Breed Information and Pictures". PetGuide. 2018-01-17. Retrieved 2020-12-25.
  38. ^ "Minskin Cat Breed Information and Pictures". PetGuide. 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2020-12-25.
  39. ^ "Bambino Cat Breed Information and Pictures". PetGuide. 2017-10-10. Retrieved 2020-12-25.
  40. ^ "Lambkin Cat Breed Information and Pictures". PetGuide. 2017-11-15. Retrieved 2020-12-25.