Municipalities and cities of Serbia
Of the 150 municipalities, 41 are located in Southern and Eastern Serbia, 42 in Šumadija and Western Serbia, 39 in Vojvodina and 28 (de facto 37) in Kosovo. Of the 24 cities, 6 are in Southern and Eastern Serbia, 10 in Šumadija and Western Serbia, 6 in Vojvodina, 1 in Kosovo, and 1 (Belgrade) has a status of separate statistical region.
A city may and may not be divided into city municipalities (gradske opštine) depending on their size. Currently, there are six cities in Serbia with city municipalities: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, Kragujevac, Požarevac and Vranje comprise several city municipalities, divided into "urban" (in the city proper) and "other" (suburban). There are 33 city municipalities (17 in Belgrade, 5 in Niš, 5 in Kragujevac, 2 in Novi Sad, 2 in Požarevac and 2 in Vranje).
Like in many other countries, municipalities are the basic entities of local government in Serbia. The head of the municipality is the President of the municipality, while the executive power is held by the Municipal council, and legislative power by the Municipal assembly. Municipal assembly is elected on local elections (held every 4 years), while the President and the Council are elected by the Assembly. Municipalities have their own property (including public service companies) and budget. Only the cities officially have mayors (gradonačelnici), although the municipal presidents are often informally referred to as such.
The territory of a municipality is composed of a town (seat of the municipality) and surrounding villages. The municipality bears the name of the seat town (e.g. the territory of the Municipality of Kikinda is composed of the town of Kikinda, which is the seat of the municipality, and surrounding villages.).
Advocates of reform of Serbian local self-government system point out that Serbian municipalities (with 50,000 citizens in average) are the largest in Europe, both by territory and number of residents, and as such can be inefficient in handling citizens' needs and distributing the income from the country budget into most relevant projects.
Cities and city municipalities
Cities are another type of local self-government. The territory with the city status usually has more than 100,000 inhabitants, but is otherwise very similar to municipality. There are 24 cities (gradovi), each having an assembly and budget of its own. Only the cities have mayors (gradonačelnik), although the presidents of the municipalities are often referred to as "mayors" in everyday usage.
As with a municipality, the territory of a city is composed of a city proper and surrounding villages (e.g. the territory of the City of Subotica is composed of the Subotica town and surrounding villages). Every city (and municipality) is part of a district. The exception is the capital Belgrade, which is a district on its own.
The city may or may not be divided into city municipalities. Six cities: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, Kragujevac, Požarevac and Vranje comprise several city municipalities. As of October 2013[update], town of Sevojno near city of Užice is in the process of creation of a separate city municipality, which would make Užice seventh on the list. Of those, only Novi Sad did not undergo the full transformation, as the newly formed municipality of Petrovaradin exists pretty much only formally; thus, the Municipality of Novi Sad is largely equated to City of Novi Sad. Competences of cities and city municipalities are divided. The city municipalities of the six cities above mentioned also have their assemblies and other prerogatives.
Municipalities and cities of Kosovo
Serbian law still treats Kosovo as an integral part of Serbia (officially the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija), although Kosovo declared independence in 2008. The Law on Territorial Organization defines 28 municipalities and 1 city on the territory of Kosovo. Kosovo was under official United Nations' administration (UNMIK) from 1999 to 2008. The UNMIK administration changed the territorial organisation on the territory of Kosovo. In 2000 the municipality of Gora was merged with Opolje (part of the Municipality of Prizren) into the new municipality of Dragaš and one new municipality was created: Mališevo. Later, from 2005 to 2008, seven new municipalities were created: Gračanica, Elez Han, Junik, Parteš, Klokot-Vrbovac, Ranilug and Mamuša. However, the Government of Serbia does not recognise the territorial re-organisation of Kosovo, although some of these new-formed municipalities have Serb majority, and some Serbs participate in local elections. In three of those municipalities: Gračanica, Klokot-Vrbovac and Ranilug, Serbian parties won a majority in the 2009 elections.
List of municipalities
This is a list of the municipalities in Serbia, as defined by the Law on territorial organisation It does not include municipalities in Kosovo created by UNMIK after 1999. The data on population is taken from the 2002 census.
The census was not conducted in Kosovo, which is under administration of UNMIK, so the population numbers are not given for the municipalities in Kosovo.
List of cities and city municipalities
Notes and references
- Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognised as an independent state by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.
- "Law on Territorial Organization" (in Serbian). National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia. 29 December 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. ISSN 0354-3641. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- Only one municipality (Municipality of Gora) does not share the name with the seat town, as the seat of that municipality is the town of Dragaš. This municipality is located in Kosovo, and thus exists only on paper. The territory of the municipality was merged with part of the Municipality of Prizren in 2000 by UNMIK to form new Municipality of Dragaš. This move is not recognised by Serbian Government (see Municipalities and cities of Kosovo section).
- Jerinić, Jelena (2006-12-01). "Konkretni oblici učešća građana" (PDF). Lokalna samouprava (in Serbian) (Permanent conference of cities and municipalities/Vreme). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
- "Local Communities in Serbia: How to Become an Effective Voice for Citizens" (pdf). USAID/Serbia Local Government Report Program. 2004-07-01. p. 4. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
- "Municipal profiles". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
- "UNMIK: Serb boycott creates new problems". B92. 22 November 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- "Srbima većina u tri opštine" (in Serbian). B92. 16 November 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- "Kosovo Accuses Serbia of Delaying Brussels Agreement". Balkan Insight. 24 March 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова у 2002 (PDF) (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. May 2003. ISBN 86-84433-02-5.
- As given in the Law, in Serbian Cyrillic order
- Staute of the city of Novi Sad, Gazette of the City of Novi Sad No 43 (2 October 2008), official site of the city
- Staute of the city of Požarevac, Gazette of the City of Požarevac No2/2008 (30 June 2008), official site of the city
- Municipalities of Serbia 2008, Statistical Office of Serbia, issued January 2009, ISSN 1452-4856 (Public Domain, see template:PD-SerbiaGov)