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Municipal Commissioner is a title used in the municipal governments of several countries.
In India, the municipal commissioner is the de facto executive head of government of a municipal corporation, the form of government which is granted to a city of over one million in population. While a mayor is elected to serve as the titular head of state of a municipal corporation, a municipal commissioner is appointed by the state government from the Indian Administrative Service and mostly from Provincial Civil Service to head the administrative staff of the Municipal Corporation, implement the decisions of the Corporation and prepare its annual budget. In cities other than New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and Bangalore junior officials from the IAS as well as the State Civil Service are appointed.
Municipal commissioner is a common translation of Swedish: kommunalråd, or - in Stockholm - borgarråd, which is an office and political title in the municipalities of Sweden for councillors with executive responsibilities. The Commissioners are the only full-time employed office-holders outside the municipal civil service. The municipal commissioner is elected by the municipal council, which in turn is elected in general elections.
The title is given to the chair of the executive committee, deputy chairs, and sometimes even heads of executive subcommittees and boards. Sole responsibility systems, where the commissioner is without any board or committee to chair, are rare.
Many medium-sized municipalities elect a vice commissioner, often from an opposition party, known as oppositionsråd. Large municipalities have several commissioners (Stockholm has twelve, uniquely called borgarråd), from most council parties.
As the title borgmästare (mayor or burgomaster) is not officially used in Swedish municipalities anymore, municipal commissioner is often translated as mayor when referring to the chair of the executive committee. It is also not uncommon, though not the normal case, to use the title borgmästare informally even though it is not official. Borgmästare is nearly always used when referring to municipal leaders outside of Sweden, making the use of the title similar to the terminology around the President of the People's Republic of China.